« ElőzőTovább »
“ Kate,” said I, hoarsely, “it is Vernon Grey; It is time that I should end this simple history. he is here ; he will soon recover, and Myra is From the period of Kate's marriage I lived as dead."
I live now, in tranquil solitude. After forty, a I rushed to my own chamber, and wept over man does not easily love again, nor is he likely to the memory of my lost love.
inspire love ; he is too old for the young fresh I will not linger over the relation of Vernon hearts, and the worn and withered ones are too old Grey's restoration to health, and how Kate and he for him. I do not say that this is invariably the again met. His marriage had been unhappy, as case, for love is a perennial plant which can some we before knew, for she who had lured his heart times bloom as fair in life's autumn as in its from Kate cared little for her prize; and the im- spring. But with me it had already blossomed age of my gentle sister rose up before him in and faded ; I did not love again. Yet, though strong contrast to his gay and worldly wife. But now time's circles are narrowing around me, and peace to the memory of the dead, for I loved her I look towards the close of life, not as a distant once-oh, how well!
prospect, but as a valley so near that my feet even Vernon Grey again wooed his first love-his now are entering its borders, I am not mournful. only true one--for the second had been but a daz- I look back upon a long course, which, if a weary zling of the fancy. I scarcely thought him worthy one, has not been devoid of many pleasant restingof my noble sister ; but then Kate had loved him places. My life has not been wasted; I have once, and loved him still. She pleaded to me for striven to work while it was yet day, rememberhim, spoke of his high principles, his affectionate ing the coming night. If no wife or children heart; and while I siniled at her woman's trust brighten my fireside in my old age, I have at least and loving forgiveness, I bade her wed him and other ties almost as dear. Dora's gay troop of be happy.
boys and girls love me as well as children of my “I will not take your sister far away from you, own could have done, and Kate and her husband for you are more worthy of her than 1,” said Ver- share with me the calm enjoyments of a green old non Grey; and so he bought an estate near, that age. It is pleasant to think that, were death to Kate might see her brother every day.
the old bachelor would be missed in more Once again our neighbors saw a wedding go than one home, happy though it be.
And come forth from Dr. Bernard Orgreve's doors. I have death soon, or come he late, I fear not. I am conbeheld younger and fairer brides than the one I tented here ; I have many sweet ties that I would now attended to the altar, but never did I look not wish to leave, but I have more in the land upon a face more beaming with chastened happi- where there is no parting. ness than Kate's. Of what moment was it that a few white threads mingled with the dark hair, Attached to the manuscript which relates this and that the hand which received the golden sym- History of a Household, is a sentence written in bol, had shrunk a little from its round proportions? a formal lawyer's hand, a strong contrast to the Kate was still fair, for she had the beauty given old man's trembling characters, “ Died, June 19th, by a tender heart; a meek spirit, and that love 18–, Dr. Bernard Orgreve, aged 89. He was which “beareth, hopeth, forgiveth all things." the last of the family.”
From Graham's Magazine.
BY H. W. LONGFELLOW.
We sat within the farm-house old,
Whose windows, looking o'er the bay, Gave to the sea-breeze, damp and cold,
An easy entrance, night and day. Not far away we saw the port
The strange, old-fashioned, silent townThe lighthouse-the dismantled fort
The wooden houses quaint and brown. We sat and talked until the night
Descending filled the little room ; Our faces faded from the sight,
Our voices only broke the gloom. We spake of many a banished scene,
Of what we once had thought and said, Of what had been, and might have been,
And who was changed, and who was dead ; And all that fills the hearts of friends,
When first they feel, with secret pain,
And never can be one again.
That words are powerless to express,
And leave it still unsaid in part,
Or say it in too great excess.
Had something strange, I could but mark;
A mournful rustling in the dark.
As suddenly, from out the fire
The flames would leap, and then expire.
We thought of wrecks upon the main
And sent no answer back again.
The ocean, roaring up the beach-
All mingled vaguely in our speech,
Of fancies floating through the brain-
That send no answers back again.
They were indeed too much akin-
The thoughts that burned and glowed within.
From Fraser's Magazine.
| lectures on the possibility of flying, which are said
to have convinced all hearers; and Bishop Wilkins, A CHAPTER ON BALLOONS.
in his Mathematical Magic, (1680,) proposes an We lately, during an exploration in a dark cor- aërial carriage indeed, the bishop felt so confident ner of our library, stumbled upon a curious old that the art of flying was on the high-road to perquarto volume, lettered “Balloon Prints,” giving fection, that he declared it would soon be as comrepresentations of all aëronautic excursions, from mon for a gentleman to call for his wings as for his the first successful essay of ballooning until the art boots. ceased to be the wonder of the age. Annexed to The most noted scheme, however, for navigating the prints are historical sketches of the different the atmosphere was proposed by the Jesuit Franaërial voyages; and when we had gazed admiringly cis Lana, in a book with the aspiring title of Proat the quaint and funny drawings, our imagination dromo dell'Arte Maestra, published at Brescia in became inflated, and we soared into the belief that 1670. His plan was to raise a vessel by means of the cloud-dwelling editor of Fraser would give us a metal balls, strong enough when exhausted to re chapter in which we might fly a few balloons, with sist the pressure of the external air, but at the same cars full of pleasant gossip, to our own credit and time so thin as, under the same circumstances, to the amusement of the beholders, alias readers. be lighter than their bulk of air. Lana never im
To make a chapter on ballooning heavy would agined that any physical objections could prevent be a paradox ; and therefore, though we could be the execution of his proposition. But what most ponderously clever, and write learnedly on the sci- alarmed the insinuating Jesuit, and which he earence of aërostation, we modestly intend to keep our nestly prays God to avert, was the danger that learning under dense atmospheric pressure, permit- would result from the successful practice of his art ting but as little to ooze out as may be positively to all civil governments and human institutions; for, necessary to our purposes. For although a light says he, “it is evident that no walls nor fortificasubject in one sense, aërostation involves heavy and tions could then protect cities, which might be combrain-torturing thoughts. When the intelligence pletely subdued or destroyed, without having the reached St. Petersburg of the first ascent of a bal- power to make any sort of resistance, by a mere loon, it found the venerable Euler in a state of handful of daring assailants, who should rain down great debility, worn out with years and unremitting fire and conflagration from the region of the clouds." intellectual toil. Though thus suffering-in fact, Lana's project excited so much interest that it eventwith the hand of death upon him—he applied his ually awakened the attention of philosophers, who, favorite mathematical analysis to determine the in the persons of Hooke, Borelli, and Leibnitz, exascending motion of a balloon, and he had actually amined it minutely, and soon proved its utter imdictated the preliminary steps of the problem to one practicability. of his grandchildren, when exhausted nature com The alchemists started another scheme for aërial pelled him to desist, and to compose his soul to navigation, which deserves passing mention from soar to a nobler world.
its astounding absurdity. Conceiving, with the The ambitious desire of man to penetrate the ancients, that the dew which falls during the night realms of space dates from great antiquity. The is of celestial origin, and shed by the stars, it was winged gods, and the stories of Abaris and Icarus, imagined that this pure humidity was drawn up attest how fondly our predecessors clung to the again to the heavens by the influence of the sun's belief that the advantages conferred on birds might rays. Father Laurus thus relates what he states be shared by man. Archytas, an eminent Greek to be an observed fact :-“Take,” says he, very geometer and astronomer, who perished by ship-gravely, a goose-egg, and having filled it with wreck on the coast of Calabria, was believed to dew gathered fresh in the morning, expose it to the have constructed an artificial dove, which, by the sun during the hottest part of the day, and it will action of internal springs, wafted itself through the ascend.” This ridiculous conceit was wittily exair; and Strabo tells us of the Capnobatæ, a Scyth- posed by Cyrano de Bergerac, in a philosophica] ian people, who raised themselves by smoke, as the romance entitled, The Cosmical History of the vulgar at first imagined Montgolfier did.
States and Kingdoms in the Sun and Moon, in But the glowing visions of the East received a which he describes a French traveller equipping darker tinge from the character and climate of our himself for his lunar journey, by fastening round Gothic ancestors. Dominion over the realms of his body a multitude of very thin flasks filled with the air was given to the arch-fiend, and by his morning dew. The heat of the sun acting on the power witches were supposed to traverse boundless dew raised him to the middle region of the atmos. space with the speed of thought.
phere, where some of his flasks happening unluckDuring the darkness of the middle ages, alche-lily to break, the adventurer fell to the ground. mists, and all those superstitious mystery men, It is a fact worthy of notice, that almost all the who, in the wild dreams engendered by their heated persons during the middle ages who occupied their brains, imagined the resolving of impossibilities to imaginations with flying dreams were priests. In tangible certainties, were reported to have attained the beginning of the sixteenth century, we are told the art of flying. Friar Bacon, in his work De that an Italian priest, who had been made Abbot Mirabili Potestate, writes confidently of a practical of Tungland in Galloway by the Scottish sovereign, ilying machine. Van Helmont and others gavel James IV., undertook to fly from the walls of Stir
ling Castle to France. Provided with a pair of The further extension of this experiment might be ample wings, composed of various plumage, he had thought upon. the hardihood to try, but immediately came to the
The second passage is more diffuse, but less inground, and broke his thigh-bone by the violence telligible ; and it is evident that Lord Bacon had of the fall. The reason given for his failure is
no clear idea respecting aërial navigation beyond characteristic of the sophistry of Jesuitism :-"My the conception of its possibility. wings," said the artful Jesuit, “ were composed of
Dr. Black of Edinburgh, soon after the dis various feathers ; among them were, unhappily, covery of the specific gravity of inflammable air, those of dunghill fowls, and they, by a certain conceived that if a bladder or bag, sufficiently light sympathy, were attracted to the dunghill, whereas and thin, were filled with this air it would ris. had my feathers been those of eagles alone, they This thought was suggested in his lectures of 1767 would have been attracted to the region of the air." and 1768; and he proposed by means of the allan
These attempts, although of the most abortive tois of a calf to try the experiment, which, hownature, were not long in giving birth to wonderful
ever, other avocations prevented him carrying into tales of objects seen rushing through the atmos-effect. The possibility of constructing a vessel phere. Dragons, of every size, shape, and hue, which, when filled with inflammable air, would were described as having been seen in the heavens, ascend in the atmosphere, had occurred to Cavallo vomiting forth flames, and widely scattering the about the above period ; and to him belongs the seeds of pestilence. It was attempted to imitate honor of having first made experiments on this these fiery monsters by means of a mass of reeds subject in 1782, of which an account was read to bound together and covered by skin, the whole the Royal Society on the 20th of June in that being steeped in some inflammable composition, and
year. set on fire when launched into the air; and it is on
He first tried bladders, but the thinnest of them, record that the inhabitants of villages were seized however scraped and cleaned, were too heavy. In with horror and consternation at this device to im- using paper, he found that the inflammable air pose on them. So late as the year 1750, a small passed through its pores like water through a Catholic town in Swabia was almost entirely burnt sieve ; and having failed in other attempts to ento ashes by an unsuccessful experiment, instigated close this air in a bag, he was under the necessity by the lowest order of priests for the edification of of being satisfied with soap bubbles inflated with their flock. It was determined to represent the inflammable air, which ascended rapidly in the at effigy of Martin Luther, whom the monks firmly mosphere. These certainly are the first inflambelieved to be the imp of Satan, under the form of mable air balloons that were made ; and it is not a winged serpent, furnished with all the requisite a little remakable, that Cavallo's experiments did appendages of a forked tail and hideous claws. Un- not lead to the invention of the balloon. luckily for the skill of the projectors, the blazing
The practice and science of aëronautics did not, phantom fell directly against the chimney of a however, in any way spring from the foregoing house, to which it set fire, and the flames extend- experiments ; but, like many dazzling discoveries, ing furiously in every direction soon spread desola
owe their existence to individuals who, till the pe tion around.
riod of their invention, were utterly unknown to To Borelli is due the merit of being the first to
fame. To the skill and perseverance of Joseph prove, by mechanical and mathematical principles, and Stephen Montgolfier, sons of a paper manufaa the impossibility of rising, or even remaining sus- turer at Annonay, near Lyons, the world owes is pended in the air, by the action of any machinery that aërostation was practically brought into oper impelled by human force; and by degrees the fond ation. These remarkable men, though bred in a hopes of being able to fly, which men of genius small provincial town, possessed in a high degree had entertained, began to fade away. Those who the spirit of research and observation. They were have since occupied themselves with such hopeless in the habit of trying all their experiments together, attempts have been more remarkable for excessive and it appeared to them that a sort of very thin presumption and conceit than for their philosophi- cloud, formed of vapor inclosed in a bag of imcal acquirements.
mense size, would mount to the higher regions. It has been stated by some writers that Lord This they tried by filling a bag made of paper and Bacon first published the true principles of aëro- thin silk with hydrogen gas, but although the res nautics, but this is not the case; and there are only sel ascended, it soon came down again, in conse two passages in his works which can be considered quence of the very rapid escape of the gas through as referring to aërial navigation, and they occur in the pores of the silk and paper. This might have that collection of inconclusive reasonings which he been prevented by the use of proper varnish, but has entitled Natural History. The first is styled such an application was at that time unknown. “ Experiment touching Flying in the Air,” and Thus disappointed, though not eventually discour. runs thus :
aged, they tried various other means to attain the Certainly many birds of good wing, as kites and desired object, and at length substituting rarefied the like, would bear up a good weight as they fly;
air for the gas, they had the inexpressible satis and spreading feathers, thin and close, and in great faction to see a small silken bag so filled ascend breadth, will likewise bear up a great weight. Ito a height of seventy-five feet, where it remained
until the air, by cooling, lost its buoyancy. This | 200 feet, for several minutes, by feeding the fire. experiment was made in November, 1782. It was But in this experiment the balloon was held capDow resolved to prosecute the experiment on a tive by cords. The success of the experiment larger scale. Having provided a vast quantity of determined M. Rozier to undertake a free aërial coarse linen, they formed it into the shape of a voyage. In this he was accompanied by the Marglobe, about thirty feet in diameter, which they quis d'Arlandes, a major of an infantry regiment, lined with paper.
On lighting a fire within its whose valor seems, however, to have evaporated cavity, to warm and expand the air, the globe as- in a very unmilitary manner. The ascent was cended with a force equivalent to about 500 lbs. made at La Muette, a royal palace in the Bois de On the 5th of June, 1783, the first public ex- Boulogne, in a balloon similar to that above dehibition was made by the Montgolfiers, at A'n- scribed. All being ready on the 21st of Novemnonay, before the Etats Particuliers of Vivarvis ber, 1783, the voyagers took their places in the and an immense concourse of people. On enter- gallery. After repairing some trifling damage ing the public place in the town, nothing was seen which the balloon sustained in a first essay, it at first but immense folds of paper, 110 feet in was, at fifty-four minutes past one, absolutely abancircumference, fixed to a frame, the whole weigh- doned to the dominion of the air, and soon ascended ing about 500 lbs., and containing 22,000 cubic with great rapidity. When the adventurers were feet. To the astonishment of all it was announced about 250 feet high, they waved their hats to the that this machine would be filled with gas and rise astonished multitude, and quickly rose to a height to the clouds. On the application of fire un- at which they could no longer be distinguished. derneath, the mass gradually unfolded, and as- The history of this voyage is that, in a great sumed the form of a large globe, striving at the measure, of the terror of the Marquis d'Arlandes. same time to burst from the arms that held it. On When he found himself so high that he could no a signal being given, the ropes which retained the longer distinguish objects upon earth, both his cuballoon were cut, and it instantly rose with an ac- riosity and ambition were amply satisfied, and he celerating motion, and attained an elevation of insisted upon his companion ceasing to throw straw more than a mile. All was enthusiastic admira- upon the fire, that they might descend. M. de tion; so memorable a feat lighted up the glow of Rozier, however, deaf to the marquis' remonpational vanity, and the two Montgolfiers were re- strances, continued his operations. At length, garded as having opened the road to another world. having attained an elevation of about 3,000 feet, An account of the ascent was transmitted to Paris, the marquis perceived some holes which had been and quickly circulated over Europe. The sensa- burnt in the lower part of the balloon, and at the tion that the intelligence created was immense ; same time heard cracks which seemed to proceed yet the tale appeared so extraordinary as to cause from the top of the machine, and which appeared great doubts to be entertained of its veracity. In to him to menace its instant and entire destruction. England, particularly, men of science were un- He now became perfectly frantic with terror, and, willing to place any faith in what they regarded hastening to clap wet sponges to the burnt holes, as no better than an imposition. There were some, he vowed that if his companion did not immetoo, who would not allow that the invention could diately take the necessary steps to descend he be of the slightest utility. Franklin, however, is would throw him overboard ; at the same time he reported to have said, in answer to the question promised faithfully to take upon himself the entire which was put to him on the discovery of aëros- blame of shortening their voyage. M. de Rozier tation, “ What is its use ?” “Of what use is the at length listened to the marquis' urgent solicitanewly-born infant ?”
tions; but on approaching the earth, the marquis, The scientific men in Paris were not long in seeing the great danger that they incurred of betesting Montgolfiers' experiment. They succeeded ing spitted on the weather-cock of the Invalides, admirably, and it was now determined to attempt hastily threw a fresh bundle of straw on the fire, a personal ascent. But before making the essay, and even spread it, in order to raise a fiercer blaze. three aërial voyagers were sent up in the form of This carried them over a great part of Paris at a & sheep, a cock, and a duck, all of which came sufficient elevation to clear the steeples, and passdown safely. Thus encouraged, preparations were ing the Boulevards, they landed safely in a field made for an ascent. Montgolfier constructed a near Bicêtre, without having experienced the new balloon expressly for the purpose. It was of slightest physical inconvenience. The distance an elliptical form, 74 feet in height, 48 feet in di- traversed was between six and seven miles, and ameter, and was elegantly painted and ornamented. they were in the air twenty-five minutes. The A gallery was carried round the aperture at the weight of the whole apparatus, including the two bottom, communicating with a grate which enabled aëronauts, was between 1600 and 1700 lbs., and the aëronaut to supply the fire with fuel, and thus when they descended two thirds of their fuel were to keep up the machine as long as the fuel lasted. unconsumed. The weight of the balloon and its accompanying Such was the prosperous issue of the first aërial apparatus was estimated at about 1600 lbs. On voyage ever achieved by man. It was a conquest the 15th of October, 1783, M. Pilatre de Rozier of science which all the world could understand ; made an ascent in this machine, and contrived to and it flattered extremely the vanity of that ingenkeep it suspended in the air, at a height of about |ious people, who enjoyed the honor of its triumph
in defiance of the doubts raised by English philos- | rapidity that the two unfortunate aëronauts were ophers. The Montgolfiers had the annual prize killed. of 600 livres adjudged to them by the Academy of This catastrophe led to the disuse of the comSciences; the elder brother was invited to court, plicated and dangerous system of inflammable and decorated with the badge of St. Michael, and re- rarefied air balloons, and the adoption of the simple ceived a patent of nobility; and on Joseph a pension hydrogen gas balloon ; the gas being generated was bestowed, with a sum of 40,000 livres to by sulphuric acid, or common oil of vitriol being enable him to prosecute his experiments with poured upon iron filings." The difficulties of aërial balloons.
navigation being now surmounted, the ascents of In the meanwhile attempts were being made to balloons were multiplied in all quarters. Though elevate balloons by means of hydrogen gas ; for it several experiments on the ascensive power of balwas found that heated air was highly inconvenient, loons had been made in England during the course on account of the serious difficulty of maintaining of the year after their discovery, the first aërial the elevated temperature of the enclosed air with- voyage was undertaken by Vincent Lunardi, an out continually renewing the fuel. This exposed Italian, in September, 1784. His balloon was the aëronauts to much danger from the occasional thirty-three feet in diameter, and shaped like a sodden and unavoidable expansion of the flame, pear. It was made of oiled silk, with alternate and their inability to command that uniformity of stripes of blue and red, having the car suspended rarefaction so necessary to the safety of the voy- from a loop below the balloon by forty-five cords. age.
The greatest curiosity was manifested to witness The first machine inflated by hydrogen gas was his ascent. In the advertisement now before us, launched at Paris, by MM. Roberts and Charles, it is stated that the tickets for the first places were in 1783. Such, however, was the prejudice in one guinea each, the others half-a-guinea. M. favor of Montgolfiers' smoke balloons, as they were Lunardi departed from the Artillery ground at two called, that, to pacify the populace who had as- o'clock, taking with him a dog, a cat, and a pigeon. sembled in vast numbers to witness the ascent of After throwing out ballast to clear the houses, he the gas balloon, Montgolfier was required to let off ascended to a considerable height; and at a little a small fire-balloon as a mark of his precedence. after four descended near Ware, in Hertfordshire, The ascent of the hydrogen gas balloon was per- after a pleasant voyage of two hours. fectly successful. “ It mounted,” says the re But the most daring and adventurous voyage in porter, “with a slow and solemn motion, allowing the early history of balloons, was that of M. in its soft and measured ascent the spectators to Blanchard and Dr. Jeffries, across the Straits of follow with their eyes and their hearts two inter- Dover. This took place on the 7th January, 1785. esting men, who, like demigods, soared to the The operation of filling the balloon was effected abode of the immortals to receive the reward of on the edge of Shakspeare's cliff. At one o'clock, intellectual progress.”
the wind blowing very gently from the N.N.W., The inconvenience of never being able to ascend M. Blanchard ordered the car, which then stood or descend without the absolute loss of gas or bal- only two feet distant from the precipice, to be last, led to the employment of an internal balloon pushed off. As the balloon was hardly buoyant containing common air ; by forcing air into the enough to support the voyagers, they were obliged latter, or drawing it out, the weight of the whole to throw out all their ballast, except three bags could be varied, and therefore it was thought that of sand of ten pounds each, when they rose gently it would ascend or descend accordingly. This but made little way, on account of the wind being scheme was put in practice by the Duc de Char- very slight. They had now a most beautiful pros tres, but failing to answer, another method was pect of the south coast of England. After passing suggested, which was to place a small aërostatic over several vessels, they found themselves descend machine with rarefied air under an inflammable ing; they immediately threw out a sack and a half air balloon, but at such a distance that the inflam- of their ballast, but this being insufficient to coun mable air in the latter might be perfectly out of teract their descent, they threw out all that re reach of the fire employed for inflating the former; mained : even this, however, was found ineffectuand thus by increasing or diminishing the fire ap- al; they, therefore, next cast out a parcel of plied to the small machine, the absolute gravity books : thus lightened, the balloon ascended. At of the whole mass might be considerably reduced this time they were about midway between France or augmented.
and England. At a quarter past two, finding The scheme was unfortunately put in execution themselves again descending, they were compelled by the celebrated Pilatre de Rozier and M. Ro-to throw out their provisions, instruments, anchors, maine. They ascended at Boulogne with the in- and cords, and at last divested themselves of their tention of crossing the channel to England, but clothes, and fastening their bodies to the cords of the machine took fire at the height of nearly a the balloon were prepared to cut away the boat or mile from the ground. No explosion was heard ; car, as their last resource. They had now, howand the silk balloon seemed to oppose some resist-ever, the satisfaction to find that they were rising ; ance to the descent for about a minute, after which, and as they passed over the high lands between however, it collapsed, and descended with such Cape Blanc and Paris, the balloon rose very fast,