« ElőzőTovább »
and carried them to a greater elevation than they ing in the rear of the army at an altitude of about had previously attained. They soon after descend- 1300 feet. In the second ascent the enterprise ed safely in the forest of Guiennes. The King of being discovered by the enemy, a battery was France presented M. Blanchard with 12,000 livres, brought to bear upon the balloon, but the aëronauts and granted him a pension of 1200 livres a year. soon gained an elevation beyond the reach of the Blanchard was the first who constructed parachutes, cannon. Another balloon, constructed by M. and annexed them to the balloons with the object Conté, was attached to the army sent on the memof effecting escape in case of accident to the balorable expedition to Egypt. After the capitulaloon.
tion of Cairo, it was brought back with the remains During his ascent from Strasburg he dropped a of the army to France, and subsequently employed dog, connected with a parachute, from the height by M. Biot and Gay-Lussac in their scientific asof 6000 feet. A whirlwind, however, interrupted cent, when the latter attained the enormous elevaits descent, and bore it above the clouds. M. tion of 23,040 feet above the level of the sea, and Blanchard afterwards met the parachute, when the satisfactorily demonstrated that the air at that dog, recognizing his master, began to bark ; and height contains exactly the same proportions as just as M. Blanchard was going to seize him, that collected near the surface of the earth. another whirlwind suddenly carried the parachute The use of balloons by the French in war soon beyond his reach. Having passed over Zell, he created a panic among the English alarmists. It terminated his voyage; the parachute, still waving was reported that England would be invaded by in the air, came down twelve minutes afterwards. clouds of aërial monsters, which would burn the In a daring experiment, which M. Blanchard had the cities and destroy the crops. Among the balloon courage to make on himself, he was less successful ; prints before us, is one displaying a number of for on hazarding a descent by a parachute at Basle, balloons on their way to England, under which is he unfortunately broke his leg. The more disas- written :~" Oh, dis be de grande invention. Dis trous fate of Mr. Cocking, who was killed in 1837, will immortalize my king, my country, and myby a descent from a parachute, which he detached self. We will declare de war against our enemi. We from a balloon at the height of about 5000 feet, will make de English quake. We will inspect his will be in the recollection of many readers. camps; we will intercept their fleet; we will set
The success attending the ascent of balloons, fire to their dockyards; and we will take de Gibralsoon led to sanguine hopes being entertained of tar in de air balloon ; and when we have conquered the highest benefits resulting to mankind from the de English, den we will conquer other contries, and practice of aëronautics. The French instituted make dem all colonies of de Grand Monarque." an academy at Meudon, for the express purpose But, like the subsequent threatened invasion by of improving the art of aëronautics. The pro- Napoleon, whose flotillas were to land innumerceedings were conducted with the utmost secrecy. able troops on our shores, and did not-so no faThe management of the institution was committed voring breezes bore dreaded aërial machines across to men of eminent reputation, and was under the the channel. Ancient dames once more slept in direction of M. Conté. There was a corps of security, and farmers gathered their crops unapfifty aëronauts, trained to the service ; and a spher- prehensive of danger. ical balloon, thirty-two feet in diameter, was kept The science of aërostation was not, however, constantly prepared for exercising, and fastened to allowed to slumber ; numerous attempts wero the great terrace of the lodge in the open air. In made to propel balloons by means of machinery favorable weather it was liberated, and with the moving colossal wings, and vanes. It would far car, which contained the colonel of the corps and exceed our limits were we merely to enumerate a pupil, was allowed to ascend from 160 to 240 the schemes which were tried, all of which wholly yards ; but was still restrained by a cord fastened failed to answer the desired objects. Among our from below. Balloons were prepared in this prints is a representation of a huge horse, made establishment for the service of the different of oiled silk, stretched over a whalebone frame, to armies. They were named with all the form of whose body wings are attached, which were inchristening a man of war, and we read of the tended to be moved by the aëronaut seated on the Entreprenant, for the army of the north ; the horse's back. This was a French invention, and Céleste, for that of the Sambre and Meuse ; the the description goes on to sayHercule, for the army of the Rhine ; and the Intrépide, for that of the Moselle. The decisive
Son corps serviroit de récipient au gaz; sa queue victory which General Jourdon gained in 1794, titude d'un cheval qui galoppe, chargés dans leurs
servit le gouvernail ; et les quatre pieds, dans l'atover the Austrian forces in the plains of Fleurus, extrémités d'un corps pesant, proportionné au reste has been ascribed principally to the accurate in- de la machine, serviroient de lest. On devine aiseformation of the enemy's movements before and ment la place d'une soupape qui s'ouvrant à la voduring the battle, communicated by telegraphic lonté du navigateur, laisseroit échapper promptesignals from a balloon, which was elevated to a ment, par le rapprochement de ses genoux, une moderate height. The aëronauts, at the head of portion du gaz, et tempéreroit la légèreté du cheval whom was the celebrated chemist, Guyton-Mor- les nues.
dans le cas, ou il vaudroit s'emporter par de-là veau, mounted twice in the course of that day, and continued about four hours each time, hover- When the marvellous power of steam was made
to minister to the use of mankind as a moving| bolder, and ventured to ascend during the night. power, it was fondly hoped that the time had ar- The first nocturnal ascent was undertaken by M. rived for the fulfilment of that portion of Dr. Dar-Garnerin, at eleven o'clock on the night of the win's prophecy alluding to aërial navigation :- 4th of August, 1807. He ascended from Tivoli
at Paris, under the Russian flag, as a token Soon shall thy arm, unconquered steam, afar Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car ;
of the peace that existed at that period be Or on wide waving wings expanded bear
tween France and Russia. His balloon was The flying chariot through the strcams of air.
illuminated by twenty lamps ; and, to obviate all
danger of communication between these and the Sir G. Cayley, and other gentlemen, wrote hydrogen gas, which it might be necessary to dis several ingenious papers, in which it was endeav- charge in the course of the voyage, the nearest of ored to show that steam might be successfully em- the lamps was fourteen feet from the balloon, and ployed to propel balloons ; and much more attention conductors were contrived to carry the gas away was bestowed on this favorite subject than on that in an opposite direction. Forty minutes after he of applying steam to drive carriages. Many of ascended, he was at an elevation of 13,200 feet; our readers will doubtless remember the Aëro-when, in consequence of the dilatation of the balnautical Society, which was puffed into a kind of loon, he was under the necessity of discharging a pseudo-existence a few years ago, and whose di- portion of gas. About midnight, when 3600 feet rectors promised to all who became members on from the earth, he heard the barking of dogs ; duly paying two guineas annually, direct commu- about two o'clock in the morning he saw several nication by the society's aërial ship, the Eagle, meteors flying around him, but none of them with all the capitals of Europe. This airy phenom- near as to create apprehension ; at half-past enon-brother, doubtless, to the eagle rendered three, he beheld the sun emerging in brilliant forever famous by carrying Daniel O'Rourke to the majesty above an ocean of clouds; and the gas moon—was 160 feet long, 50 feet deep, and 40 becoming expanded by the increased temperature, feet wide ; the balloon part was intended to float the balloon attained an elevation of 15,000 feet with the longer axis horizontal ; and a car, with a above the earth, when he felt the cold intense. caboose 75 feet long, for the passengers and crew, At half-past six in the morning M. Garnerin de hung below from a net, enveloping the balloon. scended safely near Loges, forty-five leagues dis An internal balloon was fitted, for the purpose of tant from Paris. ascending and descending at will; and the whole A second nocturnal ascent by M. Garnerin, was intended to be propelled by four fins, or which he made from Paris in September, 1807, wings, or paddles on each side, and steered by a exposed him to the most imminent danger. In tail adjusted aloft.
consequence of the pressure of the populace, the What became of the Aëronautical Society we balloon was liberated before M. Garnerin had do not exactly know, but we have a faint remem- time to adjust the machinery of the valves; conbrance that it dissolved to airy nothingness; or it sequently, when he had risen to an enormous may be, that the whole establishment-council, height, the balloon became so dilated, that M. secretary, clerks, and the great brass plate which Garnerin was obliged to make a rent in the silk, bore the attractive name of the society-took a to permit the gas to escape. The unfortunate adflighty farewell of our land of fogs, in their good venturer was now subject to every caprice of the ship Eagle. But the society was not wholly use- whirlwind, and the balloon was tossed about from less, it set people thinking; and we well remem-current to current. When the storm impelled him ber the brilliant idea being propounded by some downwards, he was obliged to cast out his ballast man, centuries in advance of his age, to employ to restore the ascending tendency; and at length, eagles themselves to draw our balloons. This was every resource being exhausted, no expedient was his scheme. In advance of some dozen of eagles he left to him to provide against future exigencies. proposed harnessing 100 pigeons, just out of reach In this forlorn condition, the balloon ascended of the eagles. The latter, animated by the one through thick clouds, but afterwards sank; and undivided and natural desire to fasten their talons the car, having violently struck against the ground, in the plump breasts of the pigeons, would fly at rebounded from it to a considerable altitude. The eagle speed ; and the pigeons, who can go the fury of the storm dashed him against the mounpace, anxious to save their lives, would cleave the tains; and, after many rude shocks, he was reair at a prodigious rate. With such a team it duced to a state of temporary insensibility. On was argued that balloons would be propelled with recovering from this perilous situation, he reached a velocity sufficient to satisfy all those who are Mount Tonnerre in a storm of thunder. not ambitious to be fired out of a mortar.
short time after his anchor locked in a tree; and We imagine that the difficulty of obtaining a in seven hours and a half from the time of sufficient number of eagles must be assigned as the his departure, he landed at the distance of 300 cause of the above mode of propulsion not being miles from Paris. carried into effect; certain it is that we go up and Numerous nocturnal ascents have been made down in the old way in balloons, which are driven during late years ; but by far the most important to and fro as the wind listeth.
night-voyage was that undertaken by Mr. Green, With practice and experience aëronauts became Mr. Hollond, and Mr. Monck Mason, on the 7th
of November, 1836, when they ascended from and has since made many ascents. We cannot Vauxhall at half-past one in the afternoon ; and conclude this article without noticing a singular continuing their voyage all night, descended safely use to which a balloon was put lately in Paris. A near Weilburg, in the Duchy of Nassau, the fol- candidate for a seat in the National Assembly for lowing morning at half-past seven.
one of the departments of the Seine, caused serMr. Mason's account of this extraordinary eral thousands of his address to the electors to be voyage is most interesting. At fifty minutes after launched from the car of a balloon when suspended five the balloon had crossed the channel, and stood over the department; a happy idea, it must be alnearly over Calais. Preparations were now made lowed, of general publication. for the night. A guide-rope, of about 1000 feet in length, was suspended from the car. A lamp
A DAY IN JUNE. was lighted, and ample justice was done to a most abundant supper. There was no moonlight. And what is so rare as a day in June?
Then, if ever, come perfect days; Nothing, in fact, (says Mr. Mason,) could exceed The heaven tries the earth if it be in tune, the density of night which prevailed. Not a single And over it softly her warm ear lays; object of terrestrial nature could anywhere be dis- Whether we look, or whether we listen, tinguished ; an unfathomable abyss of “darkness we hear life murmur, or see it glisten; visible” seemed to encompass us at every side ; and Every clod feels a stir of might, as we looked forward into its black obscurity in the An instinct within it that reaches and towers, direction in which we were proceeding, we could And, grasping blindly above it for light, scarcely avoid the impression that we were cleaving Climbs to a soul in grass and flowers ; our way through an interminable mass of black The flush of life may well be seen marble, in which we were imbedded, and which, Thrilling back over hills and valleys ; solid only a few inches before us, seemed to soften The cowslip startles in meadows green, as we approached, in order to admit us still further The buttercup catches the sun in its chalice, within the precincts of its cold and dark enclosure. And there's never a leaf or a blade too mean Even the lights, which at times we lowered from To be some happy creature's palace ; the car, instead of dispelling, only tended to aug- The little bird sits at his door in the sun, ment, the intensity of the surrounding darkness; Atilt like a blossom among the leaves, and, as they descended deeper into its frozen bosom, And lets his illuminated being o'errun appeared absolutely to melt their way onward by With the deluge of summer it receives ; means of the heat which they generated in their His mate feels the eggs beneath her wings,
And the heart in her dumb breast flutters and
sings; A curious example was afforded of the impossi. He sings to the wide world, and she to her nestbility of arriving at a correct idea of outward In the nice ear of nature which song is the best. forms seen under the above circumstances :
Now is the high tide of the year, For some time (observes Mr. Mason) our atten
And whatever of life hath ebbed away tion had been particularly directed to an appearance Comes flooding back, with a ripply cheer, which, in the absence of any ground for suspecting
Into every bare inlet and creek and bay; the contrary, we very naturally concluded to pro- Now the heart is so full that a drop overfills it, ceed from some object or other on the surface of the We are happy now because God so wills it; earth below. Seen through the thick gloom of the No matter how barren the past may have been, night, and extended alone in the black space that 'T is enough for us now that the leaves are green , wrapped every other object from our view, it bore We sit in the warm shade and feel right well the aspect of a long narrow avenue of feeble light, How the sap creeps up and the blossoms swell; starting off in a straight line towards the horizon, We may shut our eyes, but we cannot help from some point or source at some distance under
knowing neath us. What it could be, we fruitlessly endeav- That skies are clear and grass is growing ; ored to determine. In vain we looked forward out The breeze comes whispering in our ear, of the car into the deep intensity of the surrounding That dandelions are blossoming near, night, concentrating all our powers of vision on the
That maize has sprouted, that streams are flowone spot, that we might catch some clearer view to determine our conjectures. The more we looked, that the river is bluer than the sky,
ing, the more uncertain appeared the result of our spec- That the robin is plastering his house hard by ; ulations ; nor was it until after a considerable lapse And if the breeze kept the good news back, of time, induced by observing its long-continued For other couriers we should not lack! presence in the same position, that we became finally aware that it was only one of the stay-ropes And hark! how clear bold chanticleer,
We could guess it by yon heifer's lowingattached to the summit of the balloon, which, hang- | Warmed with the new wine of the year, ing down at a distance of five-and-twenty feet from
Tells all in his lusty crowing ! the car, and being, in fact, the only material object within our sight, bad partially reflected the rays Joy comes, grief goes, we know not how ; of light from our lamp and assumed the aspect de- Everything is happy now, scribed.
Everything is upward striving ;
'Tis as easy now for the heart to be true The balloon in which this voyage was made As the grass to be green, or the skies to be blue was christened at Weilburg, by the daughter of 'T is the natural way of living. the Baron de Bibra, the Great Nassau Balloon,
From the Art Journal. the treasure-house of our still green memory for EDGEWORTHSTOWN.
the wealth created by the care, the protection, the
unfathomable love of a dear parent, or alınost as MEMORIES OF MARIA EDGEWORTH.
dear a friend. And if perchance we rebel against BY MRS. S. C. HALL.
God for that He is about to call home the aged I FEEL it a duty and a privilege to give some and true and faithful laborer in his vineyard, a reminiscences of the venerable lady, who long still small whisper comes to us in our lonely permitted me the honor of calling her my friend. watchings, in the quiet night season-reminding The opportunities I enjoyed of knowing Miss us that after a little more weariness we shall all Edgeworth in her own home, the generous confi- be united, " and there shall be one fold and one dence she reposed in me, and the correspondence shepherd ;" the bitterness of sorrow passes, even I have held with her, will, I trust, justify me in as the harrow over the surrow, and we repeah, the desire to do honor to the memory of one I until the sweetness of consolation comes with the have so reverenced and loved. I have heard words : “ Lord, not my will, but thine be done." from Mrs. Edgeworth, the widow of Miss Edge- This preparation is elysium compared with the worth's father, (and heard it with regret in which terror which fills the heart when a dearly beloved all will participate,) that Miss Edgeworth had left object is so unexpectedly stricken by the hand of a letter, " to be delivered after death,” in which death, that it is hardly possible to realize the she requested that no life might be written of event which you are told it was only natural to her, and thal none of her letters might be printed.” calculate. Such is especially the case when the But Mrs. Edgeworth does not express a wish that friend has not been seen for a long season. my respectful attachment to Miss Edgeworth shall Miss Edgeworth's treasured letters came to me not be recorded ; and I recur with much satisfac- as usual, and betrayed no symptoms of decay ; tion to a letter I received some five years ago from sometimes breathing a calm and Christian resign Miss Edgeworth, commenting upon the observa- nation to the "removals,” which seemed all too tions on Edgeworthstown and its inmates, neces- rapidly to call from their domestic circle, many sarily introduced into our published work on Ire- of those she loved ; those sorrows she never dwelt land, in which she says, there is “not a passage upon, so that in general her letters were full to or a word she would desire to erase.” I have overflowing with life and hope, containing little therefore the belief, that to record a memory of hints as to the disposal of the future, mingled this invaluable woman, as a beautiful example of with glances at the past, in such loving harmony, domestic virtue, combined with the highest intel- that I never thought of the years the writer had lectual endowments, while it may gratify many numbered -or if I did, it was with pride, anticiand be useful to some, can be distasteful to no pating how many more it would still be given her surviving member of a family, whose renown is to enjoy ; I saw no change in the well-known a part of history, and who could have furnished writing, it was as straight and firm as ever ; I the world, but for this interdict, with the most heard of no failing ; and in my letters I had hoped valuable correspondence of modern times. My and planned for the future, and said that now the readers will, I trust, pardon me if I am not always winter was gone, and the long days of summer af enabled to detach myself entirely from the theme hand, we should meet again! concerning which I write ; and that they will also How vain are all human arrangements ! I had permit me to follow, without studied order or ar- failed to note the march of time, and forgotten that rangement, my thoughts and feelings just as they age as certainly brings death, as that the sparks occur to me in treating this subject.
fly heavenward! The bitter grief which over
whelmed me when I heard of the death of one so How often do we feel while gazing on a face honored and so dear as Miss Edgeworth had been upon which Time's iron pen is rapidly, and to me from my youth up, cannot be considered as severely, inscribing and deepening the lines of intrusive in these pages; thousands feel as I do, age-how often do we feel that it would be a without having enjoyed the happiness of knowing priceless privilege to lengthen a beloved life by her, as I have done ; to such I may feel sure these the sacrifice of many of the years that seem brief Memories of a woman to whom the actual promised to ourselves !
world owes so much, cannot fail to be interesting. This very feeling, agonizing though it be in its It was my custom to place upon my table her hopelessness, is a merciful preparation, enabling latest letter, so that I could often see it—just as a us all the better to endure a bereavement when it picture is hung to stamp a beauty on the mind, or comes; we note the decreasing strength, the flut- move to noble thoughts and actions—I never “put tering breath, and the increasing feebleness ; and, by" a letter of Maria Edgeworth's, until I had it may be, perceive a small cloud over the mental received another, and this, which I look upon powers :-a forgetfulness of the present, while the through tears—now too surely her last letter-is memories of childhood continue fresh as ever ; we as full of life as any of those with which I have observe these warnings with fears keenly awak- been honored during a period of nearly twenty ened; but they are observed ; and observed with years. As a proof of how singularly alive sho natural dread, although suggestive of gratitude for was to everything around her, how full of generlong years of past enjoyment, sending us back to lous sympathies, how enthusiastic in her adnuiration of whatever was excellent-from this letter, writ- | freshly as if only eighteen years had passed over ten but a few weeks before her death, and when her venerable head. She was full of vitality; in her eighty-third year, I may quote a passage unresting without being at all restless ; she was which occurs in a postscript :
tranquil, except when called into active thought I strangely forgot what was uppermost in my head or movement by somebody's want or whim ; she when I sat down to thank you for what you tell me
was not too wise to minister even to the latter, about Jenny Lind, and, oddly enough, and incredi- and contrived not only to do everything it was ble as it must sound, the very last pages I wrote, in necessary to do, but to do it at the exact time a story I am writing, were in praise of Jenny Lind! when it was most needed. To borrow a phrase but not in such praise as you have given, fresh from of Lady Rachel Russell's, she was the most the warm,
eloquent, Irish heart. I shall beg leave“ delicious friend” it was possible to have. She to borrow the words from you, and I hereby return had abundance of sympathy, but it was tempered you my best thanks for the permission which I conclude you grant, as I never use a person's words with a thoughtfulness that was sure to be of value without leave ; no names mentioned, of course.
to those who told her their wants and wishes ;
and her little impromptu lectures—half earnest, I quote this passage because it is one of the half playful-were positive blessings to those many proofs I possess, of the enduring freshness who knew the priceless integrity of her most truthand vigor of her mind-true to its old feelings, ful nature. yet not only willing, but eager, to receive the im
When stimulated by her example, which had pressions of new ones. Miss Edgeworth's mind, been a light to me, as well as to thousands, and from its first dawn to its earthly extinction, was, warmed by her enthusiasm, I ventured to creep as every one knows, more particularly directed into the path she had trodden so triumphantly betowards educational progress ; thus it delighted fore my birth, and sent her, with an author's pride, me the more to find her so alive to the character and a young author's trembling, the first edition I had sketched of the Swedish lady, in a letter of “Sketches of Irish Character," I received, occupied by details relating to the various within a week, an analysis of every“ Sketch,"acbranches of the Governesses' Benevolent Insti- companied by such full and hearty praise, mingled tution. But there was no torpidity in her nature; with invaluable criticism, urging me forward at her heart beat in unison with everything good ; the same time, and stimulating the desire I felt to and in the note I have already quoted she says, make the Irish peasant more favorably known to reverting to my communication :
England, while earnestly endeavoring to correct This Queen's College is a spick and span new those faults in the Irish character, which I believed affair; a prospectus was sent to me, and though I to be the result of unhappy circumstances, and carethought it very well written, and further, thought less, if not cruel, treatment. the Institution likely to be useful, yet I disliked the
This correspondence led to our personal acname college for ladies ; and did not augur well of a certain air of pedantry, and display of knowl- quaintance, and it is a melancholy pleasure to edge and science, too grand and great for the pur
recall my first visit to her, at the house of her pose. And though I saw Mrs. Marcet's name, a with his ' Residence at Constantinople.' It is written in host in itself, and to me a sanction, yet I could not such a lively and powerful manner, and contains so much bring myself to put forward my name ; besides, 1 that is new and interesting, that I wonder how he could was very poor at the time, and had no subscription for so many years refrain from publishing it. It is the to give, as every farthing, and more than we had, writing of a man of real genius-nothing common-place, was required for our starving and starved poor, for nothing traced to book-make, nor plated over. The reader whom I earned a very small matter by Orlandino. admitting and requiring graphic genius to describe—to We are now in a rather better condition, and I can, represen!—fell to the luck of such a writer as Doctor at least, afford a mite towards the endowment of an Walsh. There was some man writing to the Irish Society institution towards the education or support of years ago about an earthquake, who began with The governesses; pray put my name down-query, Society,' &c. &c. I am sure the earthquake that had the how much?—better late than never. My objection honor to be noticed by Doctor Walsh, if it could be to the name of Queen's College was fastidious, and personified, would or ought to say so to him. It is the has been done away with, since the NAME has most striking and interesting account of the feelings of a merged in the thing, and Queen's College is now person in a danger quite new to them, and of so sublime only the title of a good and successful institution ; 1 plicity, and yet with such force and life.” She continued
a sort, I ever read ; it is written with such truth and simyon have quite charmed away all my prejudices, or long in the same bright strain of praise, and then desired: evil spirit of objections.
I would assure him of a warm welcome at Edgeworths
town ; adding, “unless he likes being a lion, he shall Her letters were usually long and diffuse ; touch- never be called upon to be one, or made to roar. Sir ing upon a new book, or a new flower, making therein double merit, because nobody detested the thing inquiries about old friends and new authors,* as more. I am glad Miss Porter is with Mrs. S--, if she
likes it ; but I am still more glad i hat my good dear Mrs. *I find in others of her letters such warm praise of some Hofland looks well, and is cheerful. Give my affectionof our writers, that it is a pleasure to repeat it. Mrs. ate regards, and love and esteem to her." Miss Porter Gore's “ Mrs. Armytage," was a novel she inueh admired; has survived both those friends. In the same letter, she and she was so charmed with Dr. Walsh's " Residence asks,“ Do you know who wrote Cecil? Does it deserve at Constantinople,” that, were il possible, it would have the higli character given of it in the Edinburgh Review made me still more highly value one of the oldest and for July?. I have not yet seen the book ; it is in that redearest friends I have in the world. " I think Doctor view attributed to Mrs. Charles Gore. She is, indeed, a Walsh is a friend of yours," she writes. "I do not know person of great talent; and I would get the novel directly, when I have been so inuch interested and entertained as if I thought it was hers."