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A THEORY.

Knowest thou not the time is coming

Thou shalt don the sword
Why do violins shudder so,
When across them is drawn the bow,

Sitting proudly in thy stirrups,
Sob for anguish and wild despair ?

Ride, a warlike lord ! Human souls are imprisoned there.

Gold-embroidered saddle housings

I myself will sew. Souls are shut in the violins,

Sleep, my darling, sleep, my own one,

Baiushki Baio.
They are the souls of Philistines;
But the Philistines, row on row,

Thou shalt be a famous hero,
Soulless sit and they do not know.

And the Cossack's pride; But they brandish their eye-glasses,

I will come to see thee mounted Stare at each other's evening dress,

Boldly forth to ride. Scrutinize form or brilliant hue,

All night I will spend in weeping

When I see thee go. Say : “ Is it rouge or is it true?

Sleep, my baby, sleep, my angel, “ Some one was a flat semitone,

Baiushki Baio.
And how stout the soprano's grown!
Isn't the bass a dear and oh,

I shall wear myself with waiting,
Do look at Mrs. So-and-so !"

Watching still for thee,

All day long in prayer that Heaven Still the musicians play serene,

Merciful will be. As though Philistines had not been,

I will wonder if thou’rt fainting, But their souls in the violins

Or if thou liest low. Mourn on bitterly for their sins,

Sleep, while yet no care thou knowest,

Baiushki Baio.
Call them wildly and call in pain,
Call them with longing deep and vain,

Thou shalt take a holy image
And with infinite tenderness,

Ere thou leavest me. Since they can give them no redress.

When thou prayest to God, my darling,

Set it before thee : Since not one of them is aware,

And before the deadly battle Here is he and his soul is there,

Let thy memory go In the music's divinest chord,

Once to me, to me, thy mother, Making melody to the Lord.

Baiushki Baio.

Longman's Magazine. So how often in life and art Soul and body must dwell apartGreat is the Master's soul, no doubt Twenty Philistines go without.

PLENTY OF TIME, Are we body or are we soul?

PLENTY of time - plenty of time! Little matter upon the whole.

O what a foolish and treacherous chime ! Human soul in the violin,

With so much to see, and so much to be Save me at last, a Philistine!

taught, Longman's Magazine. MAY KENDALL. And the battle with evil each day to be

fought; With wonders above us, beneath, and around, Which sages are seeking to mark and ex

pound; THE CUSSACK MOTHER'S LULLABY. With work to be done in our fast passing SLEEP, my baby, sleep, my darling,

prime, Baiushki Baio.

Can ever there be for us " plenty of time”? Calm the moonlight on thy cradle, Baiushki Baio.

Our schooling at most lasts a few score of I will chant thee ancient ballads,

years, Tales of long ago,

Spent in sunshine and shadow, in smiles or in While thou sleepest. Close thine eyelids, tears; Baiushki Baio.

While none are quite equal, howe'er they be

classed, On the rocks the Terek rushes,

And judgments too often are faultily passed. Turbid, wild, and free;

'Twixt eternity past and its future to stand On its banks the cruel foeman

Like a child sea-surrounded on one speck of Whets his knife for thee.

land, But thy father is a warrior

There to work out the duties that make life Fear not thou the foe.

sublime, He will guard thee: sleep, my little one, Oh, surely there cannot be "plenty of time !" Baiushki Baio.

Chambers' Journal.

CAMILLA CROSLAND.

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From The Quarterly Review. pressed on the imperial authorities its CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES:

right to be consulted as to the choice of THEIR PAST AND PRESENT RELATIONS. *

commissioners who were to decide a quesTHE Canadian people can find some tion of such deep interest to the Dominevidence of the growing importance of ion. Mr. Fish, among other things, said their Dominion by a reference to the offi- that "the reference to the people of the cial documents of the United States for Dominion of Canada seems to imply a several years past. When the fishery practical transfer to that province of the question was under consideration in 1869, right of nomination which the treaty gives President Graot expressed his surprise in to ber Majesty." Coming down to a later one of his messages to Congress that the time, when the Behring Sea difficulty “imperial government should have dele- arose to create some feeling between Cangated the whole, or a share, of its jurisdic- ada and the United States, we find Mr. tion or control of its inshore fisheries to Blaine himself assuming the position that the colonial authority known as the Do- Canada, whatever might be her stake in minion of Canada, and that that semi-in-the question at issue, should be considdependent but irresponsible agent basered of little weight, and that her governexercised its delegated powers in an un- ment should be kept quietly in the backfriendly way.” When some years later it ground, whilst the statesmen of England became necessary to appoint a commission and the United States settle matters with to consider the value of the Canadian as little interference as possible from mere fisheries, opened up to the fishermen of outsiders like the Canadians; in fact, just the United States under the Washington as they did in the good old times when Treaty of 1871, the secretary of state of Canada was a relatively insignificant counthat day, Mr. Hamilton Fish, - to quote try, and diplomatists of the republic had the language of Mr. Blaine in his review it generally all their own way. In the now of the correspondence between London famous correspondence on the question, and Washington on the subject, — “very Mr. Blaine displays some irritation that sharply rebuked the interposition of the “ the rights of the United States within government of Canada,” because it had Behring Sea and on the islands thereof are

not absolute, but are to be determined by * 1. Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute. Vols. 1-21. London, 1869-1890.

one of her Majesty's provinces,” and even 2. Canada : Statistical Year Book of Canada for intimates his opinion that the English 1889. Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1890. government should interpose and prevent

3. The Old North-West. By B. A. Hinsdale, any objection on the part of the “ProvPh.D. New York, 1888.

4. The Intercolonial Railway. A History, 1832- ince of Canada” to any arrangement that 1876. By Sandford Fleming, C.E., C.M.G. Montreal, the imperial authorities may choose to 1876.

make with the United States. 5. Canada since the Union of 1841. By John Charles Deot. Toronto, 1882.

The iteration of the word “province 6. Canadian Studies in Comparative Politics. By in these several State documents is some J. G. Bourinot, C.M.G., D.C.L. Montreal, 1891. 7. Correspondence respecting the Behring Sea

evidence that the public men of the United Seal Fisheries, 1886-1890. Presented to both Houses States do not yet appreciate the position of Parliament. London, 1890.

of Canada in the British Empire, but be. 8. Papers of the American Historical Associa

lieve that this aggregation of provinces, tion, 1890. New York and London.

9. A Treatise on International Law. By W. E. known constitutionally as the “ Dominion Hall

, M.A. Third edition. Oxford. At the Claren- of Canada,” possessing large rights of selfdon Press, 1890.

10. Oregon: The Struggle for Possession. By W. government, and an increasing influence Barrows. Boston, 1884.

in imperial councils, is still practically 11. History of the United States of America. By ruled in all matters by Downing Street, as James Schouler.

Vols. 1-4. 1783-1847. New York, in the days previous to the concession of 1880-1889.

12. Narrative and Critical History of America. responsible government. A little irritation Edited by Justin Winsor, of Harvard University. on the part of American statesmen, how

Boston and New York, 1889. 13. Canada and the Canadian Question. By Gold- ever, is quite intelligible, when we conwin Smith, D.C.L. London, 1891.

sider that the political development of

Vols. 1-8.

a

Canada within a few years has been a was no comparison whatever between the sort of revelation to the United States, two populations. The people of the Enwbo, for a long time, were taught to be glish colonies were full of commercial lieve that Canada was a relatively insig. energy and the spirit of political freedom. nificant appendage of the British crown, The people of the French province were whose interests were not considered of the mere creatures of a king's ambition, any importance in the case of negotiations and their energies were chiefly devoted to between England and other nations, and exploration and the fur trade. The conthat she could not possibly have any in- fict that was fought in America for a fluence in the arena of international diplo- century and more was a conflict of antag. macy. As we shall endeavor to show onistic principles — the principles of self in the course of this paper, the political government and free thought, against the development of Canada has given her a principle of centralization and the represposition in the empire which makes hersion of political liberty. Freedom was at last a factor in the affairs of the conti- won on the plains of Abraham, and a nent of America, and that the time has great Frenchman and a great Englishman passed when her boundaries, and her ter consecrated by their deaths on the same ritorial claims, can be made the mere battlefield the future political union of shuttlecocks for ambitious and astute two races on the northern half of the statesmen of the United States. Canada continent. Of the great events of history has won this position only after many that have moulded national destinies none sacrifices, and a stern fight against the has had more momentous consequences ambitious designs of a powerful neighbor, than the conquest of Canada one hundred not always animated by the most generous and thirty years ago. One consequence feelings towards the Dominion, and too has been the development of a powerful often carried away by a belief in "a mani- federal republic now composed of sixtyfest destiny," which would eventually grasp two millions of people — the heirs of the whole continent.

those free colonies which were founded Indeed, when we look at the past his. by Englishmen and flourished under the tory of America, we can well believe that influence of English principles of governthere has been a destiny ever “shaping ment. The second consequence has been the ends” of the Canadian communities, the establishment of a federation known however diplomatists and statesmen have as the Dominion of Canada, possessing endeavored to “rough hew" them in the political institutions which give remarkearly times of their development. In the able scope to individual energies, and beginning of the seventeenth century En- enable the French Canadians themselves gland and France entered on that contest even now to look forward to the realizafor the supremacy in America which did tion of those dreams of ambition, wbich not end for a hundred and fifty years. were the incentive to action of many noble When the Treaty of Paris was signed in men in those brave old days, when France 1763, the results of French ambition in held the St. Lawrence and the illimitable America were to be seen in a poor strug- region of the West. But this grand congling colony on the banks of the St. ception of an empire is in course of realiLawrence, and in a few settlements on zation, not under the influence of French the Illinois and in the Mississippi valley. principles of government, but under the The total population of these settlements inspiration of those English institutions, did not exceed eighty thousand souls, of which the experience of centuries proves whom seventy thousand were living in the are best calculated to develop political St. Lawrence valley. Even then the freedom, individual energy, and the finest population of the thirteen colonies had qualities of human endeavor. reached one million one hundred and sixty The conquest of Canada removed that thousand souls, or nearly fifteen times the fear of France which had long contined French population of the St. Lawrence the whole thirteen colonies to the country and Mississippi Basins. In wealth there | between the sea and the Alleghanies, and

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opened up at last to their adventurous and of the North-West, since it estabsons that great West which in later times lished a larger province with the civil law has had such wondrous effects on the of the French régime, and removed the commerce of America. The Treaty of political disabilities under which the RoParis in 1763 was the end of French man Catholics had labored since the condominion on this continent. It was im- quest of Canada. During the War of mediately followed by a proclamation from Independence impassioned appeals were George III. establishing new governments made to the French of Canada to join the in America as a result of the English ac- thirteen colonies against England; and quisitions from France and Spain. East with a curious ignorance of the conditions and west Florida were formed out of the of a people who probably never saw a Spanish possessions to the south of the printed book, and who never owned a thirteen colonies, and the old French col- printing-press during the French régime, ony was confined practically to the St. references were made to the writings of Lawrence, and was to be thereafter known Beccaria aod to the spirit of the “immoras the government of Quebec. The En. tal Montesquieu.” With the same glish possessions now reached the east markable fatuity that has often prevented bank of the Mississippi River, while the people of the United States in these Spain held the great country to the west later days from understanding the feelings of the river, known as Louisiana. The of Canadians, their predecessors in those claims of the thirteen colonies to the early times attacked the Quebec Act as a country between the Alleghanies and measure of Roman Catholic tyranny at the the Mississippi were not recognized by very time they were asking the assistance the British government. On the contrary, of the French Canadians. Canada was settlement was discouraged in that rich invaded; and when Montgomery fell at region, and there is every reason for the Quebec, the tide of invasion was forced opinion that the English ministry of that back into the rebellious colonies. The day had determined to retain its control influence of the Quebec Act was from the in their own hands, and not to give new outset felt throughout the country, and opportunities for the expansion of the old the dominant classes, the bishops and colonies, whose restlessness and impa- clergy of the Roman Catholic Church, and tience of all imperial restraint were be the principal French Canadian seigneurs, coming quite obvious to English states- combined to preserve Canada to a country

But events, as usual, moved faster which had given such strong guarantees than the logic of statesmen. The war of for the preservation of the civil and reliAmerican Independence broke out as a gious rights of its new subjects. result of the practical freedom enjoyed by The period from 1774 to 1800 was one the colonies for a hundred years and more. of great moment to Canada and the reThe self-assertion of the thirteen colonies volted colonies. The Treaty of 1783, had its immediate results on the fortunes which acknowledged the independence of of Canada, for among the acts passed by the latter, fixed the boundaries to the two the imperial government, in accordance countries, and laid the foundation to fruitwith a new and vigorous policy of colonial ful controversies in later times. Three of government, was the statute known as the the ablest men the United States can Quebec Act of 1774, which extended the claim as its sons — Franklin, John Adams, limits of the Province of Quebec so as to and John Jay -- succeeded, by their asinclude the country long known as the old tuteness and persistency, in extending its North-West. This act was obviously in- limits to the eastern bank of the Missistended - indeed, it appears to have been sippi, despite the insidious efforts of Ver. a sequence of the policy of 1763 — to gennes on the part of France to hem in confine the old English colonies to the the new nation between the Atlantic and country on the Atlantic coast, and to con- the Appalachian Range. The relatively ciliate “the new subjects of England, little interest that was taken in Canada the French population of the St. Lawrence during the preliminary negotiations may

men.

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be easily deduced from the fact that Os-, from the eastern boundary-line we shall wald, the English plenipotentiary, was speak later. even ready to listen to the audacious prop- With the acquisition of a vast territory, osition made by Franklin for the cession acquired by the earnest diplomacy of its of Canada to the new Federal Republic, a own statesmen, the United States entered proposition which has apparently moulded on that career of national development the policy of the United States ever since. which has attained such remarkable re. It is said of Oswald that when he returned sults within a century. The population of to England with the draft treaty, and was the country commenced to low into the questioned by London merchants on the West, and Congress passed the famous subject, he “confessed his ignorance, and ordinance of 1787, providing for the or wept over his own simplicity.”* “The ganization of the Western territories, and truth is,” said Dr. Franklin, in a letter the eventual establishment of new States from Paris," he (Oswald) appears so good of the Union. By 1800 the total populaand honorable a man, that though I have tion of the United States was over five no objection to Mr. Grenville, I should be millions of souls, of whom over fifty loath to lose Mr. Oswald.” Well might the thousand were dwelling in the embryo astute Franklin be “loath to lose" an States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi. envoy who conceded not only the territory gan, and Wisconsin — the “old Northwest of the Alleghanies as far as the Miss West.”. By 1800 a great change, too, had sissippi, and valuable fishing rights and taken place in the material and political liberties on the banks and coasts of the conditions of British North America. One remaining English possessions in North of the most important results of the War America, but also showed his ignorance of Independence had been the migration of English interests by establishing boun- into the provinces of some forty thousand daries, which, in later times, made Cana- people, known as United Empire Loyal. dians weep tears of humiliation.

ists, on account of their_having remained The United States now controlled the faithful to the British Empire, and who territory extending in the east from Nova during the progress of the war, but chiefly Scotia (which then included New Bruns at its close, left their old homes in the wick), to the head of the Lake of the thirteen colonies. Their influence on the Woods and to the Mississippi River in political fortunes of Canada has been the west; and in the north from Canada necessarily very considerable. For years to the Floridas in the south, the latter they and their children were animated by having again become Spanish possessions. a feeling of bitter animosity against the The boundary between Nova Scotia and United States, the effects of wbich can the republic was so ill defined, that it took still be traced in these later times when half a century to fix the St. Croix and the questions of difference have arisen beHighlands which were by the treaty to tween England and her former colonies. divide the two countries in the east. In They have proved, with the French Cana. the far west the line of division was to be dians, a barrier to the growth of any andrawn through the Lake of the Woods “to nexation party in times of a national the most north-western point thereof, and crisis, and have been in their way as pow. from thence on a due west course to the erful an influence in national and social river Mississippi," a physical impossi- life as the Puritan element itself in the bility, since the head of the Mississippi, Eastern and Western States. as it was afterwards found, was a hundred In 1792 the imperial Parliament again miles or so to the south. In later times intervened in Canadian affairs, and formed this geographical error was corrected, and two provinces out of the old Province of the curious distortion of the boundary- Quebec, known until 1867 as Upper Canline, that now appears on the maps, was ada and Lower Canada, and gave to each necessary at the Lake of the Woods in a Legislature composed of two Houses. order to strike the 49th parallel of north The English-speaking people of the old latitude, which was subsequently arranged Province of Quebec strongly protested as the boundary-line as far as the Rocky against the act, but the younger Pitt, then Mountains. Of the difficulties that arose at the head of affairs in England, deemed

it the wisest policy to separate as far as * See " Compressed View of the Points to be Dis. cussed in Treating with the United States.".'° London, practicable the two nationalities, instead

Alson Letters to the Right Hon. E. G. S. of continuing their political union and Stanley, M.P;; upon the Existing Treaties with France making an effort to bring about an assim.

By G. R. Young, of Halifax, N. S. London, 1834.

ilation of language and institutions. It

1814.

and America's

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