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ous a dilemma ; and matters have gone so can it last, I asked myself with an inward far - I can see no way out of it.”
moan, and what can the solution be? And Her face grew dark again. With the I found myself regretting, with that cowunreasoning anger of a thwarted child :
ardly shrinking from the sight of pain that “ Luckily," answered she, pointedly in- most of us know in our egotism, those few solent, “nothing hangs by your opinion.” days' delay I had given myself to follow
“ Unless, indeed," I proceeded, out their melancholy fortunes. wardly unruffled, although within, it must As she entered they advanced hastily. be owned, the description would not ap. But on their faces there was none of the ply, “ you bad the generosity to go away lover's joy, at the unexpected appearance since they cannot.”
of his mistress; nothing but dogged, bitAfter staring at me for a moment in ter determination. speechless surprise, the beauteous Isa- She stretched out both hands with her bella gave a hard, short laugh.
cursed impartial coquetry, and as each took Booby!” quoth she, with emphatic and kissed the proffered fingers, their eyes
No, that is a little too transpar- turned again to meet in that look, which ent, even for you! No doubt you think by this time, alas, was nothing new to me, you could manage to come after me, since a look of defiance, eager and unflinching they cannot, as you say.
Tatatata !” as their own sword blades in opposition. bearing down my furious disclaimer with She was very playful, and lavished banrenewed light-heartedness and cheerfully tering reproaches on what she termed their reaching for bonnet and mantle. Á late lack of gallantry, and poutingly propretty dodge, caro, very, but I shall think tested that, in truth, they did not deserve of something better myself. Your arm, the honor of her presence at their function Signor Jealous, to help me down your pre. on the morrow. The brothers' gravity cipitous stairs.”
remained unshaken; nor could their fair I lent her the support demanded with visitant's most bewitching smile evoke what I fear was an ill grace. And, con- more than the palest response. versing at the top of her naturally high- In these various humors we made a pitched voice with very obvious intent, tour round the room, during which, no she progressed slowly down the first two doubt to give color to her intempestive flights. On the landing of the floor occu- appearance, she expressed voluble interpied by the brothers she paused, tittering. est in her novel surroundings; the long Then admonishing me to silence with an array of practice and other weapons glint. exaggerated gesture she tripped up to the ing at intervals on the walls through the door of the fencing-room, listened for the melancholy twilight; the gallery of carspan of half a second, and observing that touches and escutcheons — painted, as I there was no sound within, that the masters knew, and with great heraldic taste, by the must be out, forth with commanded me to younger in honor of sundry of his pupils show her over the mysterious premises, -the trophies of old arms, the blackened which the presence of pupils, she said, had paraphernalia of by-gone state, stern fam. hitherto prevented her from inspecting. ily portraits saved from the wreck of the
Knowing by this time its uselessness, I house's fortunes and now gathered in this forbore remonstrance. Indeed, consider- sole remaining reception-room to lend ing that she had already turned the han. their countenance to the strange profesdle, I should have been left addressing sion of the last of the Luganis, — all these space. But I did not share the surprise things called forth well-meant if indiscrim
well acted or genuine — with which she inate terms of admiration. I, neverthe. halted on the threshold to greet the vision less, thought to divine in the misleading of two figures, one black, the other white profundity of her wandering gaze, dreams from head to foot, which silently emerged of gilded Viennese furniture of gaudy, from different corners of the long room brand new upholstering for the not far upon her entrance.
distant future. So this was the stage now reached by But the chil influence of the young my poor friends in the course of their men's unnatural relations, which had fallen disease! With hearts raging at the con. on me, as it now always did, from the instraint which kept them from their desire, stant í entered their presence, at length they who had been so lioked by generous began to affect her. She grew pensive. affection spent the bitter hours watching The ring of her voice, which had, almost like angry beasts to keep each other from unaccompanied, awakened the echoes of the prey which could not belong to both. the vast room, presently ceased. There I shuddered at the thought. How long came an oppressive pause.
Then, with a reproachful rustling of silk | them with any chance of success, either through the silence, she moved towards left the island voluntarily, or were forced the door.
to do so by deportation or expulsion. It “I must go,” she said, sigbing deeply, was then that they for the most part miyet as I fancied unconsciously. “ Addio, grated to the United States, where, finding or shall I say, a riverdeci ? Come, you see in New Orleans a climate like that of their I am a good child, and bear no malice. native land, they elected to stay, and imTill to-morrow ?”
mediately began to reconstruct with the The young men made a simultaneous, remnants of their body that baleful comimpulsive movement forward, then halted bination of malefactors and assassins abruptly, checked by some invincible mu- which for so many years had been the tual reaction, and stood on either side of pest of Sicily, and which until a short time the door bowing in silent, stiff farewell. since was the plague of New Orleans. Petulantly, with a shrug of her shoulders Unlike the Camorra of Naples, the Mafia she passed out, ignoring, as she pattered was not, strictly speaking, a secret society. with rapping heels down the great stone There were no mysterious rites connected steps, the arm I hastened to proffer. with the ceremony of introduction into the
Not until she was seated in her carriage body; it had no determinate rules, no rec. did she deign to turn her clouded face on ognized head. It was, in fact, a criminal
republic which despised the laws and “ You are right,” said she, and nodded, obliged its citizens, on the severest paios protruding her underlip with determined and penalties, never to have recourse to emphasis, “this cannot go on. I will them; for it maintained that a man bimdevise something." A promise which, self could by some means or other avenge despite my advice of that very day, caused an injury of any kind soever. This belief me much subtle uneasiness, for I had was fostered during years of oppression good reason to doubt the trustworthiness under a series of governments whose rulers of either the head or heart of her.
so abused their power and so perverted “No doubt,” I thought, as I clambered the laws that the people combined amongst back to my solitary quarters, “she means themselves not only never to seek the joto precipitate the crisis on the next meet- terference of the justiciary, but actually to ing." And my fears and misgivings grow- oppose its administration. It is therefore ing ever sorrier as the hours went by, I plain that the Mafia first was created to looked forward to the forthcoming fête render as ineffectual as possible the abuses with heavy spirits, and was again moved of a bad government, and to help the peo. to disregard, for the nearer anxiety, a sec. ple in their struggle against the oppression ond summons from home which arrived and cruelty and the violence of the govthat night and urged me not to lose a day ernors and viceroys who from time to time in starting.
held delegated power in Sicily.
Until the subversion of the power of the Bourbons there was, with the exception of the terrors of brigandage and assassi
nation, some excuse for the action of the From The Speaker. Mafia. The poorer members of it were THE MAFIA IN SICILY.
defended in some degree from the rapacity Of all the secret societies which have of the minions of the government by their had a being in Italy in recent years, the wealthier associates. And although the Masia has been the worst. Its ramifica. Mafia sometimes were at enmity amongst tions were numerous and intricate, its themselves, and carried their internecine members belonged to every class in Sicily, strife to great lengths, they always comits influence was felt in every operation of bined when any member was menaced by civil life, and by its interference in politics danger from outside. In the perpetual and its encouragement of crime, it so ham. war which this body carried on against pered the administration of the law, and law and social order, there seems to liave
openly defied it, that the goveroment of been a weird charm which, while urging Italy was obliged at last to combat it by them to perpetrate crimes of the most the most extreme measures permissible by heinous sort amongst themselves, bound the constitution. These measures were them together by the bonds of common in. both repressive and coercive; and so per- terest. The same sentiment holds them emptorily were they carried out, that at together now, and has influenced their relength the members of the Mafia, seeing cent action in the United States. that they could not longer stand out against As we have said, the Mafia had and has
members in every class of society in Sicily mind that such testimony was not to be
- amongst the nobility and wealthier the truth, lest thereby some of the Mafia landed proprietors as well as amongst the should be compromised, and the “inpetty farmers and the peasantry. The triguers” or "spies," as the police are former are the protectors, the latter the generally regarded by the people, put on protected. In many ways there is be the track of the guilty. This doctrine tween the patron and the client a quality was inculcated in the saying that “The of dependent relationship similar to that truth is only told in the confessional." which existed in the feudal times. But it | Indeed, all the teachings of the Mafia are must be noted, that if the client in any to be found in the apothegms of the Siciway offend his patron he is punished by lian peasantry, to whom proverbs of this no lenient code; for in such a case revolt kind are held of as sacred import as the or insult almost always means death for Ten Commandments or the sacraments. the poor Mafioso, while the more powerful of these the following are a few examones have immunity for their offences. ples :Even by the various governments of Sicily up to 1877 the High Mafia has been
The gallows is for the poor and justice for shielded, it never having suited any administration or ministerial functionary to the law.
He who has money and friends can sneer at bring home to them crimes which it was common knowledge that they were either This last saying we have modified in accessories to or responsible for. So
translation, for, as is common amongst the great, even, was the political influence of populace, the expression of contempt is these that they have frequently controlled grosser and therefore better appeals to the elections, Parliamentary and muni- their understanding. Again, we have: cipal, not only in the small towns and Of that which does not concern you say minor electoral districts, but also in Mes- neither good nor evil. sina and Palermo.
Prison, sickness, and misfortune prove the Let us explain some of the principles heart of friends. which are supposed to guide or direct the
Deprive him of life who takes from the
you action of the Mafia. Their code of honor,
means of living: in which is contained their moral deca- hundred ounces (£ 53) in the pocket.
An influential friend is of more value than a logue, is called Omertà, an expression
be translated into English as These might be multiplied to a considermanliness. It is derived from the word able extent; for in them are contained not omu, which is Sicilian for uomo, “a man.” only the germs of faith, but the whole In this expression is contained all that religion of these criminals whose organ. actuates the Mafia. It implies obedience ization had undermined the religion of only to a barbarous law, which they be. Christianity and become a dangerous oplieve invests them with self-respect, and at ponent to the recognized ethics of civili. the same time insists that it is the first duty zation. These apothegms contain occult of a man, if he be a man, to execute justice doctrines which have so insinuated themwith his own hand, and not under any cir- selves into the minds of the people that cumstances to have recourse to the laws they cherish them more than they do the of the country to redress a wrong or to teachings of their priesthood, who have repair or avenge an injury. The basis of been always obliged to subserve the char. this law, as well as that of the organiza. itable counsels of the Church to the tion, was a self-reliant silence. To divulge superstitious tenets of this uncontrollable a secret was a crime as great as it was to sect. give evidence in a court of justice. If, The means which the Mafia adopted to however, there were in the knowledge of carry out their nefarious designs were the justiciary important facts which in- deceit and intimidation. These never culpated certain of the Mafia, it was per- failed to attain their ends, for the exammissible for witnesses who were called to ples which the Mafiosi made of the readmit, if they could not help it, that they calcitrant were so terrible that the people were cognizant of them, as long as the preferred to suffer from their oppression admission did not specifically incriminate and contribute to their maintenance and a person. Hence the saying among them preservation rather than risk their lives in that La testimonianza è buona finchè non opposing a body which proved itself too fa male al prossimo (To bear witness is strong for the hand of the law prior to good as long as it does no harm to your 1877. In that year it was felt that the fellow-creature). But it must be borne in time had come when the Italian govern
ment should assert its authority and sup- ance. Most of the names given by Lieupress this gang of miscreants, who were tenant Ball have been retained — namely, making Italy appear contemptible in the Mounts Ledgbird and Gower, Points eyes of Europe, and justifying the asser. Phillip and King - after the first governor tion of her enemies that she was unfit to and lieutenant-governor of New South keep her own house in order. Then it Wales - Prince William Henry Bay, etc. was that she, following the method she The appearance of the island as it is adopted in destroying the power of the approached is remarkable. Two roundCamorra, drove every suspected member looking knobs are first seen, at a disiance of the Mafia out of Sicily, to the great joy of from forty to fifty miles, like separate of many who for one cause or another hadisles rising from the water. As one gets affected to be in sympathy with it, while nearer, these appear to be joined together, secretly they were combining with the law and to have a long, flat stretch of ground to accomplish its suppression.
attached to them, terminating in a lower mound. The general effect now is that of a camel crouching to receive its load. The two first-sighted prominences form the
hind quarters of the animal, and the small From Chambers' Journal.
hill at the farther end of the island his THE MADEIRA OF THE PACIFIC.
head; whilst a line of low rocks stretching THERE is an interesting speck of vol. across the bay seems to be the cord or canic land rising from the waters of the string attaching the head to the rump; a ocean a few days' sail from Sydney, which slight rise about the middle of the island has been aptly termed The Madeira of seems to be the saddle ready for loading, the Pacific; and as it presents many A closer approach reveals a singularly features of interest, it may not be out of beautiful outline. The two rises which place to give a short description of it and were first seen turn out to be a couple of of things pertaining to it.
bold headlands at the south end, and are Lord Howe Island, the official name of known as Mounts Ledgbird and Gower, this “gem of the sea,” distant and inac-rising in great inaccessible cliffs nearly cessible as it may at first sight appear, is three thousand feet high sheer from the not really altogether out of the world, for sea. The head of the camel turns out to it is but three or four hundred miles from be North Ridge, and the centre rise Mount Sydney, and of late has had regular com- Lookout. All these, with two subsidiary munication with that city by means of the prominences known as North Hummock ketch Mary Ogilvie, which makes four and Intermediate Hill, form the backbone, voyages in the year between Sydney and as it were, of the island. The general Norfolk Island, calling at Lord Howe effect as one casts anclior at the moorings going and coming.
is exquisite. The deep red and grey
volLord Howe Island is situated about canic rocks of Mounts Gower and Ledge three hundred miles from Port Macquar- bird are intersected here and there by rie. It is some five hundred west of Nor- great dykes of intrusive basalt running folk Island, and is the most southern of like twisting ladders from base to summit. the islands on the east coast of Australia. The hills at the north end, although lower, Its length is between six and seven miles are not less abrupt; but through them all, " as the crow Aies" (only there are no and indeed upon any point giving the least crows there), but is considerably longer if foothold, patches of bright green vegetathe curve of the land is followed; the tion give variety and contrast to the darker average width is a inile, but is a great deal stony mass. Between the hills, the unmore in places.
dulating country is thickly wooded, break. The discovery of the island was made ing off into flats stretching to the sea, by Lieutenant Henry Ledgbird Ball on the sometimes wooded to the water's edge, at 17th of February, 1788, during his pas- others ending in lower cliffs; while here sage from Port Jackson (Sydney) to Nor- and there bright green swards terminate folk Island. Mr. Ball remained several in sandy beaches, hardly ruffled the days at the island; he gave it the title we gentle heave of the waves within the reefknow it by after the celebrated admiral, and bound lagoon. also named the principal peaks, points, and The plan or form of the island is that ports around and upon it. He made a of a crescent; “ boomerang-shaped,” Mr. survey of the shore-line and of the adja- H. T. Wilkinson appropriately terms it; cent islets and rocks, took soundings, and nearly two-thirds of it on the concave side gave sailing directions for future guid- | is protected by a fringing coral reef ex:
tending from Phillip Point to the foot of men were named Ashdown, Bishop, and Mount Ledgbird. The North Peak rises Chapman. They had with them ihree precipitously in a rugged promontory some Maori women and two Maori boys, and six hundred feet high, and round to the made the passage across in the whaling westward is a semi-isolated hill known as barque Caroline, of which Captain BlenMount Eliza. “It has all the appearance kinsop was master. They cleared some of a conical bill cut vertically in half," of the ground near the beach, built says Mr. Etheridge, while “Linnæus " themselves huts of palm-boughs, planted says of it " that it resembles a divided sweet potatoes, and lived comfortably by cone with a peaked top.” Along the sea. shooting and fishing. Shortly after this, it face are one or two water-washed caves. occurred to a Sydney merchant and iron
A few ravines run from the bigher lands monger named Dawson that he might do to the sea; but the creeks are unimportant, well on the island; and accordingly he as may be imagined from the small area of made arrangements to proceed there with the island; fresh water, however, is abun- a view to settling. He was accompanied dant, and readily obtainable by shallow by a certain Captain Poole, said to have sinking
been a military man; and these two There are some three thousand acres of bought out the original settlers, giving land in the whole island, while two thou- them three hundred and fifty pounds in all, sand of this would be capable of cultiva- of which sum Bishop and Chapman dition ; but as a matter of fact, only a few vided two hundred pounds, and, as he hundred acres are in tilth. The principal had made more extensive improvements, crops are onions — the finest south of the Ashdown took one hundred and fifty line - bananas, sweet potatoes, and maize. pounds. Poole remained on the island to It is indeed from the export to Sydney of represent his firm, and was joined by a onions that the inhabitants of the island Dr. Foulis, who had bought half his interchiefly obtain their living; but there are est. Ashdown, Bishop, and Chapman and abundant opportunities of increasing their their families then left. means of subsistence, for there is hardly Things appear to have gone on smoothly a fruit, vegetable, or flower grown through. enough, and there is but little recorded of out the temperate or semi-tropical regions the doings of the islanders until 1843. A of the world which would not flourish little vessel owned by Dawson, named upon it.
the Rover's Bride, traded between SydThe island was only occasionally visited ney and the island; but matters did not from its discovery until 1834. Now and progress, chiefly owing to the settlers' then, a party of whalers would land and want of energy in clearing and planting refresh themselves with the easily caught good land; they preferred io use the light wild hens and indigenous fruits, or obtain and open sandy patches near the shore, from the lagoon boat-loads of the swarm. instead of taking to the richer volcanic ing fish; and sometimes would leave part land, covered with timber and loose stones, of their crews there while they made short which yields at present such bountiful runs away.
Some of these rambling vis. crops, but is expensive and troublesome itors, indeed, performed acts which have to clear and render fit for the plough. left their marks on the island. They However, in the year last named an inciturned loose pigs and goats, and also, un- dent occurred which gives a picture of the fortunately, a lot of black domestic cats. half-barbarous, half-patriarchal manner in All these animals throve; but the cats which the settlers dwelt and were gove became a source of great mischief, almost erned, if government it may be called. At extinguishing the pretty and useful but that time, i'oole, who seems to have had very stupid wood-hen, as well as a curious the chief command of the islanders, had bird like the guinea-fowl, and an elegant chained up to a tree a man named Moss. and gentle ground pigeon. The goats This unfortunate had escaped from a took to the mountains, and now afford whaler which had put in for shelter; but excellent sport; and the pigs becoming he seems to have been of little use either masters of ihe thickets, prospered wonder. aboard ship or ashore, and refused to do fully, and are often killed of great size. any work for his living; and to punish his Domestic pigeons and poultry were also idleness, Poole chained him up. One turned loose, and became absolutely wild. night, however, when the watch was asleep,
In the year 1834 a party of three New Master Moss got free, and took to the Zealand colonists, tempted by the ac- bush. He subsisted for some time by counts the whalers had given of this happy stealing what he could, and on roots and isle, determined to settle upon it. These l birds ; at the same time he managed to