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appears to be peculiarly incapable of understand- divided into nine different tribes, the greater part ing a national character different from his own; of which have nothing in common except their this is true even in respect to other Germans ; origin. Most of these tribes speak languages or and neither the proximity of the countries, nor the dialects which are mutually unintelligible ; and frequent intercourse of their inbabitants, seems to the Sclaves of different tribes are sometimes have enabled him to form any reasonable estimate obliged to use the Majjar tongue as their only of the Hungarian character or institutions. We means of communication. Some belong to the might adduce curious evidence of this ignorance, | Roman Catholic Church, some to the Greek ; even in persons of distinction ; but we shall con- others are Protestants-Lutheran or Calvinist ; tent ourselves with quoting Mr. Paget's observa- and, some, while they have submitted to the sce tions on the subject, in June, 1835 :
of Rome, retain many of their Greek forms and
services, adhere to the Greek calendar, and conThe reader would certainly laugh, as I have
stitute a distinct communion. The Slovacks of often done since, did I tell him one half of the foolish tales the good Viennese told us of the coun
Northern Hungary, numbering 1,600,000, are try we were about to visit—no roads ! no inns! no partly Roman Catholics, partly Protestants—and police! We must sleep on the ground, eat where have no intercourse or community of language we could, and be ready to defend our purses and or feeling with the Sclaves of Southern and Westour lives at every moment. In full credence of ern Hungary, from whom they are separated by these reports, we provided ourselves most plentiful- the intervention of the Majjar country. The ly with arīns, which were carefully loaded, and Ruthenes, also in Northern Hungary, are distinct placed ready for immediate use.
from the Slovacks, occupy a different portion of may, however, ease the reader's mind to know, that no occasion to shoot anything more formidable the slopes and spurs of the Carpathians, and have than a partridge or a hare presented itself, and that no connectiou with the Sclaves on the right bank we finished our journey with the full conviction of the Danube, from whom they are separated by that travelling in Hungary was just as safe as travel the whole breadth of Hungary and Transylvania Jing in England.
at that point- they amount to about 400,000. Why, or wherefore, I know not, but nothing can The Crvats, not quite 900,000 in number, are exceed the horror with which a true Austrian regards both Hungary and its inhabitants. I have partly Roman Catholics and partly belong to the sometimes suspected that the bugbear with which Greek Church. When religious toleration was a Vienna mother frightens her squaller to sleep established in Hungary, they exercised the power must be an Hungarian bugbear; for in no other enjoyed by the provincial assembly to exclude way can I account for the inbred and absurd fear Protestants from the country. The Shocks of which they entertain for such near neighbors. Il Sclavonia proper, and the Rasciens of that provis true, the Hungarians do sometimes talk about ince and of the Banat, amounting respectively tn liberty, constitutional rights, and other such terrible things, to which no well-disposed ears should be above 800,000, and nearly half a million, are open, and to which the ears of the Viennese are re
tribes of the Serbe stock, of whom the greater ligiously closed.
part adhere to the Greek Church, and whose lan.
guage is different from that of the Croats, the There were, no doubt, elements of discord in Slovacks, and the Ruthenes. The Bulgarians, Hungary, of which Austria, on former occasions about 12,000, the Montenegrins, about 2000, and as well as now, took advantage ; but their value the Wends from Styria, about 50,000, are small to her in the present war has been greatly over distinct tribes speaking different languages, and rated. The population of the kingdom, like that divided by religious differences. But the whole of the empire, is composed of various races, of these Sclavonic tribes have this in common, amongst which there are differences of language, that they are all animated by a feeling of hatred religion, customs, and sentiments. Of the 14,- to the German race ; and more than half of the 000,000 of people who inhabit Hungary, not Sclave population of Hungary has joined the more than 5,000,000 are Majjars, about 1,262,- Hungarians against Austria. 000 are Germans, 2,311,000 Wallacks, and of the There was also a belief that the Hungarians remaining 5,400,000, nine tenths or more are had oppressed the Sclaves, and that the whole Sclaves. The Sclaves are therefore as numerous Sclave race would therefore combine to put down as the Majjars; and, although these races had at their oppressors. This was another misapprehenall times combined against foreign enemies, it was sion. Great efforts have been made by some of probable that they would not unite in a domestic their poets and their journalists to persuade the quarrel, as that with Austria might be considered. Sclaves that they were oppressed ; and the Croat When a great part of the colonists of the milita- newspapers and pamphlets of M. Gay, and the ry frontier, chiefly Croats and Serbes, took part | Austrian journals, have circulated this belief over against the government of Hungary, and asserted Germany, whence it was disseminated over Eua Sclave nationality as opposed to the Hungarian rope ; but there seems to have been no foundation nationality, it was too hastily assumed, by persons for the charge. The Sclaves enjoyed the same imperfectly informed, tha the ole Sclavonic rights and privileges as the Hungarians ; they population, equalling the Majjars in number, were protected by the same laws; they have would be available to Austria in the war. But 'shared equally with the Hungarians in all the the Sclaves of Hungary are a disunited race, concessions obtained by the Diet of Hungary, to
which the Sclaves sent their own representa- the agitators for Illyrian nationality would probatives, from the sovereign ; they bore less than bly have been put down by their own countrymen. their due proportion of the public burdens, and The Slovacks, a people of Bohemian origin, refthey were left in the enjoyment of their own in- ugees from religious persecution, have joined the ternal and municipal administration. Croatia, Hungarians. A great part of the people of Sclawhere the movement in favor of what was called vonia Proper have refused to take part against Illyrian nationality originated fifteen or sixteen Hungary. The tribes that have engaged most years ago, and where it was fostered, curiously extensively and violently in hostilities against the enough, by the patronage of two imperial govern- Hungarians have been the people of Servian race, ments-Croatia does not appear to have any rea- and of the Greek Church, in the counties of the son to complain of Hungarian oppression. The lower Danube, and in Croatia. Amongst the Croats had their own provincial assembly or diet, Hungarian Sclaves of the Greek Church, it is which regulated the internal affairs of the prov- well known that foreign influence has long been al ince, their own county assemblies, their own Ban, work, for which the Greek priesthood are ready or governor, they elected their own county and instruments. The hopes of these tribes have municipal officers; a great part of the province been turned towards the head of their church, was organized as a part of the military frontier, and the sympathies of thirty millions of Eastern and was therefore removed from the control Sclaves, who belong to the same church. of the Hungarian Diet, and brought more di Though feelings of nationality and of race have rectly under the authorities at Vienna. The been developed in Hungary, as elsewhere, to an only specific charge, so far as we have been able extent hitherto unexampled, they have there to to discover, that they brought against the Hunga- contend with the craving for liberty, which has at rians was, that the Majjars desired to impose their the same time acquired intensity, and which language upon the Croats. The history of the amongst the Sclaves has been fostered and inmatter is this-Latin had been the language of Aamed by the efforts of those who, for the purpublic business, of debates, and of the decisions pose of exciting them against the Majjars, would of courts of law in Hungary, till the attempt of persuade them that they were the victims of opJoseph II. to substitute the German excited a pression. The more intelligent and influential strong national movement in favor of the Majjar. are now convinced, that it is to Hungary—to From 1790 this movement has been persevered in which they owe the liberty they enjoy—and not with the greatest steadiness ; and in 1830 an act to anarchy or to Austria, against the attacks of was passed by the diet, and sanctioned by the whose government Hungary has so long defended king, which decreed that, after the 1st of Janua- their freedom and her own, that they must look ry, 1844, no one could be named to any pub- for advancement. lic office who did not know the Majjar. This The relative positions of the peasants and the completed the series of measures which substi- nobles, and the antagonism of these classes, entuted that language for the Latin, a language un- abled Austria to exercise great influence and even intelligible to the great body of the people. If a power in Hungary. The peasant population, living was to be substituted for a dead language, amounting to three millions or more, now emancino other than the Majjar could well be selected. pated from their disabilities and exclusive or disBesides being greatly more numerous than any proportionate burdens, and raised to the rank and other tribe speaking one language, the Majjars wealth of freeholders and proprietors, by the libwere the wealthiest, the most intelligent and in- erality of the nobles, have an equal interest with fluential ; and their language was spoken not only them in defending the institutions to which they by their own race, but by a large proportion of owe their elevation. the other inhabitants of the country-probably by The elements of discord, although they were six or seven times as many persons as used any such as enabled agitators to raise a part of the other Hungarian dialect. The Croats, whose Sclaves against the Hungarians, when it was relanguage was not that of any other tribe, could not solved to retract the concessions that had been expect it to be chosen ; and all that was required made to them, would hardly have been found of them was to employ the Majjar where they had available for that purpose, had not the instigators hitherto employed the Latin language, and no- of the revolt acted in the name of the King of where else. The county of Agram, the most Hungary, and of more than one imperial governimportant and populous of the three counties of ment; nor even then, perhaps, had they not been Croatia, repudiated the notion of a separate Il- enabled to dispose of the resources of the military lyrian nationality, of which, however, the county frontier. Now that the Hungarians have obtown was the centre ; and clung to Hungary as tained important successes, it is probable that the the safeguard of its liberty. The truth is that Sclaves will all join them. The movement of the Croats, of whose hostility to the Hungarians these tribes against the Hungarians, which was we have heard so much, are nearly equally caused by other influences in addition to that of divided between Hungary and Austria ; and, but Austria, has thus tended to lead the imperial govfor the military organization which places so ernment into hostility with Hungary, without large a portion of that people at the disposal of contributing much to its strength. Austria—and that the most formidable portion When the Austrian government resolved to sub
jugate Hungary, it was presumed that they under- enna, or Crakow, there will remain to Austria to took the conquest of that country relying on their carry on the war only 12,144,000. But, as prob
But the success of the enterprise ably two millions of the Sclaves, and other tribes was so doubtful, and a failure so hazardous to the of Hungary, including the military frontier, may empire, that we never could believe it possible have been reckoned as on her side, that number that it had been undertaken without an assurance may be deducted from Hungary and added 10 of support. It is true that the imperial govern- Austria. There will then remain to Hungary a ment might at that time have expected an adjust- population of 12,000,000, concentrated in their ment of their differences with Sardinia ; but Ven- own country for its defence, and to Austria about ice still held out, peace with Sardinia had not | 14,000,000, whose military resources must be disbeen concluded, the state of Italy was daily becom- tributed over her whole dominions—from the froning more alarming, and the Austrian cabinet tiers of Russia to those of Sardinia, from the fronknew that they could maintain their hold of Lom- tiers of Prussia to the confines of Turkey—to rebardy, and reduce Venice, only by means of a establish her authority in Lombardy, 10 reduce powerful army. They were aware that the con- Venice to submission, to hold the Sardinians and dition of Galicia, and even of Bohemia, was pre- the Italian republicans in check, to control and carious, and that neither could safely be denuded overawe Galicia and Crakow, to garrison Vienna of troops.
The state of affairs in Germany was and maintain tranquillity at home, and, finally, not such as to give them confidence, still less to to conquer 12,000,000 of Hungarians. It is true promise them support; and the attitude they she had a noble army, and Hungary then had assumed towards the Assembly at Frankfort, almost none, except such levies as she had hastily though not unworthy of the ancient dignity of raised, and which were as yet without skilsul Austria, was not calculated to diminish her anx- commanders. But Austria knew by experience iety. Even in the hereditary states all was not the difficulties and hazards of a war in Hungary.
They were aware that old sentiments Her government must have known the resources and feelings had been shaken and disturbed ; that, of the country, the courage and patriotism of its although order had for the time been restored, by inhabitants, and the success that had attended the fidelity and courage of the army, men's minds their resistance to her forces on more than one were still unsettled ; and that, both in the capital former occasion. Surrounded by difficulties at and in the provinces, there were factions whose home, in Italy, and in Germany, with full one sympathies were not with the imperial govern- half of the population of the empire hostile to the ment, and which, in case of disasters, might again government, she was undertaking an enterprise become formidable. The capital alone required a which her forces, in circumstances far more favorgarrison of twenty thousand men, to keep it in able to success, had repeatedly failed to accomsubjection—to preserve its tranquillity. Putting plish. aside, therefore, every consideration as to the jus Reviewing the whole of these considerations, tice of the war, and looking merely to its probable therefore, we hold it to be quite incredible that consequences, it is obvious that, without such a the Austrian government, having the alternative preponderance of power and resources as would of restoring peace, by permitting the King of not only insure success, but insure il at once-by Hungary to fulfil his engagements to his subjects, one effort—it would have been madness in Aus-pcould have preferred a war for the subjugation of tria, for the purpose of forcing her constitution Hungary, if she had relied solely on her own reupon the Hungarians, to engage in a contest in sources, and followed only her own impulses and which she staked her power-her existence—and the dictates of her own interest. We cannot which could not fail to be dangerous to her if it doubt that she was assured of foreign aid—that became protracted.
her resolution to make war upon Hungary, rather Let us then examine the resources of both than keep faith with her, was adopted in concert parties, and see what was the preponderance on with the power by which that aid was to be furthe side of Austria, which would justify her in nished. If this inference be just, we may find in undertaking hazardous an enterprise, on the that concert reason for the extraordinary accusupposition that she relied solely on her own re- mulation of Russian troops in Wallachia and Mol
davia, which appeared to threaten the Ottoman The Austrian empire contains a population of Porte, but which also threatened Hungary, where 36,000,000 ; of these about 7,000,000 are Germans the only corps that has been actively employed -about 15,500,000 are Sclaves-nearly 8,000,- found occupation. The feeling of Germany made 000 are of Italian and Dacian races, and about it unsafe to bring Russian troops into Austria ; 5,600,000 of Asiatic races, including 5,000,000 of but the massing of Russian troops in the DanuMajjars. If from these 36,000,000 we deduct the bian principalities of Turkey excited no jealousy population of Hungary, 14,000,000, of Lombardy in Germany. Austria, too, shrinking instinctiveand Venice, 4,876,000—or, together, nearly 19,- ly from the perils of Russian intervention, while 000,000, hostile to Austria—and the population in reliance on that support she pursued a bold and of Galicia, 4,980,000, which did not contribute to hazardous policy, with a confidence which otherher strength, to say nothing of Bohemia or Vi-| wise would have been unintelligible and mis
placed, hoped perhaps to have escaped the dan- will put forth her whole strength, and Hungary ger of having recourse to the aid on which she may probably be overpowered ; but can she forget relied.
her wrongs or her successes ?- will she ever Having employed all her disposable means in again give her affection to the man who, claiming the war, Austria now maintains it at a disadvan- her crown as his hereditary right, has crushed tage, for her own defence. Her armies have been her under the foot of a foreign enemy? If anydefeated, her resources exhausted or crippled, her thing can extinguish loyalty in the heart of a capital is in danger, and she must either concede Hungarian, the attempt of the emperor to put the the demands of the Hungarians, or call in the Muscovite's foot upon his neck will accomplish it. armies of Russia to protect the government and we can imagine no degradation more deeply reenforce her policy. What the demands of the volting to the proud Majjar, or more likely to make Hungarians may now be we know not; but him sum up all reasoning upon the subject with the they have wisdom equal to the courage and ener- desperate resolution to sell his life as dearly as he gy they have displayed, they will be contented can. There is therefore much reason to fear lest with the restitution of their legal rights, which a people, who but a few weeks ago were certainly Austria may grant without dishonor, because in as firmly attached to monarchy as any people in honor and good faith they ought never to have Europe, not excepting either the Spaniards or been rejected. If they are wise as they are brave, ourselves, should be driven by the course Austria the Hungarians will seek to restore unity and has pursued, and especially by the intervention of peace to the empire with which their lot has been Russia, to renounce their loyalty and consort with cast—whose weakness cannot be their strength, the enemies of monarchy. Their struggle is whose independence is necessary to their own now for life or death-it ceases to be a domestic security. That the intervention of Russia would quarrel from the moment Russia engages in it; he fatal to the Austrian empire, to its dignity, its and Hungary must seek such support as she can power, its capacity to fulfil the conditions of its find. Austria has done everything she could 10 existence as a great independent state the guar-convert the quarrel into a war of opinion, by dian of eastern Europe-is, we think, unques-representing it and treating it as such ; and now tionable. Attributing no interested design to that she has brought to her aid the great exemRussia—assuming that she desires nothing so plar and champion of absolute monarchy, it is not much as the strength and stability of the Austrian impossible that she may succeed. empire-we cannot doubt that the reëstablishment Russia comes forward to reëstablish by force and maintenance of the imperial government's au- of arms the authority of a government which has thority by the military force of Russia, were it the been unable to protect itself against its own subbest government that ever existed, would desejects ; and, when reëstablished, she will have to crate, in the heart of every German, the throne of maintain it. How long this military protection the Kaiser, and cover it with dust and ashes. In is to endure, after all armed opposition is put down, a contest between the Russians and the Hunga- no man can pretend to foretell. It must depend rians, the sympathy of all Germany, of all west- upon events which are beyond the reach of human ern Europe, would be with the Majjars. Half the foresight. But a government that is dependent Emperor of Austria's own heart would be on the for its authority on a foreign power, must, in every side of the loyal nation to which his house owes sense of the term, cease to be an independent govso large a debt of gratitude ; who, he must be ernment. Is it under Russian protection that aware, have been alienated only by the errors and Austria is to preserve Lombardy, or to maintain the injustice of his advisers, and who, if they are her influence in Germany ? Would the Sclavonie sacrificed, will not, and cannot be sacrificed to his population of Austria continue to respect a Gerinterests. Hungary was perfectly satisfied with man government protected by a nation of Sclaves her constitution and her government, as estab-| --would they not rather feel that the real power lished by the laws of April, 1848. She was loyal was that of their own race? Would the Austo her king, and careful of the honor of Austria, trians forget the humiliation of Russian protecwhich she sent her best troops to defend in tion, or forgive the government that had sacrificed another country; her crimes have been her at their independence ? Dependent upon Russian tachment to established institutions, and the cour- protection, the Austrian government could no age and patriotism with which she has defended longer give security to Turkey, or counterbalance them. This is not the spirit which it can ever the weight with which the power of Russia, whatbe the interest of a sovereign to extinguish in his ever may be the moderation of the reigning emnon subjects. The desire to overturn established peror, must continue to press upon the frontiers institutions is the very evil which the Emperors of weaker countries. In such a state of things, the of Austria and Russia profess to combat, and their relations of Austria to the rest of Europe would first efforts are to be directed against the only be changed-reversed. Instead of being the bu)Christian nation between the frontiers of Belgium wark of Germany and the safeguard of Turkey and Russia-between Denmark and Malta, which against Russia, she would become the advanced was satisfied with its institutions and government, post of Russia against both. Is it to bring her to and determined to maintain them.
this condition that she has allowed herself to be If Russia engages seriously in the war, she involved in the war with Hungary? Is it to ar
rive at this result that she will consent to prolong of indefinite duration, with those of Russia, would it?
give to the great northern power a preponderance, of the effect, in Germany, of the Russian in- both in Europe and in Asia, such as no hereditary tervention in Austria, it is almost superfluous to monarchy has possessed in modern times. speak. The advance of Russian armies, simul With 150,000 or 180,000 men in Hungary, taneously with the dissolution of more than one Wallachia, and Moldavia, the Russian armies refractory assembly, has raised in the minds of would encircle the frontiers of Turkey, from the men, already in a state of furious excitement, a shores of the Adriatic to the frontiers of Persia. suspicion that these events are not unconnected, With a government in Austria dependent upon the and that the Emperor of Austria is not the only support of those armies, the power that has hither. German sovereign who is in a league with the to been the chief security of Turkey against the czar! The time has arrived when the question military superiority of Russia, would be at the must be determined whether order or anarchy is command of the court of St. Petersburg. The to prevail ; and we have no doubt that, in Ger- Sclavonic tribes, which form the chief part of the many as in France, the friends of order will speed- Turkish population in Europe, seeing themselves ily gain a complete ascendancy-if there be no enveloped by the armies of Russia, guiding and foreign, and above all, no Russian intervention. controlling the power of Austria, in addition to But to very many of the patriotic friends of order her own, must be thoroughly demoralized, even if in Germany, Russian intervention in her affairs, Russia shonld abstain from all attempts to debauch or an appearance of concert between their own them. They will feel that they have no course government and Russia for the purpose of influ- left but to court her, to look to her whose force is encing German interests, and suppressing German visibly developed before them, is in contact with feelings, would be intolerable. There is reason to them, surrounds them, and appears to be irresistapprehend that a great body of true-hearted Ger- ible everywhere. They will find in the unity of mans, especially in the middle classes—whose race an inducement to adhere to the rising despower must, after all, decide the contest, and who tinies of the great Sclavonic empire-their instincts desire social order and security under a constitu- will teach them to abandon, in time, the fabric that tional monarchy—may fancy they see in the ad- is about to fall. vance of Russian forces, at a moment when the Forced to involve herself in all the relations of sovereigns, supported by their armies are making the government she upholds, Russia will come a stand against popular tyranny, cause to fear that into immediate contact with the minor German even their constitutional freedom is in danger. monarchies whose governments may also stand in We are satisfied that there are no reasonable need of protection. There is no one kingdom in grounds for such fears—that the other govern- Germany that could then pretend to counterbalance ments of Germany are too wise to follow the ex- her power, or to resist her policy. The same ample of Austria in her conduct towards Hun- interest would carry her influence, and it may be gary ; but that example cannot fail to produce her arms, into Italy. It will no longer be necesdistrust in many minds already disposed to it; sary to negotiate the passage of the Dardanelles and popular movements are more influenced by by her feet— the road will be open to her troops, passion than by reason.
and the passage of her fleet will no longer be opIt is impossible not to feel that Russia is about posed. to occupy a new position in Europe, which, if no We have not attributed to the Emperor Nichevent occurs to obstruct her in her course must olas, or to Russia, any ambitious ulterior views in greatly increase her influence and her power for affording assistance to Austria-we have supposed good or for evil. She is to be the protector of him to be influenced only by the most generous Austria, not against foreign enemies, but against feelings towards a brother emperor. But, to supone of the nations of which that empire is com- pose that he has no desire to extend his own or posed. She is to reëstablish and maintain, by his country's influence and power—that he will military force, a government which has been un- not take advantage of favorable circumstances to able to maintain itself against its internal ene- extend them—would be absurd ; and were he to mies—a government which a nation of fourteen set out with the firmest resolution to avoid such a millions of people has rejected, fought, and beat- result, the course on which he is now said to have en. A great power cannot interfere in the in- entered, if he conducts it to a successful issue, ternal affairs of another state, to the extent of must, in spite of himself, lead to that result. It maintaining there by force of arms a government is no answer, therefore, to say that the Emperor incapable of maintaining itself against the nation. of Russia does not desire to extend his territory; without getting involved in the relations of the that he has abstained with singular moderation government it upholds, to an amount of which it from interfering in the affairs of Europe, while is impossible to fix or to predict the limits, but of every capital was in tumult, and every country diwhich the tendency has ever been, and must ever vided against itself. Giving him credit for every be, progressively to increase the power of the quality that can adorn the loftiest throne, the con protecting over the protected government; and sequences of his present policy, if it be successfulthe single fact that the interests of Austria were ly carried out, are equally inevitable. in this manner inseparably bound up, for a time We must remember, on the other hand, that