« ElőzőTovább »
pression frank, fearless, yet timid of herself. Her / want left by an imperfect love, and passion supply dress was the white long kiton, with the heavier the place of a Platonic equality of soul ! Socrates shawl drawn round the ankles, and the square was content with Aspasia's smiles when Xanthipdiploidion, or loose boddice, fastened up to the pe's curses fell the heaviest ; and Pericles could throat. She was Myrrha, the daughter of one of forget his pride beneath the same heaven of friendthe wealthiest citizens of Athens, and now be ship. Believe me, we are wise to so divide our trothed to Lysistrates, the lover of Pythionica. treasures ; there is less chance of losing them !" Not that this love-affair was much cle ! The ceremony was over; the maids and matrons Myrrha was young, lovely, and rich, and would, prepared to depart—returning to the homes where with proper management of contempt
, and neglect, they lived like prisoned birds who watch the sunand control, make a fair house-keeper, a support- shine through the bars. Last of the train. able wife, for the luxurious Lysistrates in his guarded by her mother and attended by slaves, homely hours.
came Myrrha, the betrothed of the young Eupa“ This beautiful girl, than whom no. Isiac trid Lysistrates. A youth followed them at a priestess is more pure, no sacrificer to Athor little distance, apparently engaged in arranging a more lovely-what rank does she hold, and what bunch of violets just bought from one of the violet is her life?'
sellers in the agora.
It was the son of Sophilos. “ She is Myrrha, daughter of a wealthy citizen, Glaucus, the young warrior and statesman, one of affianced to Lysistrates."
the most favorite orators in the Pnyx ; rather too • And who is Lysistrates ?"
free, perhaps, and independent of custom, and in“Here he comes,” answered the Athenian. different to opinion—but still respected as much The Egyptian turned and saw the youth, whom as if he had been the archon himself. he had first beheld on the threshold of Pythionica's The Egyptian, much interested in the girl, folhouse.
lowed in the track, seeing, where the streets be“ He?” exclaimed the Egyptian in amazement. came narrower, Glaucus stealing, as if by chance,
Why not? because he loves Pythionica, quite close to the young heiress ; and when the thinkest thou ? Pshaw! the one is his love, mother was not looking, one violet from the bunch the other will be his wife. Believe me, 0 was pressed into her hand. Myrrha’s cheek faintstranger, not much analogy exists between the ly flushed, but she walked on with the same comtwo relationships."
posed mien as before. The Egyptian smiled “ But does the girl love him?"
grimly when he saw her mother watch and the “ Her looks can answer thee," said Meidias, slaves press nearer after Glaucus had
gone. laughing; and they both glanced towards the When the flower was blown they talked of tying maiden. An expression of deep pain, of terror up the leaves. But he did not know the meaning and disgust, was on her usually calm face; and of the next passer-by-an old woman, who, tother open eye had sunk, too heavily laden by tering feebly through the streets, fairly brushed despair to raise itself from earth.
against the snowy robe of Myrrha. She seemed “ He sat," resumed Meidias, " on the day of to linger, too, and her hand surely touched the the betrothment, his head in his hands, gnawing maiden's, else the procession and its beauty had his under lip, and cursing the tardy ceremony dazzled his eyes. He did not know that she was which kept him so many hours from Pythionica. one of the class who made their living, and that In one thing he was honest, for he did not assume no inconsiderable one, by love affairs, and legal as a love he did not feel. It was a bargain—a mere well as illegal marriages. She had been emmatter of wealth, not of affection ; and, as a par- ployed by Glaucus from the first, and now came taker in such, he played his part.'
on his last errand. A hurried word below her “And will Myrrha be satisfied with such a breath, and then the old woman tottered on to husband ?"
meet her patron in a narrow court. “Oh, yes! why should she wish for additional Before the mother reached her home Myrrha links to her inevitable chain? If Lysistrates is had consented to fly-first to Beotia, and then happy out of doors, there is more chance of his through the wild sea to some far colony in the being contented within. Happiness makes virtue west. in nine cases out of ten ; and the greatest happi Pythionica fell ill that day. Some said that ness an Athenian wife can know, is to be less her last supper of lampreys had disagreed with guarded than her neighbors, and less suspected her ; others, that the approaching marriage of than they. Our maidens leave off visions of love Lysistrates annoyed her ; a third, that a pimple when they lay aside their puppets. They are not had appeared on her nose ; a fourth, that her pet practicable as realities or as companions." dog had died. At any rate Pythionica was ill,
“ And this is the domestic life of the lonic race and Athens must mourn; and Athens did moorn. -that proud race which assumes to itself all no- The ablest physicians were summoned to attend bility, all virtue ?”
on her ; the finest men in Attica made hourly in“ An enviable life, too! Must we be dissatis- quiries ; never since Cecrops founded the city had fied because we cannot bind all our jewels into one a woman possessed more influence. Not Corinna, carcanet? May not the zone have one, and the when the prize of poetry was awarded to her over arm-band another? Cannot friendship fill up the Pindar ; not Aspasia, when Pericles descended,
from the bema and wept to gain her pardon ; nor but continuance of her present state. Artemis Lais, when Eubotas of Cyrene refused her hand for that moment won her from the grasp of Eros, and stole her portrait; not one of these created and the pale severity of Athene judged her withmore gossip or more interest than did Pythion-out mercy. ica's sudden illness. A woman's digestion was a A man's step-a man's low whisper-a hasty nation's talk. Even the public business stood blessing—a warm embrace and Myrrha was in still, that the orator might hear how the fair the arms of her lover, pressed to his heart, his étaiga was ten minutes since. Lysistrates was dearest treasure on earth. inconsolable. He sat by the bedside of his lan The Egyptian passed and saw them both. He guishing mistress, and wept till very nearly as ill had just come from the door of Pythionica to hear as herself. While he dried his tears, Glaucus was that she was dead. kissing Myrrha's shoulder.
“ Death yonder, here life and love ; so goes on The night came on, dark and uncomfortable. our world,” he thought. “Only in the tombs do Pythionica was worse, and Lysistrates frantic. they meet in one; with the Greek, distinct, beThe porter was almost crushed beneath the loads cause unknown in their true essence ; with us, of fruit, flowers, charms, and amulets, that poured understood, and united, and indissoluble.” in for the sick goddess ; and the slaves fought Not many days after this, Meidias and the son amongst each other in despair at their toil of car- of the Dark Land were again walking through rying them. Darker and darker crept on the the city, conversing as usual on the great and night. Surely Persephone was weeping by the painful difference between reality and custom, side of Aidoneus; surely Selene was lamenting when they fell in with the funeral train of PythiEndymion ; there must be grief among the im- onica. They followed it through the gate, and mortals, there was so much gloom with men ! for some distance down the sacred way; when
The door of a virgin's chamber slowly opened, close by the road-side, in a spot more beautiful and a pale form clad in white, trembling as her than poet or painter ever imaged, the procession fair hand held by the lintel to prevent herself from stopped, and the funeral rites began—the most falling in her agitation, peered anxiously into the gorgeous that Athens had seen for centuries. adjoining room. It was her mother's, and she Sacrifices by the hecatomb were made; gold must pass through it before she could gain the and jewels lavished like sand; and incense and door where Glaucus waited. Long and anxiously precious ware, and all valuable things, scattered she looked and listened ; but she could not per- forth with a profusion unheard of. A magnificeive any undue motion in that white mass of cent monument was erected to the memory of this drapery beneath which her mother slept, nor could fair woman, this all-charming éraigue ; and the she hear other sound but the deep breath of slum- men returned home to bar the doors of the wober. Walking lightly on the points of her small, men’s apartments, and to sue for divorces if their unsandalled feet, she passed through, and came to wives looked out on the street. the door on the opposite side. She opened it. Going home, another party was encountered, Fortunately the hinges were not rusted nor the rather different from this. A young girl, reviled, pivot grating ; it swung aside without noise, and cursed, tied with cords, and weeping bitterly, was she left it ajar. And now she stands at the top brought for judgment before the heliasts, the magisof a deep flight of steps leading down into the trates of the Sun-court. No voice was raised in men's apartments, where her father and the slaves her favor, and the whole volume of the law was all slept. This was more dangerous, in case of against her. The gods, the statutes, and custom, discovery, than the passage through her mother's all condemned ; and Myrrha was adjudged to perroom ; for what excuse could she frame for being petual infamy. found at night alone among chambers where “ Is this right? Is this virtuous ?" asked the it was forbidden her to go in the daytime? As Egyptian. she crossed the corridor, and heard the breathings “O stranger! wise and yet foolish," answered of some and the stirrings of others in their beds, Meidias, “ canst thou not judge better than thine a rush of virgin shame checked her steps. But indignation ? It is detection which creates crime. too far gone to recede, she regained her courage, Had Myrrha escaped, she would have been leniently spurred faster by hearing her mother stir and spoken of-some would even have praised her ; wake. She opened the back-door which led into being pursued and captured, she must be condemned an obscure street, and stood out beneath the open for example's sake.” sky-the fugitive rushing into forbidden arms. “But Lysistrates was the greater sinner. He—"
When once done, repented of. To be despised “ Deserved to be stoned? Granted. Yet it is by all her companions, and her name held up to not the custom in Athens for maidens to choose scorn in Athens ; to be, under the ban of a stern their own husbands, however virtuous, nor to run law, exiled forever from her native city, the pride away from their betrothed, however vicious. Myrrha and darling of all its children ; to appear before was right in morality, but wrong in custom ; and Glaucus even as a thing of levity and forwardness every nation holds conventional forms far dearer —all these thoughts made poor Myrrha weep, and than it does the highest morality. A melancholy tremble, and shrink within the shadow of the wall, fact, but true. Offend against everything but social praying silently for death, annihilation--anything rules. Let the gods judge thee, and hope ; but
never raise thine eyes if man is the arbiter of thy | The Greek had spoken truly. Vice and virtue are punishment. Cheat, lie, live viciously in secret, not as facts in themselves, but as observances in the but keep to the rules of the society of the time, and world. “When,” he thought, “ will men know thou art respected ; live by the laws of truth and and practise truth, and care more for the award of real virtue, and break man's, and thou art con- the gods than for the opinion of society?" demned. Lysistrates was wicked, Myrrha impru He asked himself this question in the days when dent; he will be a general, she is an outcast. Fare-Athens was in her glory and Thebes had long dewell. Think of this the next time ye put to death clined ; now both are in the dust, but the answer, the slayer of a cat, and honor the conqueror of “ The time has come,” hath not yet been given. nations; for ye, too, fulfil this law of society!" In the dim, distant future, ever!
The Egyptian turned away, full of bitter thought.
From the Anglo-Saxon (a new Quarterly.)
ENERGY. BY THE AUTHOR OF PROVERBIAL PHILOSOPHY."
Of the Anglo-Saxon mind!
The glories of his kind,
Until he stands sublime
The conqueror of Time-
O Courage, stern and stout !
Of every rabble rout-
And scarce allows delay,
More strength for every day-
I praise-for praise I can-
That makes a man a man-
The place, Old England's shore ;
(For Time shall soon be o'er ;)
Of Anglo-Saxon race,
And Freedom's dwelling-place.
That courage self-possessed,
The brightest and the best-
That steadily steps on,
Until the world is won-
That calmly go ahead,
In spite of quick and dead-
Keen Enterprise to guide,
And Duty by my side,
Assurance of success,
At once to nothing less,
That wrestle in my breast,
The spirit's glad unrest,
Or Fortune's favor ask,
And never will surrender,
Whatever be the task.
For luck I will not look ;
At Providence, God's book ; And there discerning truly
That right is might at length, I dare go forward duly
In quietness and strength,
The flatterer of none,
The honors I have won !
I beat it to my will ;
I dive, and stem it still ;
Shall conquer or control
My gladiator soul !
Not tamely bide my time;
Shall make my sport sublime ; Let lower spirits linger
For hint and beck and nod, I always see the finger
Of an onward-urging God ! Not selfish, not hard-hearted,
Not vain, nor deaf, nor blind, From wisdom not departed,
But in humbleness of mind, Still shall mine independence
Stand manfully alone, Nor dance a dull attendance
At any mortal throne, Disciple of no teacher
Except the one in heaven, And yielding to no creature
The reason he hath given !
In faith beholds above
Eternity of Love,
Is bubbling from my heart
To play a giant's part,
No man's neglect, nor ill,
One weak indulgence still ; But with my God to nerve me,
My soul shall overwhelm All circumstance to serve me
In my spiritual realm !
From the Spectator. the mind; and we think this is done more agreeLYELL'S SECOND
ably than on his first journey. His reputation and his objects naturally took him into the best and
best-informed society; and he is thus able to deThe route of Sir Charles Lyell in his second rive his social data from persons to whom the mass journey to the United States extended from the of tourists can gain no access. He is besides too frontiers of Maine to the Valley of the Mississippi. old a traveller, and too accustomed to rough it in The older or New England States, lying to the geological researches, to be put out by mere mannorth of New York city, were pretty well ex
ners where no offence is meant; so that he is a plored; the author's scientific objects taking him tolerant if not a favorable judge of American manto remote districts and out-of-the-way places, rare
ners and character-can see “ Othello's visage in ly visited by tourists or natives either. He next
his mind." Sir Charles, however, is rather an travelled to Washington, and then, on his way to optimist in Transatlantic affairs; and though his New Orleans, passed through the Southern States representation of particular facts and his correction -Virginia, the two Carolinas, Georgia and Ala- of European prejudices are evidently true, his genbama ; closely examining the geology of the coun- eral conclusions should perhaps be taken with some try, especially on the sea-coast and the rivers.
allowance. The Father of Waters received a thorough explo
Passing so rapidly as our author did from one ration, from the junction of the Ohio to the pilot extremity of the Union to the other— from the station of Balize, erected on piles at the extreme
primitive, grave, old-fashioned piety and respecmouth of the river, where the Mississippi merges tability of New England, to some of the new in the Gulf of Mexico. He also explored the slave-holding states, where adventurers of all nacountry on its banks ; and finally ascended the tions, with negroes of the worst kind, and subOhio to Cincinnati ; whence he returned by Pitts-jected to the worst treatment, meet together. his burg to Philadelphia.
narrative impresses more distinctly than anything Notwithstanding the great merit of the author's
we have yet seen the wide differences, or rather previous Travels in America, we think the present the striking contrasts, that prevail in the mighty superior. The narrative, it strikes us, is less in- empire of the United States. These differences terrupted by the introduction of geological topics, too are suggestive of curious speculations as to the and the interest of the geology is greater.
future condition of the republic. As long, indeed, country visited has more attraction.
as there is unoccupied territory to fill up, subof the Mississippi and the primitive places in New
sistence being rendered easy for all, and an outlet England, though so opposite in character, are alike afforded for the restless and enterprising, it would fresh and interesting. The Southern States are
seem that the different states may jog on without not altogether new to Sir Charles Lyell, as he collision until the clash of hostile interests, such visited them before ; but his explorations are more
as would arise from a war, cause an angry division. extensive, and we think more thorough on this But opinions or principles are often stronger than occasion. He also travelled at the exciting time interest : “ the lurking principle of death” appears of the Oregon dispute, and when the Mexican war
to have been infused into the United States at the was impending. Another point that impresses it
very moment of their formation, when, promulgatself on the reader is the rapid advances that A mer. ing the dogma of the equality of man, with all its ica is yearly making in material prosperity. Brief democratic consequences, the authors of the Declaas was the lapse of time between the two visits, ration of Independence left the negro enslaved. Sir Charles continually observed remarkable The danger to be dreaded from this question is not changes; though perhaps not more in any one merely the fanatical zeal of abolitionists, met by a place than may be observed in some outskirts of fanatical pride on the part of the slave-holders, no London, when prosperity and a full money-market less removed from true policy and wisdom. Two has stimulated building speculations. Possibly substantial evils are infused into the very constithere is this substantial difference, that the Amer- tution of society. From the slovenly nature of ican improvements are the result of a more effi- slave-cultivation, the soil soon becomes exhausted, cient demand, better.
or rather the exhaustion is not counterbalanced by It is less as a book of travels that the Visit is artificial means. In part from this cause, and in to be regarded than as an account of remarkable
part from the sandy, swampy, or barren nature of scenery and natural phenomena, and a picture much soil in the south, extensive emigration is of manners and society. In both these points of continually going on. Hence the necessity for view Sir Charles Lyell possessed great advantages.
new territory; and hence, too, slave-breeding in He looks at nature with learned as well as picto- those older states whose soils are exhausted, and
He not only sees her wonders and her whose proprietors do not choose to emigrate. The beauties, but he knows their sources and con- annexation of Texas, and the territorial war with sequences ; so that he informs as well as pleases Mexico, had, we conceive, first and fundamentally
* A Second Visit to the United States of North Amer. this object-more land was wanted, and must ica. By Sir Charles Lyell, F. R. S., President of the had. Connected with this economical necessity Geological Society of London : author of “ The Principles is a political reason, perhaps more obvious than of Geology," and " Travels in North America.” In iwo volumes. Published by Murray.
the economical stimulus, and therefore more dwelt
upon—the desire of slave states to counterbalance were placed two chairs, not ready to be occupied, the power of the abolitionists of the north. To as they would be in most countries, but placed face that political object, Mr. Jay, in his Review of the to face, or with their fronts touching each other, the
usual fashion in New England. Mexican War, traces all the conduct in connection with Texas and Mexico systematically pursued for tavern ; and, when supper was brought in by the
We happened to be the only strangers in the years past. This effort of the south has produced landlord and his wife, they sat down beside us, conduct on the part of the north not much more begged us to feel at home, pressed us to eat, and defensible. Oregon was looked to as a means of evidently considered us more in the light of guests, counterbalancing Texas; but the bolder democrats whom they must entertain hospitably, than as custook the game out of their opponents' hands, and tomers. Our hostess in particular, who had a num
ber of the Union had nearly been involved in a war for willing to put herself to some inconvenience rather
young children and no nurse to help her, was a purpose really originating with slavery. In like than run the risk of our feeling lonely. Their manmanner, it is said that the pious northerns are vio- ners were pleasing ; and when they learnt that we lating the tenth commandment and looking to were from England, they asked many questions Canada as a counterpoise to California and New about the Free Kirk movement in Scotland, and Mexico. But, if they had it, the south would how far the system of national education there difeventually overbalance them; for it is not in ex- fered from that in Prussia, on which the landlord perience or the nature of things that the Rio
had been reading an article in a magazine. They
were greatly amused when I told them that some Grande shall for long (long in the life of a nation) of the patriots of their state had betrayed to me no continue the southern boundary of the States. slight sensitiveness and indignation about an expresHence has arisen opposition of principles, of in- sion imputed to Lord Palmerston in a recent debate terests, and, what is more than all, of character ; on the Canadian border-feud, when he spoke of and they will inevitably clash in time, without the
" the wild people of Maine." artificial precipitation that an external shock would the rocks
and plants we had collected; and told us
They were most curious to learn the names of produce. Even as it is, there seems in America that at the free school they had been taught the a set of restless“ bad subjects,” the “cankers of elements of geology and botany. They informed a calm world and a long peace,” to whom the us that in these rural districts, many who teach in chances and changes of the frontiers are not ex- the winter months spend the money they receive citement enough; though the outlet furnished by for their salary in educating themselves in some the wild borders of the south and west prevents college during the remainder of the year ; so that them from greatly troubling the peace of settled a clever youth may in this way rise from the humsociety. And here is another necessity for land : in a large town. Farm laborers in the state, be
blest station to the bar or pulpit, or become a teacher shut these men up in a country where equality is a sides being boarded and found in clothes, receive cardinal point of opinion, and America would have ten dollars or two guineas a month wages, out of in her bosom a party as mischievous as the red which they may save and “go west”-an expresrepublicans of Paris. To realize, from Sir Charles sion everywhere equivalent to bettering one's con
dition, Lyell, or any single author, the points we have
" The prospect of Heaven itself,” says touched upon, would not be easy ; but a few ex- charms for an American of the back-woods, if he
Cooper, in one of his novels, “ would have no tracts will indicate the contrasts spoken of.
thought there was any place further west." The following primitive sketch is taken from I remarked that most of the farmers and laborers Maine, within a little distance of the British bor- had pale complexions and a careworn look. “ This der.
was owing partly,” said the landlord, “ to the cli
mate, for many were consumptive, and the changes One evening, as we were drawing near to a strag- from intense heat to great cold are excessive here; gling village in the twilight, we were recommended and partly to the ambitious, striving character of by a traveller, whom we had met on the road, to the natives, who are not content to avoid poverty, take up our quarters at a temperance hotel, where, but expect, and not without reason, to end their he said, “ there would be no loafers lounging and days in a station far above that from which they drinking drams in the bar-room." We looked out start." for the sign, and soon saw it, surmounted by a mar Resuming our journey, we stopped at an inn tin-house of four stories, each diminishing in size where a great many mechanics boarded, taking from the bottom to the top, but all the apartments three meals a day at the ordinary: They were wellnow empty, the birds having taken flighi, warned dressed, but their coarse (though clean) hands anby the late frost. We had, indeed, been struck nounced their ordinary occupation. After dinner with the dearıh of the feathered tribe in Maine at several of them went into the drawing-room, where this season, the greater number of birds being mi- some “ladies' of their own class were playing on gratory. As soon as our carriage stopped at the a pianoforte ; other mechanics were reading newsdoor, we were ushered by the host and his wife into papers and books; but after a short stay they all a small parlor; where we found a blazing wood returned to their work. On looking at the books fire. It was their private sitting-room at times, they had laid down, I found that one was Disraeli's when they had no guests; and on the table were “ Coningsby," another Burns' Poems, and a third books on a variety of subjects, but most of them of an article just reprinted from Fraser's Magazine, on a religious or serious character—as Bishop Wat- " the Policy of Sir Robert Peel." son's Apology in reply to Tom Paine.
We saw also a treatise on phrenology, styled, “ The only
We will now jump to the wild banks of the True Philosophy,” and Shakspeare, and the
poems of Cowper and Walter Scoti. In each window As I was pacing the deck one passenger after