of peace.

ippe ever gave to M. Barrot. Yet M. Barrot puts Why is there this long, this never-ending series on the aims and policy of M. Guizot, just as if he of disturbances in Italy, in Hungary, in Germany? was born and had lived in them. The would-be Is it to be supposed that the nations themselves, if émeute has saved him from immediate overthrow. not interfered with by military despotism, could But as statesmen, all those who planned the Roman not maintain order, could not eliminate the wild expedition are inevitably doomed to expiate it vagaries of socialism and red republicanism? Inamidst universal contempt and indignation. deed, the latter, it is only reasonable to believe,

would never have taken root at all, had it not been From the Examiner, 16 June.

for the financial disorder and material sufferings in PEACE AND WAR.

private life, that had resulted from the restrictive If there is any one thing more than another policy of the misnamed paternal governments. characteristic of the civilized world at the present But how trifling are the worst democratic experiod, it is the universal longing and thirst after cesses, into wbat sheer insignificance do they peace. The Christian and the political econo- sink, when compared with the every-day and mist here meet upon common ground. It is felt commonplace acts of absolutism! To excite tenthat the energies of man can be more nobly de- ants to the murder of their landlords by the promveloped in the triumphs of science, in the exten- ise of advantages, which, when duly earned by sion of commerce, in the material improvement the fulfilment of the crime, are withheld with of communities, and in the spread of true religion true Satanic justice ; to appeal to all the vulgar and morality, than in the brute lust of war and passions and prejudices of race to urge fellowconquest. There is no endowment of the human citizen to the plunder and murder of fellow-citibody, and no talent of the human mind, which zen, because one worships God in one language, cannot find ample employment in the useful works another in another ; to bombard wealthy, popu

Marshes are to be drained, canals to lous, and flourishing cities in their own dominions, be dug, harbors to be improved, new sorts of cul- a step not lightly taken by the generals of civiltivation to be introduced, ships to be built and ized states, even in foreign territories ; to reduce manned, arrangements to be made for the mutual to abject beggary, by the actual destruction of interchange of commodities between nations, new their property, those of their subjects who had inventions in arts and sciences to be made, useful not been prevented from rising out of penury by knowledge to be disseminated, sanitary reforms to manifold and complicated restrictions on the freebe introduced. In short, most full and ample oc- dom of commerce, on the freedom of locomotion, cupation exists for every head and hand, were on the freedom of thought-such is the prevailing nations not prevented from following out the true policy of absolutism. path of their own interests by the wickedness or What anarchy of republicanism, what economthe imbecility of their rulers.

ical errors of socialism, can be conceived more That such a feeling is becoming prevalent, and destructive than this to society itself? Everythat the yearning after peace overlooks the ob- where, indeed, have the people behaved with sinstacles to its attainment, is sufficiently shown by gular moderation during the periods of their temthe meetings at Brussels and London, as by the porary successes. The enormous treasures of the motion of Mr. Cobden, on which we more partic- Burg in Vienna, and of the Green Vault in Dresularly remark elsewhere, to submit the settlement den, were respected when those cities were in the of differences between nations to a system of ar- hands of the popular party. The few instances bitration. Unfortunately, in the present state of in which Lynch-law was executed on individuals the world, these aspirations are not likely to be who most richly deserved punishment, although realized. Such a system of arbitration might be not in that illegal and violent manner, are not to introduced among states that were really civilized, be named in comparison with the wholesale and and that knew how to value the blessings of peace deliberate murders perpetrated by the reactionary and peaceful progress ; but it is impossible for party in their hour of triumph. In truth what such states to disband their forces and to live in has been wanting to the people has not been so disarmed security, as long as there exist other much the innocence of the dove, as the wisdom powers that are insensible to the blessings of civ- of the serpent. In Germany and Italy, where ilization—that shrink from no means, however the ancient heritage of self-government had been violent, in the pursuance of their own selfish for centuries in abeyance, where the ruling powends; and are willing to risk their own ruin ers had systematically educated their subjects to rather than take share in the onward movement become libertines or visionaries, there has been, of the great European commonwealth. Such pow- no doubt, a want of political tact and of organiers are the absolutists of Eastern Europe, be they zation. But these defects cannot be urged against absolute monarchs or Camarillas. Such are the the Hungarians, who have always maintained, friends and allies of the Jesuits and of Lord Ab- through the most evil times, their constitutional ordeen, the bombarders of cities, and the torturers rights, their spirit of organization, and, above all, of women, who will, as far as in them lies, reduce their system of municipal self-government, so simsociety to a chaos, unless indignant Europe shall ple yet so perfect, that even England might take rise in one general crusade of humanity, and drive a lesson from them in this respect. In looking them back beyond the pale of civilization, for a fixed point from whence order may be intro duced into the chaos of Eastern Europe, we can / Rome. Not only has the French republic, fresh only select the Hungarians. A free, independent, from the expulsion of Louis Philippe, sent an unshackled Hungary, if her existence were not army to force back the Roman sovereign on the perilled for the first few years, would guarantee Roman republic, but its insincerity has been carto Europe the maintenance of tranquillity, com- ried 10 the point of fraud, and the Gauls have merce, and civilization in those quarters. Aus- established a position in Rome, as yet precarious, tria is unable to do this, even were she willing. by a breach of faith. M. Lesseps appears to have

Look at Austria on the one hand, in spite of entertained a more friendly feeling towards the the support, moral and material, of the czar. Romans than the military commander, General Everywhere a state of siege, censorship of the Oudinot;, he certainly represents more accurately press, restrictions on commerce, prohibition of ar-than the general the prevalent feeling of the ticles which may be used against her, financial French republicans towards Rome; and, acting disorder, impending bankruptcy—the oft-repeated upon the general terms of his instructions, he tale of Austrian history. On the rther hand, called upon the general to obey his counsel. GenHungary, unaided by a single friendly power, eral Oudinot positively refused, and treated the taken at first by surprise in consequence of the diplomatist with some indignity. Nevertheless, perfidy of the Vienna cabinet last year, and with choosing to presume that his wishes must be aca part of her population temporarily alienated by complished, M. Lesseps assured the Romans that the intrigues of the Arch-Duchess Sophia and the military advances were dictated by no hostile her instruments, has, in spite of all these disad- motives; and on the faith of that assurance, the vantages, been enabled not merely to repulse the troops were suffered to occupy the Monte Mario Austrian army, but to put down the disorders ex- without resistance. They did so, but without the cited by the imperialists, to maintain internal tran- intention of making good the pacific assurances of quillity without having recourse to violent meas. M. Lesseps; and the French government, taking ures, to preserve public rralit, and to provide for advantage of this bad faith between its two servants, the due cultivatior, of her rich arable lands. permits M. Oudinot to enter Rome under the in

But the Austrian government is itself fully voluntary treachery of M. Lesseps. The indis sensible of its own weakness and inefficiency, and cretion of that ardent diplomatist exceeds all is beginning to place the administration of the bounds; but in seizing the advantage, the Paris Austrian territories more directly under the man- government inflicts disgrace on its own country. agement of the virtual suzerain of Austria, the And so it is felt by the republicans of Paris, czar!

The administration of the police and of who have not scrupled to resent the indignity. In the post in Galicia has already passed from their default of a better, M. Ledru-Rollin has been their feeble grasp into Russian hands ; and it is exer- spokesman, and has demanded explanations from cised by the Russian chief of police, Swajkowski, ministers. The replies have been quite inexplicit with an energy which shows that the change will -mere prevarication ; but it is hinted that minisnot be transient. Russian sway, however, is only ters intend to retrieve the "honor" of France, powerful for evil, powerless for good. It may damaged in the first repulse of M. Oudinot, by crush the nascent or prematurely stifle the unborn pursuing the fraudulent advantage! On this M. energies of a district or of a people ; but it has Ledru-Rollin treats the step as a violation of the no power of reproduction. It may burn down constitution on the essential policy of the French villages, but it cannot rebuild them. It may ruin republic, and declares that he is prepared to supthe ancient proprietors, but it cannot enrich new port the constitution by an appeal to arms. Min

It may block up former channels of trade, isters, relying on their majority in the assemblybut it cannot open others. While consumption is as M. Guizot so fatally did before them-silenced increased by hordes of military and of civil offi- the Mountain within the chamber ; but they concials, and while production is simultaneously fessed the insane rashness of their course when checked, not all the gold mines of the Ural, were they demanded, on Wednesday, that Paris should they as easy to work as they are notoriously diffi- be declared under martial law. Wantonly copycult, and were the surplus revenue derived from ing the example of M. Guizot, President Bonathem as clearly made out as it is problematical, parte's conservative ministry has again plunged would meet the deficit. It is only where nations, Paris into civil war! not governments, have the administration of af- They have thus hastened the predicted struggle fairs in their own hands, that a ratio can be main with the République Rouge, and perhaps its pretained between the expenses of administration and dicted reign. But they have not only the red the revenue. It is only a free, self-governed peo- republicans against them-M. Cavaignac refuses ple that can maintain peace. The peace that to support them, General de Lamoricière stays Russia would establish in those countries would away. The reactionaries are likely to stand alone be the peace that Tacitus speaks of. Solitudinem in their precarious struggle. faciunt et pacem appellant.

Just as the struggle is beginning, the military

leader who was the most ready instrument of of From the Spectator, 16th June.

ficial authority in keeping order, the soldierly vetEUROPE.

eran to whom his men looked up as “le père The French government is undergoing at Paris Bugeaud," has been carried off hy cholera-added condign retribution for its disgraceful conduct at to the same long and diversified list of victims to


the scourge that now includes Catalani, the once its principles and a studied ignorance of its physifamous queen of song. Yes; M. Bugeaud con- cal force in the populations that hold by it. querod the Algerines, but in an evil day he braved the warnings not to be too daring in his diet ; and

From the Boston Courier, 9 July. the cholera has mowed him down.

THE STATE OF EUROPE. In the North, it looks as if the battle were to The struggle between civilization and the spirit be between absolute bigotry and a social revolution of the dark ages goes on in Europe. The Embigoted also in its scepticism. In an address to his perors of Russia and Austria are leading a host of bishops, the Emperor of Russia devoutly crossing 300,000 men to fight in the most iniquitous cause himself, has proclaimed a crusade against the for which a banner was ever lifted up. England, spirit of revolt and infidelity. The same purpose poor, feeble, and dispirited, stands neuter! The had been avowed before, but not so nakedly : it is lion is no longer a roaring lion. Not a solitary now clear that the Russian armies, which are do- cry goes forth from Parliament to vindicate British ing their best to penetrate into Europe, are to supremacy. Not a regiment moves from its barfight under the spirit which animated the Holy racks at the sound of French and Muscovite cannon. Alliance. Nicholas intends to restore 1815 and its Not a sail is loosed at Chatham or Portsmouth, settlements.

and not a mouse stirs among the red tape and Meanwhile the Allgemeine Zeitung lends authen- foolscap of Downing street! San Marino and ticity to a remarkable document which had already Andorra are not more politically inert and insigappeared in a Swiss paper, the Evolution. It pur-nificant than the fast-anchored isle. France-reports to be a manifesto of “the German Democrats” publican France-pluming herself on being the abroad, in meeting assembled, and to be a pro- newest born of the offspring of freedom, is laborgramme of the policy which they will pursue. It ing to set up decrepit absolutism on the rotten sneers at the "half-revolutions” of France, Ger- rubbish of priestly authority! The nation which many, and Italy, now undisguisingly resulting in swept away by the breath of its mouth the throne a virtual return to the styles of government as they of Charles the Tenth and Louis Philippe, has sent existed before February, 1818; it adopts the red its armies to batter down the walls of a republican republic as manifested in Paris during the days of city-lead back a runaway pope, and force him June. The German democrats denounce the sham upon a recusant nation at the point of the bayonet ! democrats of Frankfort, the Neutralists of Switzer- Let no man predict what will happen next week land, the middle-class republicans of Europe, the - but if a conjecture may be hazarded, in the face philosophical politicians, and the smaller socialists; of a thousand disappointments, we think it the they declare for a complete system of communism safest thing to say that the fall of Rome will trip -abolition of landed property, state care of in- up the heels of that mustachioed coxcomb, Louis dustry and produce, universal education, and er- Napoleon, and send his junto of political Jesuits tinction of religion! “ Education must be stripped home to their chateaus to coltivate melancholy and of all religious doubts whatsoever ; religion, which the muses with Guizot and Lamartine. must be banished from society, must vanish from It seems hardly possible that the French can the mind of man; art and poetry will realize the submit to the men now in power, for those men ideals of the true, the good, and the beautiful, which are flying in the face and eyes of everything religion places in an uncertain state." Thus that is French. Their whole policy, if policy Shelley's Revolt of Islam is proclaimed by the they have, is anti-national. The French detest a German democrats, who speak in the name of Hun- league with Austria and Russia ; they have no garians, French, and Italians. It would be easy wish to see a neighboring republic crushed ; they to sneer at this extravagant paper ; but those who hate papal despotism; they abhor a muzzled press, are best informed know how communism has and they are distrustful of a government which spread under the surface throughout Europe, and cannot live without driving men into exile. The must especially in France and Germany: that, in- prevailing temper of the public journals may be deed, is one reason why princes, and statesmen, gathered from the following extract :and professed leaders of revolution have been unable to make any final settlement: the German

The censorship is reëstablished; it is, however, democrats sneer at “reform" as a middle-class established officiously not officially. A cominissary half measure ; and the same feeling has kept the the Presse, and the Siecle, to warn these journals

of police came to-day to the offices of the National, multitudes of France and Germany in an angry that if they persisted in re-producing their thoughts state of reserve. It is true that the people of and opinions with respect to the interpretation put Germany, and vast numbers in France, do not by the majority (of the Assembly) on the 5th and respond to the old revolutionary cries of political 54th articles of the constitution, the majority of the liberty : true that they are prepared to answer the chamber, which would be questioned on that subcall of a social revolution. And the worst of it ject, would authorize their being put under seques

tration. We submit to force, but we wish that the is, that the accomplished professors of politics public should know that our pen is no longer free. throughout Europe find this question of Communism coming upon them with a studied neglect of The ministry may put down the next insurrection, but how long will the French soldiers fight | very naturally asked, how Austria can, in the for a government which will not allow free dis- present condition of its own state and of Europe, cussion in the newspapers? Is it unreasonable to raise this enormous amount? As to the bank, it say that a change of policy or a change of rulers is believed at Vienna that it cannot possibly beis a necessity that cannot be overlooked much come solvent and reübtain confidence, but by the longer ?

government repaying its advances; and how can The issue of the contest in Hungary is still the money be obtained to do this? It is hardly doubtful. Russia hangs like a nightmare upon necessary to add that one effect of the above menthe political system of Europe. But for her tioned financial operation has been to cause a very crushing weight, the continent might right itself. rapid and alarming decline in the market price of Her military organization and financial resources bank shares at Vienna. make her truly formidable, and the only hope Austria, we see, lacks the sinews of war. Left seems to be in the lesson taught by history, that to fight single-handed against the Hungarians, she her allies are destined to become her tributaries. could not maintain the contest for a twelvemonth. Austria, however, will not heed such useful warn- Could France and England assume the right attiings ; she will make any sacrifice of national dig- tude, the march of the Cossacks might be arrested nity for revenge on Hungary. Come what will, and Hungary saved ; but of such a movement there however, it is no small satisfaction to reflect that is now not the slightest hope. If the Magyar Austria, but just now the proudest empire in Eu- gains his freedom he will owe that acquisition to rope, is henceforth to be nothing more than a his own right arm. second or third rate concern. She is substantially broken up and used up. Nothing can re

From the Examiner, 24 June. store to her the power which she once possessed

TWELVE QUESTIONS, INVOLVING OTHERS. in Hungary and Lombardy. If she regains the former, she can only preserve it through Russian

1. Was there ever a period in the history of influence, and by acknowledging what is equiva- would have permitted (much less consented) that

France, during seven hundred years, when she lent to a right of suzerainty in the czar, on the

any neighboring prince should over-run the states banks of the Theiss and Danube. To maintain of Italy? the latter, she must trust to Providence and French 2. Did not the French, in proclaiming their own politics, which most assuredly will not always be republic, proclaim also that they would aid and ason her side. Without the aid of Russia and the sist such nations as, having been by force deprived neutrality of France in the present contest, she of their freedom, invoked the French republic for

succor ? would be nothing; the Magyar regiments would

3. Have they not shamefully belied such procbe bivouacking in the Prater of Vienna. Austria, lamation ? in fact, is poor.

She is a nation with an empty 4. Were not other nations, Italy more especially, treasury and a declining credit. Even Jews will incited by the example and encouraged by the promnot lend their cash to a sovereign whose real es- ises of France ? tate must be maintained by the presence of armies

5. So far from assisting the people of Rome that eat up all the substance of the land. The against the Jesuits and the Cardinals, did not the Austrian wars at this moment swell the expenses republic of Rome? Furthermore, did not the re

republic of France refuse even to acknowledge the of the empire two hundred and forty millions of public of France seize and occupy Civita Vecchia, florins above all its revenues. To provide for this and did not her general, Oudinot, march against enormous deficit, applications have been made to Rome without any provocation ? the Bank of Vienna, which has advanced to the 6. Were not the movements of the Austrians and government two hundred and eighty millions, of Neapolitans simultaneous with this aggression ? which two hundred millions are on security. But

7. If France had interfered merely by remonthis sum of two hundred and eighty millions does strances, would the Austrians have massacred the

people of Bologna, and reduced the city to ruins ? not comprise the two hundred which the bank pos- 8. Were not the movements of Austrians, sesses in the Austrian funds. Recourse has been Russians, and Prussians, also simultaneous with had to a forced currency of notes, and cash pay- those of General Oudinot ? ments are suspended. But a termination of this 9. Is there not as strong a probability as there currency has taken place, and the minister of can be in any events here below, that the governfinance has been unable to effect a loan, either ment of France is closely confederated with the at home or abroad. Under these circumstances the liberties of nations ?

despotic powers of Europe, to subvert and stifle it is proposed to issue fifty thousand bank shares

10. If the Emperor of Russia, in his hatred of at a forced rate. It is much questioned among republics, refused to acknowledge a Bourbon for the financiers of Vienna whether this operation king, what could be his motive to acknowledge a may not eventually have fatal consequences, and Bonaparte for President of the Republic ? cause an investigation into the condition of the 11. Is there no probability that he thinks an Emtreasury. When the diet was collected at Krem- peror of France, and a levy of French marshals, sier, the minister of finance requested authority to

the proper instruments whereby to extend his pow

er to the Adriatic, and to bandage and belt his green contract a loan of two hundred millions to put the livery on every prince in Germany? treasury in order ; but now it would demand at 12. Whether the ministers of the French Presileast six hundred millions to effect it; and it is dent, betrayers of all the rulers who have employed

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or trusted them, and seceders from every principle All this cannot be denied ; nor is it less true that they have upholden, may not have involved him in a large majority in this country regard the promothis tortuous and inexplicable policy in order to tion of their material interests as identical with the acelerate his downfall, by detaching all honest speedy progress of annexation to the United States. men and all friendly nations from him, by wound- This measure, they say, would give the Americans ing the French in their sympathies for the Italians, the free use of our river, so that our wharves would who are fighting their battle for their order of things, be crowded with their craft; while it would, at the and their pride by pandering to the ambition of Rus- same time, afford our ship-owners reciprocal advansia, at whose feet they are a second time laid pros- tages in American waters, without the delay, and trate ?

conditions, and uncertainty of long drawn out diWALTER SAVAGE LANDOR. plomacy and nicely balanced treaties, made on our

side by negotiators from Great Britain, unacquaint

ed with the geography of the country or the trade From the N. Y. Evening Post. of the people. THE ANNEXATION OF CANADA.

This measure would give an interest in our un

dertakings to American capitalists, who may see The Canadians no longer affect to conceal their and judge for themselves at the end of a two days' disaffection to the home government, and their voyage from the principal seats of monetary operapreference for a union with the United States. tions, and so release us from a weary attendance The leading papers of all political denominations upon British speculators, ignorant of our resources admit that the subject of disunion with England crease the facilities and the objects of thai trade

and incredulous as to our good faith. It would inmust and ought to be discussed, and their columns with the far west, which is just opening; it would are filled with communications designed to show secure to us permanently all the good hoped from how the social and material interests of the prov- the reciprocity laws, which we have vainly atinces would be advanced by the separation. In tempted to obtain from the Congress at Washinganother column will be found extracts from the ton; it would reconcile the conflicting notions of the Montreal Gazette and Herald, which will surprise free traders and the protectionists, since it would

remove the barriers to our commerce with our those who remember the tone hitherto held towards neighbors, while it would afford to our manufacturthis country by both those journals.

ers the benefit of a protective tariff. It would, in The separation is openly discussed in the Brit- short, people our cities; convert our water-falls ish Parliament, and has been advocated by some into motive powers; and equalize the prices of of its leading statesmen, while the ministry are land, now nearly 100 per cent. higher in latitude understood to have left it with the Canadians to 45 deg. 1 min. south, than in 45 deg. 1 min.

north. select the flag to which they prefer to owe alle

Thus, whether rightly or wrongly, it is incontesgiance.

table that the great majority of those among us who We mentioned, a few weeks since, that a paper think independently, are looking forward to annexhad been projected in Montreal, the speciality of ation as the relief from many of our political diffiwhich was to be, to advocate the independence of culties and the high road to prosperity. Men who the Canadas. The prospectus of that paper has have differed most widely, and who perhaps will been published in the Montreal Courier. It is continue to differ on all other questions, even after based on a liberal capital, and has already created annexation shall have taken place, agree at this mo

ment in desiring annexation as the most advantaa great sensation throughout the provinces. No doubt is entertained that it will at once have a cir- feeling for annexation is strong, there is as strong a

geous movement that we can adopt. But while the culation exceeding that of any other Canadian desire that nothing should be done by violence; journal. Between the open advocacy of such an and that if England will cast off her children, they organ and the indirect advocacy of the Montreal may yet never be found in arms against her. Courier and Montreal Herald, and the disaffecting Hence the importance of the question : Will the

British course of treatment adopted towards these prov

government oppose annexation?

Let due time be given for consideration ; let the inces by the home government, the people of Can- question be approached in the right spirit, and we ada are rapidly becoming prepared to embrace believe she will not oppose it. The whole current proposals which they formerly deemed it treason of opinion among England's most influential statescuss.

men is evidently tending towards that point, when The advantages of a union with this country are they will bid adieu to the colonies, with wishes for so palpable, that the moment they are discussed their prosperity, and hopes for continued friendship and understood, the temptation to enjoy them will perhaps, to be still more closely allied by good

between the two countries-nominally separatedbecome irresistible. That discussion has now offices and commercial intercourse. But it is not commenced, and there is no good reason for sup- only on the opinions of her statesmen that we found posing it will cease until the annexation is consum- our views of the course which Great Britain would mated.

take, if our independence were formally demanded. The Montreal Herald, one of the ablest of the The whole course of our political and commercial tory provincial journals, has a strong article in relations with the mother country must go to show favor of a separation from England and annexation that Canada is virtually independent, and might

be mor to the United States. It says :

flourishing herself, and therefore more profitable to Great Britain, if she were separated.


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