last?" “Yes," says the first, "I was, but there which was seconded by violent palpitations of the was nobody there that we had any reason to think heart, so powerful as to be heard even at a condangerous. Upon which his neighbor said no siderable distance. In some instances, perspiramore, being unwilling to surprise him ; but this made him more inquisitive, and as his neighbor

tion ensued, which would break out in such proappeared backward, he was the more impatient, fusion, as if the whole constitution were dissolved. and in a kind of warmth, says he aloud, “ Why, he These sweats were sometimes of a citron color ; is not dead, is he?" Upon which his neighbor sometimes black, fetid, and often like blood ; still was silent, but cast up his eyes, and said some sometimes they were cold, while the heat raged thing to himself; at which the first citizen turned inwardly and excited an unquenchable drought. pale, and said no more but this, " Then I am a dead But the most constant signs of the pestilence were man too,” and went home immediately, and sent

blains, which broke out all over the person with for a neighboring apothecary to give him something preventive, for he had not yet found himself exquisite and shooting pains, hard and painful ill; but the apothecary opening his breast, fetched tumors, with inflammation upon the glands, virua sigh, and said no inore but this, “Look up to lent carbuncles, which, while their pain was inGod;" and the man died in a few hours.

tense, their cure and danger was most critical and Although we allow that there is a great air of hazardous—not to mention the tokens which protruth and reality in the work of Defoe, and though ceeded from the putrefaction of the blood and the we feel considerably indebted to the writings of mortification of the part, which, when real, i. e. the excellent Dr. Hodges, we cannot cease to re- when the spot and the part about had lost its feelgret the absence of a striking, picturesque, and ing and no mistake could arise, were the certain faithful description of the plague by an eye-wit- forerunners of death ; in some cases only appearness, like that we find in the pages of Thucyd- ing a few hours previous to dissolution, in others ides, which is perhaps the most perfect piece of the fourth day before, remaining, observes Dr. composition that ever came from the pen of man. Hodges, all that time terrible admonitions to the Nothing there is wanting to satisfy the physician, sick and their attendants. the historian, the poet, or the moralist ; for that

To the affliction arising from such a disease inimitable writer has selected his details with was London exposed, with various fluctuations, for such judgment, has narrated them with such the space of twelve months, and to such an exspirit, has supplied such genuine touches of truth tеnt, as that four thousand died of it in one night, and pathos, as to give, in a few chapters, such twenty thousand in one week, and, in the whole, pictures to the imagination, such information to not less than a hundred thousand. About the the understanding, as the elaborate volumes of same time of the year that it commenced, its reothers are unable to convey ; and perhaps it is treat was observed to have taken place, or, at owing to the interest which he has given to the least, to be very near at hand. All the symptoms plague of Athens, as well as to the inherent in- became less violent, fewer were infected, and terest in the subject, that the plague has become those who were so mostly recovered, so that this so favorite a theme to both poets and historians. once powerful and gigantic distemper dwindled That it has been so is a fact, and we propose, in into slight and contemptible attacks of quinsy our next number, to present our readers with a

and headache. We must now close our observageneral review, as well of this extraordinary dis- tions, both on the work of Defoe and its subject, ease in its various localities, as of the very inter- with this remark, that it has been our intention esting series of works and single passages, of in this article, as it will be in the next, to convarious countries and various ages, which have sider the plague in a literary and historical point been written upon it.

of view, and by no means, by dwelling upon the With respect to the plague of London, how- cure or the nature of the disorder, to invade the ever, we can collect from Dr. Hodges the symp- province of the physician, which, if we were toms and phenomena of the disorder, though we capable of doing, we should certainly search for cannot describe them with the wonderful accuracy a fitter theatre and fitter auditors, than the pages and in the spirited manner of Thucydides. Most and readers of the Retrospective Review. persons, upon their first invasion by the sickness, perceived a creeping chillness gradually spreading Cincinnati, has received the first of a pair of kneel

The StatURE OF ANGELS.-Bishop Purcell, of itself over the body, which produced a shivering ing angels to adorn his cathedral, sculptured under not unlike the cold fit of an ague—succeeded by the direction of Powers in Italy. Some one asked convulsive motions of the limbs and frame. Soon the bishop if this statue was not of uncommon size, after this horror and shaking followed a nauseous- it being the kneeling figure of a person six feet in ness, and strong inclinations to vomit, with a great height. In answer, he gave the history of his comoppression and seeming fulness of the stomach ; mission to Powers. He had directed it made of a violent and intolerable headache next succeeded, the natural size. Powers, in reply, requested some when some fell into violent fits of phrenzy, and thing more, definite, alleging that “he had never seen others became soporose and stupid.

The bishop referred to Revelation

Afterwards, xxi. 17th for his measurements. This was conclua fever discovered itself, and as soon as it began sive, and was the gauge as to size and proportions, to appear, a strange faintness seized the patient, of the object sent. Transcript.

From the Transcript. glasses, drew out a very ancient leather pocket

book, and began to count over his money. When PAYING AN OLD DEBT.

he had done—and there was quite a parcel of bank A MERCHANT, very extensively engaged in com- notes—as he sat, waiting his turn, slowly twistmerce, and located upon the Long Wharf, died ing his thumbs, with his old gray, meditative eyes Feb. 18, 1806, at the age of 75, intestate. His upon

the floor, he sighed ; and I knew the money, eldest son administered upon the estate. This as the phrase runs, came hardand secretly old gentleman used pleasantly to say, that, for wished the old man's name might be found upon many years, he had fed a very large number of the the forgiven list. My brother was soon at leisure, Catholics, on the shores of the Mediterranean, and asked him the common questions—his name, during Lent, referring to his very extensive con- &c. The original debt was four hundred and nection with the fishing business. In his day he forty dollars—it had stood a long time, and, with was certainly well known; and to the present the interest, amounted to a sum between seven and time is well remembered, by some of the old eight hundred. My brother went to his desk, and, ones down along shore," from the Gurnet's Nose after examining the forgiven list attentively, a to Race Point. Among his papers, a package, sudden smile lighted up his countenance, and told of very considerable size, was found after his death me the truth at a glance—the old man's name carefully tied up, and labelled as follows: “Notes, was there! My brother quietly took a chair by due-bills, and accounts against sundry persons, down his side, and a conversation ensued between along shore. Some of these may be got by suit or them, which I never shall forget.—Your note is severe dunning. But the people are poor; most of outlawed,' said my brother ; 'it was dated twelve them have had fishermen's luck. My children will years ago, payable in two years; there is no witdo as they think best. Perhaps they will think with ness, and no interest has ever been paid ; you are me, that it is best to burn this package entire." not bound to pay this note ; we cannot recover the

“ About a month,” said my informant, “after amount.' 'Sir,' said the old man, ‘I wish to pay our father died, the sons met together, and, after it. It is the only heavy debt I have in the world. some general remarks, our elder brother, the ad- It may be outlawed here, but I have no child, and ministrator, produced this package, of whose ex- my old woman and I hope we have made our istence we were already apprized, read the super- peace with God, and wish to do so with man. I scription, and asked what course should be taken should like to pay it,' and he laid his bank notes in regard to it. Another brother, a few years before my brother, requesting him to count them younger than the eldest, a man of strong, impul- over. 'I cannot take this money,' said my brother. sive temperament, unable at the moment to express The old man became alarmed. I have cast simhis feeling by words, while he brushed the tears ple interest for twelve years and a little over,' said from his eyes with one hand, by a spasmodic jerk the old man. 'I will pay you compound interest, of the other, towards the fireplace, indicated his if you say so. The debt ought to have been paid wish to have the package put into the flames. It long ago, but your father, sir, was very indulgent was suggested, by another of our number, that it he knew I'd been unlucky, and told me not to might be well, first, to make a list of the debtors' worry about it.' names, and of the dates, and amounts, that we My brother then set the whole matter plainly might be enabled, as the intended discharge was before him, and, taking the bank bills, returned for all, to inform such as might offer payment, them to the old man's pocket-book, telling him that their debts were forgiven. On the following that, although our father left no formal will, he day, we again assembled—the list had been pre- had recommended to his children to destroy cerpared—and all the notes, due-bills, and accounts, tain notes, due-bills, and other evidences of debt, whose amount, including interest, exceeded thirty- and release those who might be legally bound to two thousand dollars, were committed to the pay them. For a moment the worthy old man flames.

appeared to be stupefied. After he had collected " It was about four months after our father's himself, and wiped a few tears from his eyes, he death,” continued my informant, “ in the month stated that, from the time he had heard of our of June, that, as I was sitting in my eldest brother's father's death, he had raked and scraped, and counting-room, waiting for an opportunity to speak pinched and spared, to get the money together, with him, there came in a hard-favored, little old for the payment of this debt. About ten days man, who looked as if time and rough weather ago,' said he, 'I had made up the sum within had been to windward of him for seventy years. twenty dollars. My wife knew how much the He asked if my brother was not the executor. He payment of this debt lay upon my spirits, and adreplied that he was administrator, as our father vised me to sell a cow, and make up the differdied intestate. • Well,' said the stranger, 'I've ence, and get the heavy burthen off my spirits. I come up from the Cape to pay a debt I owed the did so—and now, what will my old woman say! old gentleman.' My brother," continued my in- I must get back to the Cape and tell her this good formant, requested him to take a seat, being at news. She 'll probably say over the very words the moment engaged with other persons at the she said when she put her hand on my shoulder as desk.

we parted—I have never seen the righteous man for“ The old man sat down, and, putting on his saken, nor his seed begging bread.' After a hearty

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shake of the hand, and a blessing upon our old | by what principles Louis Napoleon is governed, in

: “At father's memory, he went upon his way rejoicing. conferring the Cross of the Legion of Honor :

“After a short silence-taking his pencil and a review which took place on Friday in the Champ making a cast— There,' said my brother, 'your tributing some

de Mars,' the President of the republic, on dis

crosses of the Legion of Honor, part of the amount would be so much—contrive a caused the officers to assemble in a circle, and thus plan to convey to me your share of the pleasure, addressed them: • The decorations that I have disderived from this operation, and the money is at tributed to-day are few in number, but they are the your service.'

more honorable to those who have obtained them. Such is the simple tale which I have told, as it The Cross of the Legion of Honor has too often was told to me.

been bestowed lavishly under the governments which

have preceded me. It shall not be so in future. I A SextON OF THE OLD School.

will take care that the decoration of the Legion of

Honor shall be the recompense only of services ren[We copy from the Boston Daily Advertiser the follow-dered to the country, and be only bestowed on ing notice of the official recognition, by France, of Dr. indisputable merit. It is thus, gentlemen, that I Jackson's claims to the honor of the Ether discovery: hope to restore to this institution all its glorious Little good has it done to him in any selfish point of

prestige.' view. A inoney reward he has not sought, and as to

Bonpland, the celebrated traveller and naturalist, .fame, he has been obliged to expend thousands of dollars and the associate of Baron Humboldt in his South in the vindication of his title to the discovery, against a American travels, together with several other distinperson who derived all his knowledge of the nature and guished individuals, received the honor at the same properties of Ether from Dr. Jackson himself. It is a time that it was decreed to Dr. Jackson. Carlisle, matter of great regret to us that we were at one time in his “ Orders of Knighthood," published in 1839, cheated into the admission of an article in favor of this pretender. At that time we were not acquainted with class than that of knights, in which he must remain

states that " no native can be admitted” to a higher the parties-had heard but one side, and knew nothing for four years before he can be a candidate for the of the high character of Dr. Jackson, or of the true character of the alluded to.)

next higher class, that of officers. Thus Cuvier re

ceived first the cross, and finally the grand cross, the From the Boston Daily Advertiser.

badge of the first class. HONORS TO DR. JACKSON.

In 1839, thirteen Englisbmen, among which Dr. Charles T. Jackson has lately received the were Sir Astley Cooper and Sir Thomas Lawrence,

had received the Cross beautiful decoration of the order of Knight of the Jackson is believed to be the only American on

the Legion of Honor. Dr. Legion of Honor, conferred on him by the Presi- whom it has ever been conferred. Franklin received dent of the French republic, as announced some a gold medal from the British government for his months ago, and also a splendid gold medal pre- endeavors to protect the exploring vessels under the sented to him by the King of Sweden. We do cornand of Captain Cook from capture by Amerinot wonder at these honorable recognitions, by

can cruisers. Miss Mitchell, of Nantucket, has the heads of European governments, of the merits recently received a gold medal from the King of

Denmark, for the first discovery of a comet. Disof a discovery, so effectual for the mitigation of tinctions conferred for meritorious services like these human suffering, in every part of the world. It and the discovery of etherization, are highly useful; is a discovery of which the value is readily appre- and, if not hereditary, are not opposed to ihe spirit ciated wherever its effects are seen. We have of our institutions. Certainly, if we may judge been presented, by a friend, with the following from the avidity with which military and other titles description of these beautiful testimonials :

are sought, and showy badges of all sorts, are worn

on public occasions, they are not opposed to the Honors to the Discoverer of Etherization. spirit of the American people. The decoration or - The Cross of the Legion of Honor, decreed to cross which Dr. Jackson has received, is a silver Dr. Charles T. Jackson, of this city, by the Presi- star, suspended from a red ribbon, enamelled white, dent of the French republic, on the thirty-first of with five wings each with two points on which last January, has recently been delivered to him by are small silver balls. Behind the five wings runs Major F.0. Wyse of the U.S. Artillery, to whom it an emerald green enamelled wreath of oak and was entrusted for that purpose by the Hon. Richard laurel. In the middle is a beautifully wrought Rush, American Minister at Paris, accompanied by round gold shield, which bears on the obverse the patent of knighthood, bearing the signature side the head of Napoleon, surrounded with the of Marshal Molitor, the grand chancellor of the words, in gold letters on the dark blue enamelled order.

circle, BONAPARTE, Premier Consil, 19 MAI, The reason for which this distinction was con- 1802. On the reverse is the inscription, HONNEUR ferred, will appear from the following translation of ET Patrie, surmounted by two tri-colored fags, and a portion of a letter addressed to Dr. Jackson by encircled with the words, in golden letters, on a “ Le Chef du Secrétariat du President de la Re- dark blue ground, RepueliQUE FRANCAISE. publique”: “ The order of the Legion of Honor The King of Sweden has recently transmitted to was instituted for the reward of brilliant actions, Dr. Jackson a large and splendid gold medal, struck or of services rendered to humanity. With this from a die sunk expressly for the purpose. It bears title (a ce titre) the author of the discovery of ether on the obverse side the head of the king, encircled ization, could not fail to be invested with it; and with the words, Oscar Rex Svecias NorvegiAE the President felicitates himself on having had so Goth. ET VAND. On the reverse side, in the middle, justly to decree, in the name of France, this great is the inscription in raised letters, Jackson Med. distinction."

Doctori BostonII, Amer. SEPT., surmounted by The subjoined paragraph from the London Exami-a civic wreath, and encircled with the words, Illis ner of the iwenty-third of last February, will show | QUORUM MERUERE LABORES.

From the Spectator, of 230 June.

the government; or it must be met by new taxes THE NEW FRENCH EMPEROR-ROME-EUROPE. and retrenchment-recall of disbanded armies, to

Not only the composition of the French gov- swell the mob in the streets of Paris, at once ernment, but the behavior of the men who guide hurting the pride of the French, and supplying the majority of the Assembly, indicates that the forces for revolt against an odious government and government and its supporters are carrying on a its new taxes. There is a third course before decided attempt at reaction. Having hold of its either of the other two can be consummated-a majority, the government scarcely disguises its new revolution. At present that alternative may purpose. Having triumphed over a partial and seem the remoter to the view, but it is not the less premature manifestation of revolt, it accounts its a real peril ; though the ministers appear to forget position certain, and affects the language of a it. While defying every dictate of prudence in power whose decrees are final. It annuls the re- their policy, they have forgot, or they slight and cent constitution, bit by bit; braving censure by contemn the people. They seem to regard France going to war without leave, suppressing newspa- as they might a horse whose fit of kicking is over, pers, prohibiting clubs for a year, permitting and to think that now they can put on the harness assemblages for the purpose of election, but de- and apply the whip at leisure. They cannot go claring that any departure from that purpose will far in this course without the people's discovering draw down the executive upon the assembled elec- that its government is oppressive," tyrantors—in other words, declaring that the electors nical," " arbitrary,” in short, open to all the epishall meet if they behave as the government thets applicable to the old régimes. One reason pleases. All these are dictatorial acts; a dic- is, that the prince president's councils are now tatorship originally assumed without legislative possessed by men bred to the old bureaucratic authority, and only sanctioned by the votes or habits of France, which are of a kind more suited party cries of the majority, ex post facto. The to a police force than to the government staff of a' change towards this condition of affairs was appar “free” country. But the principal reason is the ent last week, and in strictness we should have deliberate attempt of the combined reactionaries to noted the triumph over the red republicans ; but bring back the government of the country to the in truth we regard the new phase as superficial, and monarchical model. were not then considering the mere passing humors of the moment. A contemporary reminds us One of the greatest national crimes ever re also that General Cavaignac had offered to sup- corded seems to be upon the point of consummation port order, which is true ; but he had not revoked —the French taking of Rome. No change has his protest against the conduct of the government. occurred in the position of the parties, except that

The immediate aspect of the danger which be- General Oudinot has made his approaches by slow sets France has somewhat altered ; but not for the degrees, and at the dates of the latest accounts better. The minority appeals to the “constitu- was about to commence the storming of the place. tion ;' an idle appeal, for the constitution is a Then comes the contest in the barricaded streets. nullity now that power has passed from its au- The Pope is said to feel the cruel position of Rome thors, and it is virtually abandoned by Prince so severely that he has offered to give the French Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of“my uncle," an excuse for withdrawing by abdicating his temand his coalesced imperialist, monarchist, and poral sovereignty. But the Pope cannot retrieve legitimist ministers. It is nonsense to refer to it the real disgrace of France; some truly wise and as a substantive authority. A recent constitution virtuous Frenchman alone could do that. is no more than the written programme for regulating the operations of a victory; this one was a North-eastern Europe is a prey to increasing compact in terms dictated by the victors---victors confusion—the “German” Assembly disavowing no longer, but defeated and frustrated on all sides, its regent; the Assembly itself proscribed by the and superseded by the coalesced reactionaries. If government in whose territory it sits; Baden and hose reactionaries retain power, the constitution Bavaria insurgent, and warred on by Prussia ; must become what they choose to make it. Russia and Austria sustaining reverses in Hunga

But can they retain power? They are taking ry; Hungary demanding the neutrality of Turkey, steps to defeat their open foe in the streets, but which acquiesces; Austria making way upon hardly to consolidate their own power. The same Venice, which continues to resist with Roman forfinancial insolvency to which M. de Tocqueville titude under the dictatorship of Manin. Conflict pointed as the destruction of Louis Philippe's everywhere, settled power nowhere, cross intergovernment, but aggravated, hangs over Louis ests starting up in Napoleon's government, from which M. de Tocqueville has not yet publicly withdrawn. That

From the Examiner, of 230 June. government has been continuing attempts at retrenchment; but it has entered into immense WHY DOES RUSSIA INTERFERE IN HUNGARY ? military expenses ; and to exasperate the difficul It has long been evident to all who watch the ty, it has employed its military outlay chiefly in progress of European affairs that Russia has inan expedit on hateful to the nation. The insol- variably pursued, and is still pursuing, a steady vency must be consummated, to the destruction of land uninterrupted policy of territorial extension

every direction.

of no

and aggrandizement. In this respect the most | by the spirit of dissension fomented among the. daring plans of the French, for the extension of races connected with Russia either by religion territory and influence, sink into insignificance or by a common Slavonic origin, and above all by in comparison with what Russia has actually ef- the distrust of the Austrian cabinet against every fected. Every additional accession of territory is liberal and constitutional movement. The real only considered as a step towards further progress. policy of Austria would have been to foster the The Russian empire already contains such a nu-ancient constitution which existed in Hungary, to merous population, and such extensive dormant have imparted to her hereditary provinces new inresources, as to call for the concentration of all stitutions in conformity with the spirit of the age, the energies of both rulers and subjects upon a and to have rallied round her the heterogeneous judicious development of these resources by a wise peoples which compose her empire, by the watchand liberal system of internal administration. But word of self-government, civilization, and free the policy of the czar scorns such commonplace trade, in opposition to Russian despotism, babadictates of civilization.

rism, and restriction. Unhappily the Austrian The German papers already begin to speak of a statesmen were totally incapable of embracing such cession of part of Galicia to Russia, as the price an enlightened course of action. They feared of her succor against the Hungarians. They Russia much, but they feared liberal opinions even profess to define the exact limits of the por-more; and they contented themselves with a maketion to be ceded; and it is by no means improb- shift policy for a moment, laying the flattering able that an additional slice of territory in any unction to their souls (falsely, as events have quarter would be acceptable to the imperial palate. shown) that "the deluge would not come till But to the initiated in Russian policy the great after their day." aim of Russian ambition is well known to be, and The chief resources of the Austrian empire lay to have been ever since the days of Catherine, the in Hungary. We may perhaps devote a separate acquisition of Constantinople, and a paramount in- article to the elucidation of this truth, which fluence in the Mediterranean.

would not have been questioned in the last cenNow we must confess we do not share the ap- tury, when Maria Theresa owed her crown to the prehension of some military and naval authorities exertions of the Hungarians. It is a truth of

mean repute, that some fine morning a which, at any rate, the Russian cabinet is perRussian fleet will be wafted by the prevailing fectly aware. Hence the intrigues of Russia have north winds from Sevastopol to the Bosphorus, been peculiarly directed against that country. The and forth with commence an attack upon the city hostility of the orthodox Greek population has of the sultan. Russian policy is far too refined, been excited against their fellow-citizens, while, far too tortuous, for such a proceeding at present. on the other hand, offers have been repeatedly Turkey must first he thoroughly demoralized. The made to the Austrian government to lend the aid breach between Rajah and Osmanli, between of Russian troops to put down by armed force the Christian and Mahometan, must be still further constitutional and parliamentary opposition of the widened. Russian intrigues, disguised under the Hungarian parliament. Metternich himself was holy name of religion, may effect that which Rus- not so utterly devoid of the commonest qualities sian arms might in vain attempt; till the czar of a statesman, as to listen to the wiles of the may either be invited by the Porte, as a good ally tempter. It was reserved for his weak and inand preserver of order, to crush the rebellious ra- capable disciples to consummate the ruin of their jahs, or be called in by the rajahs, as the head of country by accepting this fatal offer. the true orthodox church, to protect them against The czar is well aware that if Hungary is disthe oppression of the Ottoman government. abled, her productive resources checked, the spirit

The natural barrier against these encroach- of her inhabitants broken by the substitution of a ments, whether open or insidious, upon Turkey, central despotism for the workings of local selfwas the Austrian empire; and had the Austrian government-in short, that if Hungary ceases to statesmen been actuated by an enlightened policy, be Hungary and becomes a mere Austrian provhad they been less afraid of liberal sentiments ince, there is no longer, in that quarter, any power among their own subjects than of the designs of which can really rank among the great powers of Russia, Austria would at this moment be really Europe; and no longer any real barrier between the powerful stale which she has been supposed himself and the Ottoman empire. to be, and the further advance of Russia would Such a result would be of itself sufficient inhave been rendered impossible.

demnification for an enormous sacrifice of Russian It was, of course, a part of the Russian system gold and Russian soldiers. But there is reason to of policy that the resources of the Austrian em- suppose that the price (or at least a portion of the pire should be destroyed as far as possible, and price) of the intervention, is something even yet that the Austrian government should thus be ren- more definite and tangible-a port on the Adriatic. dered weak and subservient to Russian dictation. Cattaro is separated from the rest of Dalmatia The material resources were therefore cramped by by an intervening portion of Turkish territory, a hostile tariff, and by the difficulties thrown in and consequently is of little consequence to its the way of the navigation of the Danube ; while present owner, Austria. In the hands of Russia the moral resources were still more endangered it would be of the highest importance. It im

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