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another eyed my short-sight glass, suspended by alin Switzerland ; and I have heard their teachers, riband round my neck, with much curiosity. Some who found them less manageable than English or of them asked me to read for them the name in- Swiss boys, maintain that they must all of them scribed on the stern of a steamer, so far off that I have some dash of wild Indian blood in their veins. doubted whether a good telescope would have enabled Englishmen, on the other hand, sometimes attribute me to do more than discern the exact place where the same character to republican institutions ; but the name was written. Others, abruptly seizing the in fact they are spoilt long before they are old glass without leave or apology, brought their heads enough to know that they are not born under an into close contact with mine, and, looking through absolute monarchy. it, exclaimed, in a disappointed and half reproachful tone, that they could see nothing. Meanwhile,
The falowing passages indicate the emigration the wives and daughters of passengers of the same that is taking place from old states to new—though class were sitting idle in the ladies' cabin, occasion- Alabama is young enough. Part of the “movally taking my wife's embroidery out of her hand, ing" may be attributed to the American restlesswithout asking leave, and examining it with many ness; but there are evidently real economical comments; usually, however, in a complimemary strain. To one who is studying the geology of the reasons at the bottom, some of which might be valley of the Mississippi, the society of such com
pondered over with advantage by contributors to panions may be endurable for a few weeks. He State loans. ought to recollect that they form the great majority The movers, who were going to Texas, had of those who support these noble steamers, without come down 200 miles from the upper country of which such researches could not be pursued except Alabama, and were waiting for some others of their by an indefinite sacrifice of time. But we some- kindred who were to follow with their heavy times doubted how far an English party travelling wagons. One of these families is carrying away no for mere amusement would enjoy themselves. If less than forty negroes; and the cheerfulness with they venture on the experiment, they had better not which these slaves are going they know not where take with them an English maid-servant unless they with their owners, notwithstanding their usual disare prepared for her being transformed into an equal. like to quit the place they have been brought up in, It would be safer to engage some one of that too shows a strong bond of union between the master numerous class commonly called “humble compan- and “his people.” In the last fifteen months. ions,” who might occasionally enter into society 1,300 whites, and twice that number of slaves, have with them. Ladies who can dispense with such quitted Alabama for Texas and Arkansas ; and assistance will find the maids in the inns, whether they tell me that Monroe county has lost 1,500 inwhite or colored, most attentive.
habitants. “ Much capital,” said one of my inWhen my wife first entered the ladies' cabin, she formants, “ is leaving this state ; and no wonder ; found every one of the numerous rocking-chairs filled for if we remain here, we are reduced to the alterwith a mother suckling an infant. As none of them native of high taxes to pay the interest of money so had nurses or servants, all their other children were improvidently borrowed from England, or to suffer at large, and might have been a great resource to the disgrace of repudiation, which would be doubly passengers suffering from ennui had they been un- shameful, because the money was received in hard der tolerable control ; as it was, they were so riot- cash, and lent out, often rashly, by the state, to ous and undisciplined as to be the torment of all farmers for agricultural improvements. Besides," who approached them. “How fortunate you are, he added, “all the expenses of government were in said one of the mothers to my wife, “to be without reality defrayed during several years by borrowed children; they are so ungovernable, and if you money, and the burden of the debt thrown on posswitch them, they sulk or go into hysterics." The terity. The facility with which your English capthreat of “ I'll switch you" is forever vociferated italists, in 1821. lent their cash to a state from in an angry tone, but never carried into execution. which the Indians were not yet expelled, without One genteel and pleasing young lady sat down by reflecting on the migratory nature of the white my wife, and began conversation by saying, “ You population, is astonishing! The planters who got hate children, don't you ?" intimating that such grants of your money, and spent it, have nearly all were her own feelings. A medical man, in large of them moved off and settled beyond the Missispractice in one of the southern states, told us he sippi. often lost young patients in fevers, and other cases “ First, our legislature negotiates a loan ; then where excitement of the nerves was dangerous, by borrows to pay the interest of it; then discovers, the habitual inability of the parents to exert the after some years, that five out of the sixteen milleast command over their children. We saw an in- lions lent to us have evaporated. Our democrats stance, where a young girl, in considerable danger, then stigmatize those who vote for direct taxes to threw the medicine into the physician's face, and redeem their pledges, as the high taxation men.' heaped most abusive epithets upon him.
Possibly the capital and interest may eventually be The director of the state penitentiary in Georgia made good, but there is some risk at least of a sustold me that he had been at some pains to trace out pension of payment. At this moment the state is the history of the most desperate characters under selling land forfeited by those to whom portions of his charge, and found that they had been invariably borrowed money were lent on mortgage; but the spoilt children ; and he added, if young Americans value of property thus forced into the market is were not called upon to act for themselves at so greatly depreciated.” early an age, and undergo the rubs and discipline Although, since my departure in 1846, Alabama of the world, they would be more vicious and im- has not repudiated, I was struck with the warning moral than the people of any other nation. Yet here conveyed against lending money to a new there is no country where children ought to be so and half-formed community, where everything is great a blessing, or where they can be so easily fluctuating and on the move—a state from which provided for.
the Indians are only just retreating, and where few Many young Americans have been sent to school whites ever continue to reside three years in one
place-where thousands are going with their ne When we had passed through this lowest belt of groes to Louisiana, Texas, or Arkansas—where wood the clouds cleared away, so that, on looking even the county court-houses and state capitol are back to the westward, we had a fine view of the on the move—ihe court-houses of Clark county, for mountains of Vermont and the Camel's Hump, and example, just shifted from Clarkesville to Macon, were the more struck with the magnificent extent and the seat of legislature about to be transferred of the prospect as it had not opened upon us gradfrom Tuscaloosa to Montgomery.
ually during our ascent. We then began to enter On board were many
“ movers” going to Texas the second region, or zone of evergreens, consisting with their slaves. One of them confessed to me of the black spruce and the Pinus balsamea, which that he had been eaten out of Alabama by his ne- were at first mixed with other forest-trees, all groes. He had no idea where he was going ; but, dwarfed in height, till at length, after we had asafter settling his family at Houston, he said he cended a few hundred feet, these two kinds of firs should look out for a square league of good land to monopolized the entire ground. They are extremebe had cheap. Another passenger had, a few ly dense, rising to about the height of a man's weeks before, returned from Texas, much disap- head; having evidently been prevented by the cold pointed, and was holding forth in disparagement of winds from continuing their upward growth beyond the country for its want of wood and water, declar- the level at which they are protected by the snow. ing that none could thrive there unless they came All their vigor seems to have been exerted in from the prairies of Illinois, and were inured to throwing out numerous strong horizontal or pensuch privations. “Cotton," he said, “could only dant branches, each tree covering a considerable be raised on a few narrow strips of alluvial land area, and being closely interwoven with others, so near the rivers; and, as these were not navigable that they surround the mountain with a formidable by steamers, the crop when raised could not be car- hedge about a quarter of a mile broad. The innuried to a market." He also comforted the mover merable dead boughs, which, after growing for a with the assurance “ that there were swarms of time, during a series of milder seasons, to a greatbuffalo-flies to torment his horses, and sand-flies to er height, have then been killed by the keen blast, sting him and his family.” To this the undis- present a singular appearance. They are forked mayed emigrant replied, that when he first set and leafless, and look like the antlers of an enortled in Alabama, before the long grass and canes mous herd of deer or elk. This thicket opposed a had been eaten down by his cattle, the insect pests serious obstacle to those who first ascended the were as great as they could be in Texas.” He mountain thirty years ago. Dr. Francis Boot, was, I found, one of those resolute pioneers of the among others, whose description of his ascent in wilderness, who, after building a log-house, clear- 1816, given to me in London several years before, ing the forest, and improving some hundred acres made me resolve one day to visit the scene, was of wild ground by years of labor, sells the farm and compelled, with his companion, Dr. Bigelow, to migrates again to another part of the uncleared for climb over the tops and walk on the branches of est; repeating this operation three or four times in these trees, until they came to the bald region. A the course of his life, and, though constantly grow-traveller now passes so rapidly through the open ing richer, never disposed to take his ease. In pur- pathway cut through this belt of firs, that he is in suing this singular vocation, they who go south- danger, while admiring the distant view, of overwards from Virginia to North and South Carolina, looking its peculiarities. The trees become graduand thence to Georgia and Alabama, follow, as if ally lower and lower as you ascend, till at length by instinct, the corresponding zones of country. they trail along the ground only two or three The inhabitants of the red soil of the granitic region inches high ; and I actually observed, at the upper keep to their oak and hiccory, the crackers” of margin of this zone, that the spruce was topped in che tertiary pine-barrens to their light wood, and its average height by the common reindeer moss." they of the newest geological forinations in the seaislands to their fish and oysters. On reaching Texas, they are all of them at fault; which will
The Mississippi has often been described, but surprise no geologist who has read Ferdinand Roe- never so completely ; for it has never, perhaps, mer's account of the form which the cretaceous been visited by one who possesses the same comstrata assume in that country, consisting of a hard, bination of scientific knowledge and descriptive compact, silicious limestone, which defies the de- power as Sir Charles Lyell. From the descripcomposing action of the atmosphere, and forms tion being mixed up with the personal narrative, table-lands of bare rock, so entirely unlike the marls, the reader does not indeed get the whole features clays, and sands of the same age in Alabama.
On going down from the cabin to the lower deck, placed so distinctly or impressively before him as I found a slave dealer with sixteen negroes to sell, he might do by what the Germans call a monomost of them Virginians. I heard him decline an graph, or the French a study of the river ; but the offer of 500 dollars for one of them, a price which features are all there—the wonders of the delta's he said he could have got for the man before he formation, which has originated in successive deleft his own state.
posits through thousands of centuries ; the drier We could easily extend these extracts by pic- swamps growing forests that were submerged by tures of society from the northern, middle and earthquakes, to be again covered by deposits, southern states ; for the book abounds in social the stumps of the submerged forests remaining sketches, and anecdotes and incidents illustrative fresh though buried to this day: the various of society in all its various classes. Our further courses which at different epochs the mighty flood extracts will exhibit the author as a painter of na-has taken to reach the ocean, as shown by its ture. This picture of the singular effects of cold ancient channels, now forming swamps and lagoons on vegetation is from the White Mountains in of various depths in various stages of filling up, New Hampshire.
sometimes isolated unless in times of flood, som
times communicating with the main stream and collision with a huge steamer-it is strange to rewith each other in a remarkable way.
flect, that at length, when their owners have caught
sight of the towers of New Orleans in the distance, At Vidalia we were joined by Mr. Forshey, the they should be hurried into a wilderness and perish engineer; who went with us to Lake Concordia, there. a fine example of an old bend of the Mississippi, I was shown the entrance of what is called the recently detached and converted into a crescent- Carthage crevasse, formed in May, 1840, and open shaped lake, surrounded by wood. It is a fine sheet for eight weeks, during which time it attained a of water, fifteen miles long if measured by a curved breadth of eighty feet. "Its waters were discharged line drawn through the middle. The old levee, or into Lake Ponchartrain, when nothing was visible embankment, is still seen; but it is no longer neces- between that great lagoon and the Mississippi but sary to keep it in repair, for a few years ago the the tops of tall cypress trees growing in the morass, channel, which once connected this bend with the and a long, narrow, black stripe of earth, being the main river, was silted up. Opposite Natchez the top of the levee, which inarked the course of the depth of the Mississippi varies from 100 feet to 150 river. feet ; but Lake Concordia has nowhere a greater depth than 40 feet. There are thirteen similar There are still further wonders, more like lakes between the mouth of the Arkansas and Baton Prospero's island than matter of fact, in “ quakRouge, all near the Mississippi, and produced by ing prairies” with cattle around you and sea-fish cutoffs ; and so numerous are the channels which below you, and floating islands that shrink under communicate from one to the other, that a canoe
men's weight. may pass during the flood season from Lake Concordia and reach the Gulf of Mexico, without once After I had examined the bluff below Port Hudentering the Mississippi.
son, I went down the river in my boat to Fontania,
a few miles to the south, to pay a visit to Mr. The enormous depth of the river just_noted Falkner, a proprietor to whom Dr. Carpenter had is another of its wonders. The great Father given me a letter of introduction. He received me carries down his waters by deepening his chan- with great politeness, and at my request accomnel, not by extending his surface. “The great panied me at once to see a crescent-shaped sheet river does not run,” says Sir Charles Lyell
, of water on his estate, called Lake Solitude, evi“ as might be inferred from the description of dently an ancient bed of the Mississippi now deserted.
It is one of the few examples of old channels which some of the old geographers, on the top of a ridge
occur to the east of the great river, the general tenin a level plain, but in a valley from one hundred dency of which is always to move from west to east. to two hundred and fifty feet deep,” which he of this eastward movement, there is a striking monhimself has scooped out. In answer to the ques- ument on the other side of the Mississippi immetion that might be raised, why, when the river has diately opposite Port Hudson, called Fausse Rivière, sometimes burst its banks and flowed into a lake, a sheet of water of the usual horse-shoe form. One it does not take the nearest point to the ocean, me to visit Lake Solitude ; “because," said he,
of my fellow-passengers in the Rainbow had urged Sir Charles replies—" It is probable that the “ there is a floating island in it, well wooded, on Mississippi flows to the nearest point of the Gulf which a friend of mine once landed from a canoe, (of Mexico) where there is a sufficient depth or when, to his surprise, it began to sink with his capacity in the bed of the sea to receive its vast weight. In great alarm, he climbed a cypress-tree, burden of water and mud ; and, if it went to Lake which also began immediately to go down with him Pontchartrain, it would have to excavate a new
as fast as he ascended. He mounted higher and valley many times deeper than the bottom of that higher into its boughs, until at length it seemed to
subside ; and, looking round, he saw in every direclagoon. Unluckily, as we know from the last tion, for a distance of fifty yards, the whole wood in American arrivals, the body of water above the motion.” I wished much to know what foundation delta, confined by a sea-wall or “levee,” is suffi- there could be for so marvellous a tale. It appears ciently deep to submerge the country, which it that there is always a bayou or channel, connecting, often does partially.
during floods, each deserted bend or lake with the
main river, through which large foating logs may Pointing to an old levee with a higher embank- pass. These often form rafts, and become covered ment newly made behind it, the captain told me that with soil supporting shrubs and trees. At first such a breach had been made there in 1844, through green islands are blown from one part of the lake which the Mississippi burst, inundating the low cul- to another, by the winds; but the deciduous cypress, tivated lands between the highest part of the bank if it springs up in such a soil, sends down strong and the swamp. In this manner, thousands of valu- roots, many feet or yards long, so as to cast anchor able acres were injured. He had seen the water in the muddy bottom, rendering the island stationary. rush through the opening at the rate of ten miles an hour, sucking in several flat boats, and After we had sailed up the river eighty miles, I carrying them over a watery waste into a dense was amused by the sight of the insignificant village swamp forest. Here the voyagers might remain of Donaldsonville, the future glories of which I had entangled among the trees unheard of and unheeded heard so eloquently depicted. Its position, however, till they were starved, if canoes were not sent to is doubtless important; for here the right bank is traverse the swamps in every direction in the hope intersected_by that arm of the Mississippi called of rescuing such wanderers from destruction. When Bayou La Fourche. This arm has much the appearwe consider how many hairbreadth escapes these ance of a canal ; and, by it, I am told, our steamer, flat boats have experienced—how often they have although it draws no less than ten feet water, might been nearly run down in the night, or even in the sail into the Gulf of Mexico, or traverse a large part day, during dense fogs, and sent to the bottom by of that wonderful inland navigation in the delta
which contributes so largely to the wealth of Louis- | population, in 1845, was 23.6 per thousand ; in iana. A curious description was given me by one Algeria, the mortality of the French population, of
my fellow-travellers of that same low country, exclusively of deaths by war and of invalids roespecially the region called Attakapas. It contains, turned to die at home, was 62.5 per thousand. he said, wide . quaking prairies,” where cattle are pastured, and where you may fancy yourself far in-The deaths among the French in Algeria exceed land ; yet, if you pierce anywhere through the turf, the births—in 1845 they were respectively 6,689 to the depth of two feet, you find sea-fish swimming and 3,018. Yet that is not because the ordinary about, which make their way in search of food under increase of the population is less in Algeria— the the superficial sward from the Gulf of Mexico marriages in that colony are 17 per thousand ; in through subterranean watery channels.
France, 8.15; and the births are not in a less
ratio—in France 28.3, in Algeria (among the From the Spectator.
French) 36.6. Settlements at Fondouck, ToumiFRENCH COLONIZATION OF ALGERIA.
ettes, and El-Arouch, have been abandoned from a Three pamphlets recently put forth by M. sheer impossibility of sustaining the frightful Boudin* establish some curious conclusions against mortality. The nett annual decrease of the resithe practicability of ever really settling a French dent European population is 17.2 per thousand, of power in Algeria. M. Boudin has attained his the French population 25.9. eminence as chief physician to the army of the On the subject of agriculture the results are Alps, and a leading authority in military medicine, less easily extracted from the text. Suffice it to solely by his great and striking abilities; for he say, that the alternation of a broiling sun and inhas encountered and overborne no small amount undating rains limits the period of field-work for of persecution from those whose opinions he con- Europeans to two months in the year. The inevtroverted. One instance may be cited. Some itable expenses are excessive; and the produce is years since, he was one of the managers of the insufficient to support the cultivator ; who must hospital at Toulon, and after interesting experi- eke it out with imports-paid for with what ? ments on the effects of arsenic, he introduced an Even Marshal Bugeaud has declared that the arsenical treatment of the marsh fever under which agriculturist “ had much better stop metayer in the soldiers from Algeria suffered. The faculty
France." at Paris made a great outcry ; the minister was
M. Boudin, however, illustrates a negative propbesieged with remonstrances; M. Boudin was osition wider than he thinks. The decrease of stopped in his treatment, and threatened with a the population has been accounted for by the large judicial inquiry. But he had succeeded; the gov- proportion of single men in the colony; but, obernment protected him; and his method was soon serves M. Boudin, with a logical naïveté, marafter professionally recognized. By favor of the riage is not necessary to an increase of the popupromotion which ability commands in the public lation ; and he makes good the remark by the service of France, he has risen rapidly in his pro- statistics of the very case in point. We will not fession. His pamphlets comprise a number of go beyond the strictly statistical and scientific statistical details to show that Algeria is unfitted view which M. Boudin takes ; but it is to be ob by its climate for European, and especially for served, that in a colony emanating from a country French residents ; that they do not become inured where marriage is the customary social institution, to the climate by long residence; and that they the means for preserving and rearing children will cannot obtain from the soil an adequate subsist- to a great extent accord with the number of mar
Less consciously, he also indicates some ried couples ; so that a permanent increase to the further conclusions not without interest to the population such as that hinted by M. Boudin could English colonist.
in no respect be counted upon in Algeria, indeHis statistics of mortality are painfully conclu- pendently of the morbific obstacles. M. Vialard sive. He turns the comparison in every possible mentions a case in which it cost 1,000,000 francs way, showing that French life cannot stand the to settle a hundred families; an outlay exceedstruggle with the climate ; but in this place a ing anything ever attempted in our own great colfew leading facts will suffice to indicate his re- onizing country. The exports of French Algeria sults. In France, the mortality in the French have been— the horns of the cattle consumed by
the army, and the empty bottles sent back! Such * Lettres sur l'Algérie (Première Lettre.) Par. M. are incidents of the last great attempt which Boudin, Médecin en Chef de l'Armée des Alpes.
Lettres sur l'Algérie (Seconde Lettre.) Par M. Bou- France has made in colonization. The student din, Médecin en Chef de l'Armée des Alpes.
of that neglected art will find many examples of Etudes de Physiologie et de Pathologie Comparées de the causes of failure in the history of French AlRaces Humaines. Par M. Boudin, Médecin en Chef de l'Armée des Alpes.
From the Home Journal. did not know what fear was--either of persons or DEATH OF LADY BLESSINGTON. opinions—and it was as like herself when she The Parisian correspondent of the London shook her gloved fist in defiance at the mob in Morning Post thus makes the first mention of Whitehall, on their threatening to break her carthis unexpected event :
riage windows if she drove through, as it was to
return to London after her long residence on the We have all been much shocked, this afternoon, continent, and establish herself as the centre of a by the sudden death of Lady Blessington. Her ladyship dined yesterday with the Duchess de society from which her own sex were excluded. Grammont, and returned home late in her usual Under more guarded and fortunate circumstances health and spirits. In the course of this morning of early life, and had she attained “the age of she felt unwell, and her homæopathic medical ad- discretion,” before taking any decided step, she viser, Dr. Simon, was sent for. After a short con- would, probably, have been one of those guiding sultation, the doctor announced that his patient was stars of individualism in common life, dying of apoplexy, and his sad prediction was un liar, admirable and irreproachable. happily verified but too rapidly, as her ladyship expired in his arms about an hour and a half ago.
Lady Blessington's generous estimate of what
services were due in friendship—her habitual conWe doubt whether a death could have taken duct in such relations amounting to a romantic place, in private life, in Europe, that would have chivalry of devotedness—bound to her, with a made a more vivid sensation than this, or have naturalness of affection not very common in that been more sincerely regretted. Indeed, a posses- class of life, those who formed the circle of her sor of more power, in its most attractive shape, intimacy. She did not wait to be solicited. Her could hardly have been named, in life public or tact and knowledge of the world enabled her to private-for the extent of Lady Blessington's understand, with a truth that sometimes seemed friendships with distinguished men of every na- like divination, the position of a friend at the tion, quality, character, rank and creed, was with moment—his hopes and difficulties, his wants and out a parallel. Her friends were carefully chosen capabilities. She had a much larger influence -but, once admitted to her intimacy, they never than was generally supposed with persons in were neglected and never lessened in their attach- power, who were not of her known acquaintance. ment to her. She has a circle of mourners, at Many an important spring of political and social this moment, in which there is more genius, movement was unsuspectedly within her control. more distinction, and more sincere sorrowing, She could aid ambition; promote literary distincthan has embalmed a name within the lapse of a tion, remove difficulties in society, which she did century. Noblemen, statesmen, soldiers, church- not herself frequent, serve artists, harmonize and dignitaries, poets and authors, artists, actors, prevent misunderstandings, and give valuable counmusicians, bankers—a galaxy of the best of their sel on almost any subject that could come up in different stations and pursuits—have received the career of a man, with a skill and a control of with tears at the door of the heart, the first in- resources of which few had any idea. Many a telligence of her death.
one of her brilliant and unsurpassed dinners had a The deceased will have a biographer-no doubt kindly object which its titled guests little dreamed an able and renowned one. Bulwer, who enjoyed of, but which was not forgotten for a moment, her friendship as intimately, perhaps, for the last amid the wit and eloquence that seemed so purten years of her life, as any other man, might de- poseless and impulsive. On some errand of good scribe her best, and is not likely to leave, undone, will to others, her superb equipage, the most a task so obviously his own. Without hoping to faultless thing of its kind in the world, was almost anticipate, at all, the portraiture, by an abler invariably bound, when gazed after in the streets hand, of this remarkable woman, we may venture of London. Princes and noblemen (who, as well to send to our readers this first announcement of as poets and artists, have aims which need the her death, accompanied with such a sketch of her devotion of friendship) were the ohjects of her qualities of mind and heart, as our own memory, watchful aid and ministration ; and we doubt, of the acquaintance we had the privilege of enjoy- indeed, whether any woman lived, who was so ing, enables us easily to draw.
valuable a friend to so many, setting aside the Lady Blessington, as her writings show, was high careers that were influenced among them, not a woman of genius, in the creative sense of and the high station and rank that were befriended the term. She has originated nothing that would, with no more assiduity than lesser ambitions and of itself, have made a mark upon the age she lived distinctions. in. Her peculiarity lay in the curiously felicitous The conversation, at the table in Gore House, combination of the best qualities of the two sexes, was allowed to be the most brilliant in Europe, in her single character as it came from nature. but Lady Blessington herself seldom took the lead She had the cool common sense and intrepid un- in it. Her manners were such as to put every subserviency which together give a man the best one at his ease, and her absolute tact at suggessocial superiority, and she had the tact, the deli- tion and change of topics, made any one shine, cacy and the impassioned devotedness which are who had it in him, when she chose to call it essentials in the finest compounds of woman. She forth. She had the display of her guests as com