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on Rochefort to stand for the seventh cir- | had escaped. After a short stay in Loncumscription. Rochefort accepted, but don he went to Switzerland, and from was defeated by the imperial candidate, Geneva continued to publish La Lanterne, Jules Favre.

and to contribute to Le Mot d'Ordre, Le There was joy at the Tuileries, but it Reveil, Le Droit de l'Homme. In July, was short-lived. Gambetta elected for 1880, profiting by the amnesty, he returned Marseilles and Belville opted for the for- to Paris in triumph. La gare de Lyon was mer, Rochefort was called on to stand for literally besieged. The next day appeared Belville. He replied by at once crossing the first number of L'Intransigeant, a the frontier. Arrested, he had soon after paper devoted to the doctrine that the reto be set at liberty, the government fearing public exists in name, but not infact, and an insurrection. His return to Paris was that the question of government is a social a triumph, and he was elected for Belville one. by an overwhelming majority.

An ardent adherent of Boulanger, In the Corps Législatif Rochefort was Rochefort was obliged to fly, together more remarkable for his ironical interrup. with the “brave général," and was contions than for his set speeches. He soon demned, together with him and Dillon, in understood that the press, not the Tribune, the famous Réquisitoire of August 12, was his field, and forth with he founded 1888, pronounced by the procurateur, M. La Marseillaise. In the fresh campaign Quesnay de Beaurepaire. thus entered on, the tactics were the

as before on both sides. Fiery In naming M. Jules Simon, we are namaccusations, bitter invective, shameful ing one whom many account the most revelations, fines, imprisonments. Then attractive man modern France has to came the tragic incident of the murder show, and the man who most profoundly (the word is not too strong) of young has at heart the public weal. Alas, that Victor Noir, one of the staff of La he should be no longer in his prime! Marseillaise, by Prince Pierre Bonaparte. Born in 1814, he belongs to a generation Republican France thrilled with indig- which heard the voices of Talleyrand, Cha. nation, and Rochefort burst forth into teaubriand, Sismondi, Demaistre, Cousin, language so openly seditious that on Feb. Lamartine, Béranger, and other great men ruary 7 he was arrested and imprisoned at - a generation which, as M. Ernest DauSte. Pélagie. The next day the rest of det remarks, seems to have inherited some the staff of La Marseillaise were impris- of the merits of its elders, and preserves oned along with their editor; but from the stamp of that pre-eminently grand their prison they wrote, and their words epoch. Poor by birth, Jules Simon had found an echo throughout the country. from his childhood to work for his daily

Seven months later, Napoleon III. was bread; yet, nevertheless, he managed to himself a prisoner, and Rochefort was educate himself so thoroughly that at the carried in triumph from Ste. Pélagie to age of twenty-five he was called to fill the Hôtel de Ville. His dream was résist- Cousin's chair of philosophy at the Sorance à l'outrance; he strove by words and bonne. From that time forward his prideeds to encourage it. He was elected vate life has run smoothly; and though he deputy for Paris; but his career was short, has been connected with nearly all the for in company with twenty.five other dep- great events of the last fifty years, he has uties, he resigned in disgust when the played no decisive part in any. His acAssembly voted the peace. Shortly after tion as a politician has been comparatively his paper, Le Mot d'Ordre, was sup. small; his influence as a thinker, however, pressed by the then governor of Paris, has been considerable, and, as it has been but when the Commune was triumphant well said, we all know that the world is Rochefort hastened to Paris and resumed governed by the men of whom it hears its publication. His opinions, however, least. In any other country but France,

not sufficiently ferocious for the M. Jules Siinon's influence would have Place de la Grève, but were too revolu- been even greater than it has been. Of tionary for Versailles. Obliged to quit all the public men of the day in his coun. Paris to avoid being seized by the Com-| try he has this pre-eminent advantage mune, he was arrested at Meaux by the that he is of an honesty and uprigbtness Versaillais, tried by court-martial, and unquestioned even by those who affect to condemned to perpetual confinement. despise him as a vieux bon homme, Were

Some years after, France was electrified he io die to-morrow, all parties would uaite by a telegram which announced that in rendering him the same kind of homage Rochefort with five of his companions that was rendered to Joho Bright. Simon

were

has had the disadvantage of being a modo , fresh in all minds. The old man continerate man in a country where moderate ues to interest bimself in the well-being men have seldom, at any period of history, of the working classes, from whom he been listened to. The very name is almost himself has sprung. He is president of a a term of reproach ; and this is more truly philanthropic society for the education of strange of a land which, with characteris- poor children, as well as secretary of the tic self-complacency and exclusiveness, Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. claims that Le bon sens est français. It will be an evil day for France when she If so, it seems to have had some dif- no longer has such men to show. ficulty in coming to maturity in the land of its birth.

From all that we have written, it will be The Liberals of 1840 listened with scant seen that modern France may be said to respect to Simon's first lectures, and read be in a transition stage. It is always difhis first books with impatience — they ficult in a Latin country to gauge public wanted fire and thunder. One quality, opinion, and it may not be too much to however, none could deny him: his sweet- say that in France, two-thirds of the popuvoiced, penetrating eloquence. Thirty lation are absolutely indifferent to politics. years later, in 1871, during the disaster of The only people who appear to have really the war, Simon proved that there was hard-and-fast ideas are the members of the strength as well as sweetness in the store. Extreme Right - men who have inherhouse of his mind. It was he who obliged ited, rather than thought out, their political Gambetta to renounce his dictatorship. creed. The manner, however, in which the He plainly declares himself an enemy of Boulanger bubble burst, without bringing Socialism, and has always fought for the about the terrible danger which it men. cause of order against anarchy. Questions aced, is an evidence of a more balanced of education bave occupied him above all public opinion. The incident has cerothers, and in his day he defended the tainly taught the republic and its rulers university against Montalembert, not from some salutary lessons; the latter espe. any anti-Catholic spirit, for he is himself cially realize that the country requires a liberal-Catholic, but from a repugnance from them less wrangling and more useful to seeing the liberty of any one set of men practical work. It is to be hoped that a domineered over by that of another. It is new and better state of things is about to to the honor of both men that from this be ushered in. In one matter there is a contest arose a mutual esteem which marked improvement - the intense strain ripened into friendship. The coup d'état which the antagonism of Germany created of December drew from him an eloquent among the French people has been happily protest, which caused him to lose his and suddenly removed; first, by the unchair; he fell back on his pen, and made expected fall of Bismarck; secondly, by good use of it against the empire. At the the improvement in tone and policy, of same time he produced that series of the German emperor. books on " Duty,” “ Natural Religion,” That witty poet and acute observer, “ Liberty of Conscience,” “ Schools," and Heinrich Heine, said: “When I speak of • Working Men,” with which his name will France I speak of Paris, not of the prov. always be associated, and interested him. inces; just as when I speak of a man I self in all great philosophical and social speak of his head, and not of his legs; to questions. Under the republic he became talk about the opinion of the provinces is minister of public instruction, and he like talking about the opinion of a man's strenuously opposed Ferry's educational legs.” Not the least important issue of scheme, particularly Article 7. It was Boulangism has been that it has shown then he made his celebrated speech in that France, as a country, is no longer at favor of teaching duty to God, indepen- the beck and call of Paris. There remains dently of any religious denomination. He a genuine rectitude under the immense is a pronounced enemy of the dogmatic majority of the French population, and it irreligion of the third republic.

is these who chiefly inhabit the provinces, Simon now .sits in the Senate. The and who have been less affected by that speeches he there holds, and that delivered deplorable deterioration of French moral but a few months ago at the unveiling of worth, through her mental culture, which Lamartine's statue, show that age has not has been the most disastrous feature of lessened his oratorical power. The honor her literature since the downfall of the shown to him by the German emperor, first empire. It is by no means improbwho specially invited him to came to Ber- able that the French people may find lin to attend the Liberal Congress, will be some fine morning that the legs will sud

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denly wake up with a very positive opinion | French missionaries to China of the sev. of their own, and the result may be a most enteenth century. Lien Chi Altangi would important change, not only in the govern- be scoffed at nowadays as a most palpable ment of Paris, but in the government and fraud ; there, is not enough of the real character of the whole country.

Chinaman in him to pass muster at a fancy-dress ball. The story of Charles Lamb's anent the discovery of roast pig might as well be brought up as a serious

sketch of Chinese manners. But it is not From Temple Bar.

likely that Goldsmith hoped or intended THROUGH CHINESE SPECTACLES.

to deceive any of his readers, or to delude CHINA, we all know, is topsy-turvydom. them into the belief that there was a genEvery visitor or writer — and every visitor uine Mongolian chiel among them takin' to China is sure to become a writer on notes. The case is slightly altered nowa. China sooner or later - insists on the days. We sometimes read, usually in an strange perversity that leads the Chinese American paper, but sometimes in our to do everything the wrong way. Their own sober reviews, certain comments on men wear petticoats, their women-folk the Western life, professing to be written by trews, as Wingrove Cooke announced a Chinaman. I don't, of course, refer to some thirty years ago, they build their Laurence Oliphant's amusing skits, but houses from the top downwards, in de- to ebulitions signed by “ Colonel Wang fiance of all Western laws of gravity. or “Secretary of Legation" Chang. Even in the lesser concerns of life this These must, it is regretable to say, be contrariness of disposition pursues them; viewed with the profoundest distrust; their chess manuals give black the lead, Chang and Wang have bad little to do and at all card games the cards are dealt with their production except the signing niddershins, the way the sun does not go, of their respective names, and even these while the dealer deals to himself first. have usually been spelt for them. No, Perhaps, however, the most convincing the only way to discover what a Chioamao proof of perversity is to be found in the really thinks and writes about us is to go fact that the one perfectly delightful month, to China for it. Here we are not disapthe month of bright blue skies and balmy pointed, but on the contrary may have breezes, the month in south China wherein (provided we can read Chinese) a treatise it is enough — for any reasonable lazy on our habits quite as amusiog as any inEuropean “not to be doing, but to be," vented by ourselves, and, undoubtedly, is November.

genuine. Yet all this, when we come to think of Last year there appeared in the princiit, is slightly unphilosophical. The Chi. pal Shanghai newspaper, the North China nese sat at the feet of Confucius in the Herald, a translation of a little book decorum of embroidered skirts and flowing entitled “ Desultory Notes on Western sleeves, when our doubtless noble, but Customs." The original work was pubcertainly unlettered, ancestors ran wild in lished in China in 1884, by one Hsiaowoods, with very little to cover them ex- weng, of Siling, and how he came into cept a layer or two of woad. What right, possession of it illustrates (at least we then, have we to stigmatize Chinese cus- hope it does) one striking difference be. toms as perverse because they differ from tween Chinese ideas of copyright and those we borrowed from our more civ. those obtaining, we will not say in Amer. ilized neighbors a inere trifle of a thousand ica but in Europe. He called, he tells us years or so ago ? Surely it is the China- in his preface, on a friend of his, a magisman who has the right, as first finder, to trate named Yuan Hsiang-fu, who had call his ways and habits.orthodox, and to just returned from a tour in Western set them up as a standard by which to countries. On Yuan's table lay a manugauge our own. And this, indeed, is what script, the record of his experience he has done and will continue to do. Yet abroad. This bis visitor pounced upon it is not easy even for the most philosoph- and borrowed. “I intended," he paively ical of us to put ourselves in a Chinaman's observes, “ to copy it, but before I could place and view our Western civilization do so the author asked for it back; and through Chinese spectacles. The idea is so it is only such portions of it as I can a new one, of course. Goldsmith struck remember, that I am now able to send to it in the “ Citizen of the World," but all press." We have then, in this brochure, Goldsmith bad to work with was a volume not the intrepid traveller's own commenor two of the “ Annales” published by the taries but his perfidious friend's fallible

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recollections of them. Still, for our them to make way for her, and in so making present purpose of seeing ourselves as way they must pass to the right and not to the Chinese see us, these will do perhaps

left. quite as well.

Now China is a country of nice grada. The first of Yuan or Hsiao-weng's des

tions, where a younger brother may not ultory notes is on the important question

presume to walk abreast of an elder. As of home rule :

for yielding the path to a mere female, the The western custom [he writes] is to con- thought would hardly occur to an orthodox sider the right hand to be the place of honor, Confucian, even in his dreams. Yuan's and to pay more respect to a woman than to next two notes deserve to be transcribed a man; hence when walking together a woman in toto : will precede a man, and when sitting down will sit on the right, he on the left.

When taking their places at meals the men

must wait till the women are first seated. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to observe They can then occupy chairs next to them. that no principal is more thoroughly es. The meal ended, women and men disperse in tablished in China than the superiority of the same order. While the women are at the left hand side. Last century, how. table, as a mark of respect to them no man is ever, the whole machinery of government allowed to smoke. After dinner the men was deranged for weeks by a heretic who must leave the table and go elsewhere to maintained that of two tablets hung on a smoke, or if there be no smoking-room must wall precedence ought to be given to that wait till the women have departed. Occaon the right. The Council of State was

sionally, when the women have finished eatsummoned, and after an anxious and pro- that this is done out of compassion.

ing, they leave at once, expressly observing tracted debate the emperor decided, ex garded as a gracious courtesy on their part. cathedrà, that the heretic was correct; for tablets hung on a wall, particularly an In China things are managed much imperial wall, must be regarded from the more sensibly. There the women lay the point of view of the wall itself, and not table for their lords, and when these have from that of a mere untitled spectator. gorged themselves, dine contentedly off To return, though, to our womankind. the scraps. Both men and women smoke,

· Husband and wife,” continues Yuan, a sickly powdered tobacco inhaled a thim“ go arm in arm along the street, yet no bleful at a time. No Chinaman apoloone smiles; a husband will perform any gizes for smoking in your presence; be menial office before his wife and no one would expect rather an apology from you jeer at him.”

The author of an ingenious for not smoking with him. As Yuan obnative work, “ The Sights of Shanghai,” serves later on, a visitor in England may draws attention to this reprehensible please himself whether he smokes or not.” practice on the part of foreigners and It is considered meritorious among us, their wives who "stroll about the public we learn, to abstain from smoking, and garden arm in arm and shoulder to shoul: smokers in first-class railway carriages are der, without any show of bashfulness," fined a pang (£I sterling). Another disfor no Chinaman (except in a Frenchman's couragement to the practice in England is book) ever takes a man's arm, much less its cost. Manila cheroots, Yuan tells his a woman's. In “Le Fleuve des Perles," readers, are very expensive, and a smoker published this year with a laudatory pref- will spend each day from eighteen-pence ace by “ Général Tcheng Ki-tong," the to three shillings in tobacco. “Compare provincial judge is represented as walking with this,” he says, “ the waste of wealth arm in arm with a widow through a main by smokers of opium in the Middle Kingthoroughfare in Canton. The situation is dom, and what difference is there? The striking and novel, for the majority of latter, he remarks is never smoked by Chinese judges would as soon think of Europeans, and only occasionally by walking with a balloon or a cassowary as Americans. A Chinaman in England has with a widow, if, which is very, very frequently considerable difficulty in obtaindoubtful, they ever thought of walking at ing it. all.

On the subject of walking, Yuan has a Although opium is sold at all druggists, yet further note :

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a customer has to state for what disease he

requires it before the apothecary will serve When three or four are in company, and are him. Even then he is given but a very little. passing idly along the streets, they must walk When natives of the Middle Kingdom go to abreast, and not in any straggling fashion. purchase it for smoking and ask for several Should they meet a woman, etiquette requires ounces, the druggist will at first be startled,

3834

LIVING AGE.

VOL. LXXIV.

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then, on hearing that it is only to be inhaled tious reason, but because he considers it at a lamp, will smile and let them have it.

wilful extravagance to kill the ploughing Our apothecaries' shops seem, indeed, beast," for everywhere ploughing is done

Foreigners in to have somewhat disappointed Yuan: by oxen, not by horses. Nothing is visible,” he complains, “ but Peking used to classify the beef provided

them as the glass bottles, ranged row upon row;

"donkey,” camel," " horse,” you do not see the ingredients of the drug the only variety in ge

or “precipice.” Precipice beef in their crude state.

ral demand; it is gist, on the other hand, will freely display killed by falling over a precipice. Cow's

A Chinese drug. the product of a cow that has got itself the most nauseous and disgusting sub- milk is never used in China in its fresh stances as medicine ; often he will keep a live deer there in a pen against the time barian abomination. Condensed milk, on

form, and cheese is looked upon as a bar. when it will be pounded whole in a mor. the other hand, is rapidly becoming poputar, coram populo, to convince customers lar, the most curious use to which it is put that his drugs are genuine. Medicines being perhaps as a substitute for vaccine, are gulped down by the quart, the pre. It is cheaper, more easily procurable, and scriber holding that if one ingredient does not do its work another may. Their vir- at all events does no harm. tues nevertheless are many and myste. adds:

On the subject of tea and coffee, Yuan rious. A missionary doctor was well acquainted with a native practitioner, a Coffee is a kind of bean roasted, ground to man of considerable intelligence and re- powder and boiled into a thick syrup; it is pute. Him he brought to his home one taken as a digestive, but white sugar has to day and showed, with natural pride, his be added to counteract its bitter flavor. Tea, three fair-haired little girls. The native but it must be mixed with white sugar and

which is pronounced tee, is always black tea, bastened to compliment his foreign friend: milk. They dare not drink it neat, because, “Their complexions are indeed beautiful, as they say, it would then corrode, and so inbut, if I may say so, their hair is perhaps jure the stomach. hardly dark enough.” He produced a bottle. “ A dose of this taken internally,

Tea is properly made by placing a few three times a day, would make a wonderful leaves in a cup and pouring on boiling improvement.” He went on with more water; it is drunk by covering the cup with embarrassment: “ There is another thing a saucer and sucking the infusion through about them that I hardly like to mention.” the interstice. No sugar is added or reHis friends reassured him. “Well, if you quired; for the tea-leaves used being less will allow me to say it, they are all girls. thoroughly fired than those intended for Now I have at home some pills that are foreign consumption, are far less acrid. perfectly infallible. Let them take these | The character (symbol) for “tea,” is proregularly for a month or so, and I promise nounced in the north ch'ah, but in Amoy they will develop into three as fine boys as and Swatow tay - the original (and corfather could wish for."

rect) pronunciation of our own word “tea,” Our habits at meal-time furnish matter preserved for us in Dublin, Paris, and for several other notes:

sundry verses such as Tea and comfits are taken twice a day, and Great Anna, whom three realms obey, a heavy meal twice. About the time for the Doth sometimes counsel take and sometimes latter a bell is rung once to let people know, so that they may change their clothes and wash their hands; when the bell is again rung glishmen do not, " like the people of the

It is interesting to be told that we En. they assemble together in the dining-room. Bread is first given out, then soup, and alter- Middle Kingdom, swallow tea incessantly wards meats; the soup is usually beef or from morn to eve.” chicken broth, but turtle soup is considered There is a reason for this practice of the the best. Later on come mution, fish, geese, Middle Kingdom folk, as there is for most chickens, and pigeons; then “ beef-oil-cakes” of their practices, were it worth while to [cheese), biscuits, and fruit; last of all, coffee hunt for it. A Chinaman will never touch is served, and the affair is over. At tea-time cold water, unless compelled by very suthey take cow's milk and white sugar mixed perior circumstances, and it is to this abwith coffee or black tea.

stention that the singular fact is due that True to his topsy-turvy principles, the the Chinese do not all die of typhoid fever. Chinaman begins his meal with dessert I have seen at the same pond two womeo and finishes with soup. Beef he will not washing, one the rice for the family dinner, willingly touch — not for any supersti- the other the bed-clothes of her husband

tea.

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