Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

FROM THE GERMAN.

was won :

thy son !'"

net.

his prime.

The sun,

of joy,

A chord whose plaintive tones brake forth erewhile | And say, 'Kind sire, I render here my life and love by Judah's sea;

to thee!' “Would God I had died for thee, my son, would I But he is gone, and I can nought but offer thee my had died for thee!"

part, “Thou art the monarch, sire,” he said, “ of fair My sword, my vassals, and withal true fealty of

heart. and wide domains ;

As I have served thy princely son, I fain would Thy hosts have scaled the craggy hills, and ploughed

serve thee now; the level plains ; Thy voice that summoned to the fight made many

God grant that merrie England's crown may long

rest on thy brow !" a dwelling lone; Thou hast ta'en away the peasant's child-canst thou bring back thine own?

HOME SICKNESS. Thy son whom once thou loved’st so well, thy first

born son lies low ; No brother watched beside his couch, no father

Thou ask'st me why my heart is sad, smoothed his brow.

Why pensive thus I roam, I only held him in my arms till death's dark fight

When all around are blithe and glad?

My spirit pines for home. I only heard his last faint words— Father, forgive 'Tis true the birds pour forth their songs,

'Tis true this earth is fair ;

But, ah! my aching hosum longs
A strange thing is a parent's heart—the words that

For that which is not there.
Bertrand spake
Were strong to move the old man's soul, as breezes

At morn the flowers pour forth perfume
stir a lake.

At eve they fade away, The steel-clad bosom sternly heaved, the cold, clear

But in my Father's mansion bloom

Flowers that can ne'er decay. eye was wet, Of him who never quailed in fight-Henry Plantage Those fairy blossoms will not grow,

Save in their place of birth; And soft, sad memories awoke of the blessed far They fade, they wither here belowoff time,

They were not made for earth. When his boy was in his infancy, and he was in Where is that mansion? Far above Could the bold rebel that had turned to gall his cup

the stars, the skies ;

In realms of endless light and love, Have been indeed the gladsome child, the darling,

My Father's mansion lies. fair-haired boy,

Then ask not why my heart is sad, That rode his squire-led war-horse, that waved the Why pensive thus I roam, mimic brand,

When all around are blithe and glad? And kissed his father's bearded lip, and clasped his

My spirit pines for home. mailed hand?

Fraser's Magazine. Now, now the loving lips are closed, never to speak again,

ANTIQUITY OF ANESTHETIC AGENTS IN CHINA. Never to say, “Forgive me, father-shall thy child -M. Stanislaus Julien has addressed to the Acadplead in vain ?

emy of Sciences a note in reference to a substance And pardon him who served me better than words employed in China more than a thousand years ago, can tell ;

about the third century of the Christian era, for the He sinned 'gainst thee, my gracious sire, loving purpose of producing a temporary loss of sensibility. thy son too well !"

These curious facts have been taken from the great Such thoughts passed through the monarch's breast, Chinese work, entitled “Kon-Kin-I-Tong ;' and gently then he spake :

“A Compilation of Ancient and Modern Medicine," “ Bertrand de Born, I pardon thee, for my dead published at the commencement of the sixteenth Henry's sake.

century. It is there said : “When Moa-Tho knew Take back thy castle-take thy sword, but wield that it was necessary to employ acupuncturation, he it not in strife

used the remedy in two or three places, the moxa Against thy king, who gives thee now thy liberty being applied at the same time as it was indicated and life."

by the nature of the affection which he had to treat.

But if the complaint is situated in parts upon which He said, and low the Norman lord bent down his the needle, the moxa, or liquid mendicaments prohaughty brow;

duce any action, for instance, in the bone, stomach, That heart the death-stroke might not break was or intestines, there may be given to the patient a swayed by kindness now.

preparation of hemp, (ma-yo,) and in a short time They cut the bonds that held his arms, and as he he becomes so insensible, that he seems intoxicated or grasped his sword,

deprived of life. Then, according as the case may “Oh! would,” he cried,“ that my dead lord could be, the operations are performed, of amputation, hear the blessed word !

&c., and the cause of the malady is removed. SubHe was a falcon, soaring high on proud but erring sequently, the tissues are brought together by suwing;

tures, and liniments are applied. After some days, He did not know his father's heart, I did not know the patient is restored to health, without having felt

the least pain during the operation.” Well may Would he could stand before thee now, and bend a we say with truth, « There is nothing new under suppliant knee,

the sun."

or,

my king.

From Blackwood's Magazine. Kossuth, minister of finance, and Szemere, minAUSTRIA AND HUNGARY.

ister of the interior, continued provisionally to

perform the duties of their offices. Their measWhen Jellachich, on the 9th September, 1848, ures were so energetic, that the Palatine called passed the Drave, the boundary of Croatia and of upon Count Louis Bathyanyi, the head of the Hungary Proper, the war between Austria and late ministry, to form another government. This Hungary may be said to have commenced. Up step was approved at Vienna ; and Bathyanyi to that time the hostilities directed against Hun- undertook the duty on the condition that Jellagary had been confined to the attacks of her chich should be ordered to retire, and, if he revoted Sclavonic subjects in some parts of refused, should be proclaimed a traitor. The Croatia, and in the counties on the Lower Dan- king required a list of the proposed ministry, ube. These revolts had been instigated, and the which was immediately presented ; but a week attacks conducted, by officers in the Austrian or more elapsed, during which no answer was service, who were countenanced and aided by a received, and during which Jellachich continued party at the court, and who asserted that they to advance towards the capital of Hungary. The acted with the authority and in the interests Palatine, at the request of the diet, and after the of the imperial family. Still the emperor, on measure had been approved by the king, took the demand of the Hungarian ministry, had dis- command of the Hungarian troops opposed to avowed their proceedings. In May, he had the Ban, which were then retiring upon Buda. publicly degraded Jellachich from all his offices, Both parties, the invaders and the invaded, apas a rebel against the Hungarian government. peared at this time to be countenanced by the In July, he had formally announced to the diet, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary; and through his representative the Archduke Palatine. the diet, while preparing for defence, seems not his determination to maintain the integrity of to have relinquished all hope of a peaceful arHungary, and the laws he had sanctioned in rangement. The Archduke Stephen, after joinApril, and repudiated as a calumny the assertion ing the army, and hastily organizing it, opened of Jellachich and the other leaders of the revolt. communications with the Ban, and arranged a that the emperor, or any other member of the meeting in boats on the Lake Balaton : but Jelimperial family, countenanced their proceedings. lachich did not keep his appointment; and the It is true that Jellachich and another of these Archduke Palatine, summoned to Vienna by the leaders had subsequently been received by the emperor, left the army, passed through Pesth on emperor-king, and by several members of the his way to Vienna, and on his arrival there, as imperial family, in a manner hardly consistent we formerly stated, resigned the office of Palatine. with their position as rebels ; yet it was possible Shortly afterwards he retired to his private resithat his majesty might still listen to other coun- dence on the Rhine. sels—might still resolve to pursue a constitutional Count Louis Bathyanyi, whose conditions had course, and to preserve his own faith inviolate. not yet been either accepted or rejected, was thus Even so late as the 9th September—the day on left alone to carry on the whole government; and which Jellachich passed the Drave-he solemnly the diet, for the purposes both of aiding and renewed his promise to maintain the integrity of controlling the administration of the minister, Hungary and the laws of April. But upon the named a committee of their number, called the 4th September he had reinstated Jellachich in all " Committee of Defence,” to assist in conducthis offices, civil and military, knowing that he ing the government. was then at the head of an army on the frontiers Jellachich had now established himself at of Hungary, preparing to invade that kingdom, Stuhlweissenberg, four or five marches from and to force the Hungarians to renounce the Pesth ; and the government at Vienna appears concessions made to them in April by their king. to have anticipated that Hungary, left without a It appeared that the Ban had been supplied with government, must fall into confusion. But she money and with arms from Vienna while he was preserved her loyal and constitutional attitude ; still nominally in disgrace, and he was joined by and while she was prepared to repel force by Austrian regiments, which had marched from force, gave no pretext for employing it. Count Southern Hungary to put themselves under his L. Bathyanyi was at length informed that his orders. His advance, therefore, at the head of list of the new ministry was not approved ; and an arıny composed of Austrian regiments and by an ordinance dated 25th September, General Croat forces, was truly an invasion of Hungary Count Francis Lamberg was appointed to the by Austria.

command of all the troops in Hungary, with The Hungarian forces collected to resist this power to restore order and to close the diet invasion were still without a commander-in-chief The time had arrived which the Hungarians had or a staff-without sufficient arms or ammunition, been most desirous to avert, when they must and for the most part without military discipline either surrender their constitutional rights or resist or organization. We have already mentioned their king. that, on the restoration of the Ban to his offices The murder of Count Lamberg, by a frantic and command, the Hungarian ministry resigned ; moh, threw the diet into a state of consternation. but Mazaros, minister of the war department, The regiment on which it most relied was the

regiment of Lamberg, and the Ban was at the atrocious murder of Latour, the minister of war, gates of Buda.

The diet passed resolutions by the insurgents of Vienna, but we have not yet expressing its profound grief at the unhappy been able to trace any foundation for such a charge. fate of the count, and ordered criminal proceed- The Hungarians were formidable enemies, and to ings to be immediately instituted against his them every atrocity was attributed. murderers. The patriotism of the soldiers was The Emperor of Austria was now at war with not shaken by the horrible event that had oc- Hungary, and his enemies, therefore, became her curred; and they displayed their wonted gallantry allies. The revolutionary party at Vienna for a on the 29th, when the Ban was repulsed. Im-time regained the ascendency, and signalized it by mediately after the murder of General Lamberg, the crime to which we have referred. After WinCount Louis Bathyanyi resigned. There was dischgratz and Jellachich had invested the city, now neither palatine nor minister in the kingdom, the Viennese applied to the Hungarians for aid ; and the enemy was about to attack the capital. but their levies and national guards had returned In this emergency the Committee of Defence, in great numbers to their homes, and their army at the head of which was Louis Kossuth, took was not in a condition to make any impression upon itself the direction of affairs; and since that upon that of the emperor. It advanced, and was time it has governed Hungary.

repulsed. The Austrian government, by allying After the defeat of Jellachich, while he was itself with rebellion and anarchy to subvert the on the frontiers of Austria, followed by the established constitution of Hungary, had driven Hungarian army, the king named Count Adam the Hungarians, in self-defence, into an alliance Ricsay prime minister, and by a new ordinance, with the revolutionary party in Vienna against countersigned Ricsay, the diet was dissolved, its the government. decrees annulled, and Jellachich appointed com The error into which it had been led ought now mander-in-chief of all the troops in Hungary. to have been manifest to the Austrian cabinet ; and The civil authorities were suspended, and the it was not yet too late to remedy the evil. By recountry declared in a state of siege. At the turning to the course of legality and good faith, same time Jellachich was named royal commis- the imperial government might have disarmed and sioner, and invested with executive power over regained Hungary. If there was in that country, as the whole kingdom.

there no doubt was, a party which was disposed to From the moment of Jellachich's nomination to sympathize with the republicans, and even with the office of Ban of Croatia, without the consent of the worst of the anarchists in Austria, they were the responsible Hungarian ministry, his concert without power or influence, and their evil designs with a party hostile to Hungary at the imperial would at once have been frustrated, their opinions court had not been doubtful; and that party had repudiated, and the loyalty of the nation confirmed ; now prevailed upon the emperor-king to adopt their but the court had unfortunately placed itself in a views. The influence of the Ban was not shaken position that left it but the choice of abandoning by his defeat. The court had previously identified and breaking faith with the rebels to Hungary, itself with his proceedings, and he had faithfully, whose eminent services at Vienna it was bound to though not hitherto successfully, espoused its acknowledge, or of persevering in the breach of

He had declared against the laws of faith with Hungary, which his advisers had forced April and the separate ministry in Hungary, upon the emperor-king. That the Hungarians had which those laws had established, and in favor been ready to support the cause of monarchy and of a central government at Vienna for the whole order, so long as faith had been kept with them, dominions of the emperor, which he proposed to was put beyond all question by the vote of the force the Hungarians to accept. He was no diet, which, on the motion of the responsible Hunlonger a Croat chief, asserting the national garian ministry formed in April, had placed forty pretensions of his countrymen, but an Austrian thousand Hungarian troops at the disposal of the general, assailing the constitution and the inde- emperor, for service in Italy, “ to preserve the pendence of Hungary. From the position at honor of the Austrian arms,” then endangered by Raab, on the road to Vienna, to which he had the first reverses of Marshal Radetski. The Wesretreated after his reverse, he applied for rein- semberg ministry appears to have contemplated forcements to enable him again to advance towards restoring the King of Hungary and his subjects to Pesth. It was the refusal of these reinforcements their legal and constitutional relations, for it issued to march that led to the second revolution at a circular declaring that the king intended to fulfil Vienna, which has been attributed to Hungarian the engagements he had entered into in April. agency. It is probable that the Hungarians would But the power of the minister was subordinate to employ all the influence they could command to that of a party at the court, whose views were prevent or impede the march of troops to attack opposed to his own; and the acts of the govern

but it is remarkable that the prosecutions ment were not such as to restore confidence in its of persons engaged in that revolution do not sincerity, at all times a difficult task for a governappear to have elicited anything that would ment that has justly forfeited the confidence of a justify us in attributing the revolt of the Vien- whole nation. Hungary did not dare to suspend nese to the Hungarians. Attempts have also her preparations for resistance; and the second been made to implicate the Hungarians in the revolution at Vienna, by occupying the troops des

cause.

them;

tined to attack her, gave her time to improve her Wearied by contentions, in which his character means of defence.

and feelings unfitted him to take a part; distracted Had there been at Vienna a government capable by diverse counsels; involved by a series of inof inspiring confidence in its sincerity-a govern- trigues, from which he could not escape, in conment possessing power or influence enough to carry flicting engagements; dreading the new order of out conciliatory measures, to fulfil the engage- things, and diffident of his own ability to perform ments it might contract—the differences between the duties it demanded of him, the Emperor FerAustria and Hungary might still have been ami- dinand abdicated ; and by a family arrangement cably adjusted, by restoring the constitutional the crown of Austria was transferred, not to the government established in April. All the blood- next heir, but to the second in succession. The shed and misery that has ensued, and all the evils crown of Hungary, as we formerly stated, had that may yet follow from the war, would thus have been settled by statute on the heirs of the house been averted. But irresponsible advisers had more of Hapsburg ; but no provision had been made for influence at the court than the ostensible cabinet, the case which had now arisen. The Hungarians and were blindly bent on returning to the irretriev- held that their king had no power to abdicate; able past. They founded their hopes upon the de- that so long as he lived he must continue to be votion of that noble army which had reëstablished their king; that if he became incapable of perorder in Austria, and which, if employed only to forming the regal functions, the laws had reserved maintain order and the just rights of the monarchy, to the diet the power to provide for their due perwould have encountered no opposition that it could formance; that the crown of Hungary was settled not overcome. Hungary, cordially reünited to Aus- by statute on the heirs of the house of Hapsburg, tria under the same sovereign, would again have and the Emperor Francis Joseph was not the become, what the Emperor Francis declared it to heir. The laws of Hungary required that her be, “the chief bulwark of the monarchy ;” and king should be legitimately crowned according the empire would have resumed its position as the to the ancient customs of the kingdom, and should guardian of peace and order in Eastern Europe, take the coronation oath before he could exercise and a powerful support to the cause of constitu- his rights or authority as sovereign. If he tional monarchy and rational liberty everywhere. claimed the crown of Hungary as his legal right,

Unhappily for the Austrian empire, for Europe, he was bound to abide by the laws on which and for “ the good cause,” evil counsels prevailed, that right was founded. But these laws required and Hungary was again invaded. Many of the that he should be crowned according to the cusleading magnates adhered to the court, at which toms of Hungary, and that he should bind himself they had spent their lives, and which was in fact by a solemn oath to maintain the constitution and their home. But there was hardly a great family the laws, including those passed in March, sancof which some wealthy and influential members tioned and put into operation in April, 1848. In did not declare for their native country. A great short, that he should concede what Hungary was majority of the resident aristocracy—the numerous contending for. class of resident country gentlemen, almost with The abdication of the Emperor Ferdinand, out exception—the body of inferior nobles or free and the accession to the imperial throne of his holders—the peasant-proprietors and the laboring youthful successor, presented another opportunity, population, espoused the cause of Hungary. The of which the Austrian government might have Protestant clergy in the Majjar country, to a man, gracefully availed itself, to terminate the differences and the Roman Catholic clergy of Hungary in a with Hungary. The young emperor was fettered body, urged their flocks to be patient and orderly, by no engagements, involved in none of the into obey the government charged with the defence trigues that entangled his unwary predecessor, of the country, and to be faithful and valiant in and entailed so great evils upon the country. defending it.

He was free to take a constitutional course in, The attacks of Jellachich, and of that portion Hungary, to confirm the concessions which had of the Croats and Serbes which had declared been voluntarily made, and which could not now against Hungary, had failed to bring about the be recalled to restore to the imperial government submission of the diet, and had produced an alli- a character for good faith; and thus to have won ance, dangerous to the court, betv.een its enemies the hearts of the Hungarians. Supported by their in the Hereditary States and the Hungarians, loyal attachment to their king, he might have with whom it was now at war. The national as- peacefully worked out the reforms in the governsembly or congress that met at Vienna was tainted ment of his empire which the times and the cirwith republican notions, and divided into factions, cumstances demanded or justified. But Count influenced for the most part by feelings of race. Stadion, the real head of the new ministry, though German unity, Sclave ascendency, and Polish re- possessed of many eminent qualities as a statesgeneration, were the ultimate objects of many of man, was deeply imbued with the old longing after those who talked of liberty, equality, and frater- unity in the system of government: he hoped to nity. The discussion of the constitution revealed effect, by means of a constitution devised and the discord in their opinions, and they seemed to framed for that purpose, the amalgamation of the agree in nothing but the determination to overturn different parts of the empire, which abler men had the ancient system of the empire.

failed to accomplish under an absolute monarchy,

With a

in circumstances more favorable to success. The on the Danube, of which the capture or surrender opposition that was inevitable in Hungary he pro- has so often been announced, have been raised ; posed to overcome by force of arms; and, at and the question is no longer whether Debreczin moment when a desire for separate nationality is to be occupied by the emperor's forces, but was the predominant feeling in the minds of all whether Vienna is safe from the Hungarians. the different races in the empire, he had the hardi- Opposed to the admirable army of Austria, these hood to imagine that he could frame a constitution results could not have been obtained unless the capable of overcoming this desire, and of fusing great body of the nation had been cordially united, them all into one. It was considered an advantage nor even then, nnless by a people of great energy, that the emperor, unfettered by personal engage- courage, and intelligence. ments to Hungary, was free to prosecute its sub Had the government of Austria known how to jugation, to subvert its constitution, and to force win the hearts of the Hungarians for their sovthe Hungarians to accept in its place the consti- ereign-had they but preserved the good faith and tution of Count Stadion, with seats in the assembly the sanctity of the monarchy in Hungary, how seat Vienna for their representatives, under one cen- cure and imposing might the position of the emtral government for the united empire. This may peror have now been, in the midst of all the have been a desirable result to obtain ;-it might, troubles in Germany! Hungary desired no revif attainable, have been ultimately conducive to olution ; she had peacefully obtained, by constituthe strength of the empire and the welfare of all tional means, all she desired. Her revolution had classes ; but it was not to claim the hereditary suc- been effected centuries ago; and, with indigenous cession to a throne secured and guarded by statutes institutions, to which her people were warmly -it was rather to undertake the conquest of a attached, she would have maintained, as she did kingdoin.

maintain, her internal tranquillity and her constiWindischgratz and Jellachich occupied Pesth tutional monarchy, whatever storms might rage without opposition, set aside the constituted au- around her. thorities, and governed the country, as far as their The resources that Hungary has put forth in army extended, by martial law. The Committee this contest have surprised Europe, because Euof Defence retired beyond the Theis to Debreczin, rope had not taken the trouble to calculate the in the heart of the Majjar country, and appealed strength and the resources of Hungary. to the patriotism of the Hungarians. The army compact territory, equal in extent to Great Britain was rapidly recruited, and was organized in the and Ireland, or to Prussia, and the most defensible field, for the campaign may be said to have en- frontier of any kingdom on the continent of Eudured throughout the whole winter. From time rope ; with a population nearly equal to that of to time it was announced from Vienna that the England, and not much inferior to that of Pruswar was about to be terminated by the advance of sia ;* with a climate equal to that of France, and the imperial army, and the dispersion or destruc- soil of greater natural fertility than any of these ; tion of Kossuth's faction. The flight of Kossuth, with a representative government long established, and his capture as a fugitive in disguise, were re- and free indigenous institutions, which the people ported and believed. The delay in the advance venerate ; with a brave, energetic, and patriotic of the imperial arıny was attributed to the rigor population, predisposed to military pursuits, jealof the season and the state of the roads; and, ous of their national independence, and of their when these impediments no longer existed, to the personal liberty—ambitious of military renown, incapacity of Windischgratz, who was roughly proud of their traditionary prowess, and impressed handled by the government press of Vienna. The with an idea of their own superiority to the surtrue cause was carefully concealed. The resist-rounding populations—Hungary, as all who know ance was not that of a faction, but of a nation. the country and the people were aware, would be That fact has been fully established by the events found a formidable antagonist by any power that in this unfortunate, unnecessary, and unnatural might attack her. But, paradoxical and incredible

as it may appear, we believe it is not the less true, The Austrian armies employed in Hungary that, little as Hungary was known in most of the have probably exceeded one hundred and fifty countries of Europe, there was hardly a capital, thousand regular troops, aided by irregular bands in that quarter of the globe, where more erroneous of Croats and Serbes, and latterly by a Russian notions regarding it prevailed than in Vienna. In corps of ten thousand men. They established other places there was ignorance ; in the capital themselves both in Transylvania and in Hungary, of Austria there was the most absurd misappreand were in possession of the whole of the fertile hension. Though generally a calm, sensible man, country from the frontiers of Austria to the Theis, possessing a considerable amount of general inforwhich flows through the centre of the kingdom. mation, an Austrian, even after he has travelled, From Transylvania, both the Austrian and the Russian forces have been driven into Wallachia. * The extent of Hungary, including Transylvania, is From the line of the Theis the imperial army has Ireland is 122,000, and that of Prussia about 116,000.

above 125,000 square miles; that of Great Britain and been forced across the Danube, on which they were the population of Hungary, according to the best authorunable to maintain their positions. The sieges of ities, is nearly fourteen millions ; that of England (in Koinorn and Peterwardein, the two great fortresses about sixteen inillions.

1941) was nearly fifteen millions, and that of Prussia

war.

« ElőzőTovább »