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position, has been a slow one. It can in Let me illustrate this general statement my belief only become wholly satisfactory from the biography, by instances which when the law of copyright shall have been shall not be associated with names so faplaced upon such a footing as to allow the mous as those of Scott and Byron. In public, its true patron, earlier and more 1820, for the “ Memoirs of Lord Walde. effective access to the perusal of new and grave,” together with Horace Walpole's high-class works, than for the most part “ Last Nine Years of George 11.," he it at present enjoys. But the progress agreed to pay £2,500, a price which no actually effected has been immense. Let other publisher would give, and which he us go back to the time when, in this coun- did not recover from the public. He gave try, Milton accepted from a bookseller £5, Washington Irving three thousand guineas with contingent payments of £10 more, for the Voyages of Columbus ; for the privilege of issuing. * Paradise thousand for the Conquest of Granada," Lost." We are accustomed tacitly to losing on the two works £2,250. He gave commiserate the poet, and to hold his pub- one thousand guineas for the first volume lisher in small account for liberality. But of Napier's “ Peninsular War;”. £1,200 there is a word to be said on the publish- for “ Franklin's Second Expedition ; er's behalf. Fifteen pounds, even if we £3,000 for the copyright of “Crabbe's multiply it (say) by three, with reference Poems; five hundred guineas for Mil

. to the altered relation of value between man's “ Fall of Jerusalem;" for the “ Marcash and commodities, may be but a small tyr of Antioch ” and “Belshazzar” the

Still it is a sum, and passes into the same sum in each case. He gave Miss pocket; and the question arises whether F. Kemble four hundred guineas for there had ever before been given among “ Francis the First.”* In most of these us, by any publisher, for any work, any cases (but not the last), he went against or payment at all. Such cases may have beyond the judgment of his own literary existed, but I have never been able to advisers; no inconsiderable persons, for discover them. Take another instance. they were such as Gifford, Croker, LockFifty years ago, America, as a very young hart, and Sharon Turner. country, probably represented a much He showed an enlightened judgment in earlier stage of development in the literary preferring a system of sharing profits to question than England, or than the Amer- that of purchasing outright. But the ica of to-day with its huge and rapid de. largeness of these prices was not the only velopment. At any rate, we have before form in which he exhibited his pecuniary us in the revised “ Life of Mr. Dana,” but disinterestedness. To Scott, by whose just published, a curious account of his genius he had profited, he presented his iransactions with one of the first publish: fourth share of the copyright of “Marers of New York respecting his peculiarly micn”.“ as an act of grateful acknowledginteresting work, “ Two Years before the ment; ”f and when it was desired to Mast."*

As he was not a rich man, con- withhold from publication the memoirs siderable pains were taken to get the best Byron had written, on account of their possible price for it. But this proved to contents, he warmly concurred in promotbe only two hundred and fifty dollars, oring the suppression, though he held the £50. It was reprinted in England by Mr. property; and, in order to secure this end, Moxon without the protection of copy- he was willing to sacrifice two thousand right, and a larger sum was voluntarily re- guineas which he had paid for them. An mitted to the author than he had obtained arrangement was, however, eventually in America by parting with his legal prop- made by which the money was repaid to erty in the work. Compare with these him.I Indeed the liberality of his mind cases the state of things in which “Wood- habitually went beyond pecuniary forms; stock," only in part composed, had already, and we repeatedly find him lending to auin 1826, been set down by the house of thors without any security for repayment; Constable as an asset at £7,500; while or laboring to bring about accommodations another novel, not yet begun, but to be among his rivals in trade, which by withwritten during the year, at £7,500 more.f drawing business from himself went diOf the immense advance thus effected on rectly to the diminution of his gains. behalf of literary livelihood, the reader of In one instance only perhaps did he these volumes may be led to surmise that offer a niggardly remuneration for literary an appreciable share is due to Mr. Murray.

* Memoirs, vol. ii., pp. 89, 104, 106, 257, 259, 260, • R. H. Dana; a Biography, vol. i., pp. 25-7. 283, 290, 385.

+ A. Constable and his Literary Correspondents, † Memoirs, vol. ii., p. 275. chap. vi., P. 405.

I Vol. i., pp. 441-50.

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work. It was in the case of the poet Colestrowo, bear witness to his real literary ridge. This extraordinary man, though capacity. not in the full enjoyment of his fame, had And this is perhaps the proper place to at the time of the transaction executed his notice his concern in the foundation of the great translation of “Wallenstein," which Quarterly Review. has all the character of an original, and Along with that review, Mr. Murray which some, it is believed, have preferred seems to have rather hardened in his to the work of Schiller himself. * In 1814 Toryism with the lapse of years; but it it was proposed to Coleridge that he was, in its inception, a literary undertakshould translate 66 Faust.” But the price ing. It followed the Edinburgh, founded offered him by Mr. Murray for the trans- in 1802, which has the honor of originality, lation, together with a preliminary analy- and with which Murray came to be con. sis, was no more than £100, payable within nected, as part agent, and then as sole two months after the work should have agent in London, about three years later. been placed complete in the hands of the First in the field, “it appeared at the right publisher. The explanation of what time, and, as the first quarterly organ of seems a marked deviation from his ordi- the higher criticism, evidently hit the nary scale may have lain in his suspicions mark at which it aimed."* of Coleridge as a man of business, and in Differences with the Edinburgh puba consequent lukewarmness as to the for- lisher soon arose, we are told, out of his mation of any relations with him. Poor practice of drawing accommodation bills, Coleridge, probably under pressure of that is to say bills not represented by circumstances, sent what was meant to be values. Accordingly, before 1808 had an acceptance of the terms. But, very expired, the agency was withdrawn from unfortunately, the matter did not proceed, Mr. Murray. He was then left free to and the world lost in this instance what is prosecute a plan for the establishment of in literature a rare and very interesting a review in the southern capital, anticiphenomenon, the rendering by a great pated in this matter by the northern. poet, in a tongue foreign to the original, of This plan seems to have been eminently the thoughts of a poet greater still. and exclusively his own. The inception

Mr. Murray exhibited his self-reliance of the Quarterly was a matter far more and decision of character, when his years arduous and complicated than had been were still few, and his resources slender, that of the Edinburgh. In the case of by his peremptory dissolution of partner- the elder sister, a body of distinguished ship † with Mr. Highley, a sort of inherited men appear to have framed their own litpartner whom he felt to be an incumbrance. erary scheme, and then to have found a His proposal, he says, he knows to be a publisher ready to undertake its mercan. fair one, and “ I declare it to be the last iile counterpart, each party having its with which I intend to trouble you." own province, and its own responsibility. These qualities marked his whole career; There was not, in the case of the Quar. and were shown in the promptitude of his terly, any such compact combination of offers, in his disposition to constant mul- writers, formed beforeband under an edi. tiplication of engagements, and in the torial head. The editor was appointed, large share of work properly literary which the writers one by one attracted, the lithe habitually took upon himself. He did erary arrangements constantly considered, not follow the practice common among by Mr. Murray, who is evidently and publishers of employing a salaried reader, exclusively entitled to the honors of a but obtained pro re natâ the friendly aid founder. Next to him comes Sir Walter of eminent men, who valued their relations Scott; and in the third place stands Gifwith him, and gladly lent it. His private ford, whose office in docking, trimming, judgment could not but be considerably adapting, and almost rewriting articles apexercised in the choice of this or that ad-pears to have been one of great labor and viser as occasion arose, and it has been anxiety, peremptorily and strongly, but seen that he withheld from them any ser- ably and conscientiously performed. Alvile deference, even to the increase of his though the Review had the aid of Scott own costs and charges. From their letters from the first, although Southey, Croker, it is evident that they respected his judg. and other notable men came in, although ment, and those letters of his, with which it enjoyed in a few cases the brilliant the volumes are thickly, but not too thickly superintendence of Canning, yet the want sponsibilities, resulted during the early thirty years; but this was the year 1825, years of the Review, from 1809 to 1817 or the year of “ Prosperity Robinson,” the Dear it, in an unfavorable balance-sheet. year of dupes and dreams. It was also But neither difficulty nor loss exhausted the time when Mr. Canning “called the the courage, persistence, and assiduity of New World into existence, to redress the the publisher. It was rewarded after a balance of the old.” If Mr. Canning, when costly and toilsome apprenticeship, by a he made the boast, was perhaps a little career of marked and enduring success. influenced by the intoxication of the Under the powerful direction of Gifford, time, we may be the less surprised that and, after a short interval, of Lockhart, it its fumes found their way into the wellequalled or surpassed the large circulation chambered brain of Mr. Murray. Then of some twelve thousand copies, to which it is to be borne in mind that Disraeli the the northern rival had more rapidly at- elder was a close personal friend, and was tained. It became in the hands of its one of the advisers employed about the publisher, an estate; and no estate was Quarterly. Intimacy had long been esever more honorably acquired by integ: tablished between the families. But, after rity, discernment, and munificent appre- every allowance, our amazement can be ciation of literary service. Even when but little abated when we contemplate the each number was a loss, every article fascination exercised by the young magisupplied by the pen of Southey was paid cian. Nor was the publisher the only for at the rate of a hundred pounds. captive. Mr. Benjamin Disraeli, who had

of a regular staff, and of undivided re• Memoirs, vol. i., p. 300. + Vol. i., p. 297. | Vol. i., p. 31.

Memoirs, vol. i., p. 91.

Mr. Murray had indeed something like already communicated with a financing a passion for periodical literature. He house in the city, and obtained the adherepeatedly entertained the idea of widen- sion of a certain Bowles.(afterwards shown, ing the market for this class of supplies in Carlyle's phrase, to be a windbag), twice by the establishment of a magazine of undertook a journey to Scotland. He was smaller price and more frequent appear- confident in the solidity of the arguments ance than those of the Quarterly. This he had to use. Lockhart, he writes,* propensity reached its climax at the junc “must see that, through Powles, all Amerture when he undertook to face single- ica and the commercial interest is at our handed, in addition to all his other beck," and that he is to be “the directorengagements, the immense labor and re- general of an immense organ, and at the sponsibility of a daily newspaper.

head of a band of high-bred gentlemen, There is not to be found a more curious and of important interests.” Mr. Isaac or attractive chapter in the biography be- comments † on the letters of his son. fore us, than that which recounts the ori." His views are vast, but they are founded gin, foundation, and catastrophe of the on good seose.” “ Never did the finest Representative, that having been the title season of blossoms promise a richer gathof the ill-omened and a!) but ruinous jour-ering.” The youth reported that though pal. It can, I think, hardly be denied that Lockhart eventually declined any perjo this matter Mr. Murray conspicuously sonal share in the undertaking, yet both lost the balance of his judgment. It can he and Sir Walter Scott viewed it with not be considered prudent for a great approval. Seeking to win a correspondent publisher to found, own, and manage a in Germany, he represented & that — the daily newspaper, For in the deed or paper would surely become “the focus of memorandum of partnership * we read, ihe information of the whole world.” The “the paper to be published by, and to be phrase carries internal evidence of its under the management of, Mr. Murray." originality. But it is borrowed, in a letter He had already been partner with Mr. to another foreign gentleman, by the great Croker in the Guardian newspaper, pub-publisher himself. “I wish to make this lished at Windsor, and it had failed. He journal the focus of the whole world.” A was led into the adoption of this larger costly plagiarism! Mr. Murray, by the scheme, says Dr. Smiles, through the in- agreement, was to supply half the capital, fluence of Mr. Benjamin Disraeli.t Does Mr. Powles and Mr. Benjamin Disraeli the history of commerce, or of letters, were to furnish one quarter each. At last offer to us a more curious picture than that the Representative came to the birth. of the sagacious veteran of the book trade, After a hard fight for existence, it sucdrawn into a wild and impossible under cumbed. The financial history will be taking by the eloquence of a youth of twenty? He had been at his work for

• Memoirs, vol. ii., p. 191.

† Pp. 193-5. • Memoirs, vol. ii., p. 186.

§ Pp. 202-3.

I P. 191.

† P, 182.

*

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best read in the parrative of Dr. Smiles.* | Controversy arose upon Lockhart's treat Suffice it to say that the chapter contain-ment of Constable in his great biography. ing it is one of those in which fact beats However, in a letter of the year 1827, fiction; and that Mr. Murray lost £26,000 Lockhart says * all literary men know the by the ill-starred adventure.

debt they owe to him personally " for hav. An impartial reader will, I tbink, con- ing thrown so much of new life and vigor clude from the perusal, that Mr. Murray's into the conduct of the profession.” And miscarriage was by no means due to mere he seems to be entitled to some share of pecuniary greed; that a spirit of enter the praise which has been earned by Murprise, true though pushed into exaggera- ray on a larger scale, and through a surer tion, bad more to do with it; and that sagacity, and a closer adherence to sound strong personal sympathy, perhaps even principles of business. affection, was a main factor in the undertak. In the grand enterprise of cheapening ing. He comes out of it smaller, perhaps, literature, and making it accessible to the as a calculator, but more than ever a man. public at large, Mr. Murray, Mr. Charles And it is in truth the strong and genuinely Knight, and Mr. Constable had their rehuman element, marking and following the spective shares.f The " Family Library" whole course of his career, which height. and “ The Library of Entertaining Knowl. ened its interest, but from time to time edge” began in 1829. But Constable had endangered its success; and whi has been befor and with them, and had impressed much of the stamp of chivalry brought out his " Miscellany” in the be

. on a trading career.

ginning of 1827. Mr. Murray had long Many of the side-lights of this biog- been pondering his own scheme, which he raphy open subjects of great interest; for at length brought into beneficial operation. instance, the origin and character of Gif. And it seems no improbable conjecture ford. But there is one of them which that this delay was owing to the pre-occucannot be passed by, by reason of its prob- pation, first of his mind by the fascinations able bearing on Mr. Murray's commercial of the Representative, and then of his education. Constable, whose large and resources by the disastrous liquidation. enterprising business came to a disastrous I must not close these remarks without end in 1826, and made place for that great referring to the literary court of Mr. Mur. epic presented to us in the heroic close of ray.Ş His hospitality was large and con. the life of Scott, was, if not the tutor, yet stant. It was not confined to authors of certainly the foreshadower of Murray. He standing and repute, for I myself, without had something of the same boldness of the smallest pretension to such a charac. conception, and largeness of liberality ter, shared it half a century ago. His towards authors; with the disadvantage of drawing-room, open from day to day, had a less central position, and a narrower the attractions of a most refined literary market at his doors. Their relations were club, minus the subscription. His rela. close for a considerable time, and their tions with the distinguished circle did not sentiments of reciprocal regard were merely represent what Carlyle calls “the

The tie was weakened by Mur-cash-nexus between man and man." The ray's distrust of his friend's finance, which company which so freely went in and out he thought dangerously mixed up with had no limit of nationality, and was of no reliance on accommodation bills. In 1807 sect in politics or letters. In another dethe junior entered on a course of remon- velopment of his munificent spirit, he strance with the senior trader. But the coveted and contrived the formation of a bond between them was not then broken, gallery of portraits. The band of Lawand Mr. Murray most warmly acknowl. rence was to be traced there ; and, when edges the value of pecuniary support he had not long passed the middle of received from him in 1810,† when his his career, it already included Byron, own resources may have been seriously Scott, Coleridge, Southey, Moore, Gifford, strained by the heavy charges attending Croker, Barrow, Hallam, Irving, Campbell, the first establishment of the Quarterly Lockhart, Crabbe, among men of letters, Review. This is related in the memoir of besides the chief voyagers to tbe North Constable by his son; a work which is Pole and to Africa.|| unduly swollen with much padding, but The scope of human life is indeed wide, which contains no small amount of valua. lle information, and forms a portion of • Archibald Constable, vol. iii., p. 439. what may be called the Scott literature. † Memoirs, vol. ii., pp. 295-6.

I Archibald Constable, chap. vii., p. 440. Memoirs, vol. i., chap. xxvi.

Ś Vol. i., p. 83. † Archibald Constable, vol. i., p. 384.

ii Vol. ii., p. 317.

warm.

ON AUTOGRAPHS.

I.

and its aspects multitudinous. On some, signature, in fragmentary moods of grief and the very highest, of them, I have not or jesting, of anger, or hate, or love presumed to touch. But Murray raised moods deep and light, serious and volatile, the tone of his profession; and every man where are found records of tears long forwho does that, is among the benefactors gotten by the mourner; of wrongs unof his race. I have therefore sought to righted, forgotten by their champions; of mark the work as a literary life which is jests from which the laughter has faded, entitled to the rare and solid distinction and anecdotes robbed by time of their of a permanent place in the history of point, or, it may often be more accurately letters. My own title so to mark it is to described, of their edge. be found simply in the fact that, though Take, for example, the collection of two distinguished ladies * still survive, manuscript letters, rather than autographs, one of whom preceded me, I am the only which lie before us. They are, it is true, man now living, who has had Mr. Murray, bound together by one link, and possess second of his race, for his publisher. His one characteristic in common; for, with saltem accumulem donis. And may that comparatively few exceptions, they are race long continue.

addressed to a single correspondent, and

the reflection of his personality lies mir* Mrs. Butler and Lady Eastlake.

rored, in varying degrees of strength, across the whole collection. It is the transitory principle of cohesion which unites for the time elements so various,

sometimes so antagonistic — the rallyingFrom Longman's Magazine.

point round which the assemblage gathers. For a moment they meet, like the person

ages represented at a fancy ball; then the GRAY has written his elegy. He has kaleidoscope is shaken; its broken splincommemorated the memento mori in the ters of color separate to unite again in country churchyard of those who have fresh patterns; the crimson triangle de* gone over to the majority,” as men put taches itself from the blue star to join the it, with the presumptuous numerical spec- yellow octagon, and the green square ulation which ignores the possibilities of mingles with what once formed the crys.. a present and a future, of whose limit of tallized design of a radiating diamond. life no man holds the measuring line. It is a heterogeneous procession that But it remains for some poet, perhaps un- passes us by in irregular order, or, more born, to write a new elegy, and in the light properly speaking, in no order at all, exof his inspiration to interpret the pathos cept that of the alphabet. No precedence and the humor and the irony of those other is here given, none demanded; the living mementoes, of the great, or at least of the and the dead, the old and the young, the notorious, which lie collected in those comparatively insignificant and the illus. literary cemeteries in which the autograph trious, men and women, mingle together collector buries his possessions or adver. in the crowd, whilst the memorials of each tises his spoils.

are as various in their nature and character It is true that the squalid and rapacious as those they represent. Here and there character which too often belongs to the we meet with a letter important enough in collectors of such memorials has obscured subject and treatment to claim attention the picturesque aspect of his chase, and on its own merits, independently of the that the lists of "autograph letters ” for name which stands below it, whilst as fresale have intruded ideas into our minds quently it is the personality of the writer which have desecrated the resting places alone which lends an interest to the trivof these relics, faded or fresh, and have ialities he registers. Nothing is added transformed them into precincts where by these last to the sum of human knowlanatomists drive their bargains for skele- edge or wisdom, they were never intended tons and physiologists select subjects for for publication, would be out of place in dissection not infrequently for vivisec- any serious collection of letters, and would tion.

never, as the phrase goes, be included in But, however that may be, the fact nev- a man's “remains;” and yet this driftwood ertheless remains that, to those who look of literature possesses a value altogether below, a great part of the strange humor its own. In the more serious achieveof life's relations is epitomized in these ments of the literary artist he leaves bemotley assortments, where the dramatis hind him a monument in which we see persona are represented, each by his own | him as philosopher, poet, scientist what

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