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ond stage completed, they are ready to | The work has got to be done, and there is issue out and to take their share in the no time to be fooling about. There is, work. Even when she has an army of then, no reason whatever for surprise, and children, she continues to set them an still less for blame, that when the wasp is example of labor and perseverance, super. interrupted in its work it loses its temper vising the operations and working dili- at once. It is angry when, having entered gently and continuously herself. She is at an open window and gathered from a the life and soul of her community, and, if jam-pot, a dish, or jug – for the wasp is by any accident she dies before the other not particular - a supply of food, it finds females, which are hatched late in the that its way back to its hungry friends is season, appear, the community is entirely barred by a strange, smooth obstacle, disorganized, the neuters cease from their through which it cannot pass. Many men labors, and the whole colony perishes. know to their cost how small a thing Nature, too, has done much more for the rouses the temper of a woman engaged in bee than for the wasp, for the former natu- the arduous operations of washing or cookrally secretes the wax from which it forms ing, and are careful in avoiding the neigh. its cells, while the wasp has no such faculty, borhood of the wash-house or kitchen upon and has to construct its cells as well as its these occasions; and yet they make no house from the paper it manufactures. allowance whatever for similar irritation

The wasp is as fond of sweets as is the on the part of the busy wasp. Again, bee, and while a portion of the community blame is imputed to the wasp because it are engaged upon the work of collecting takes offence ifitis flapped at with a hand. materials, manufacturing paper, and build- kerchief or hat; but surely there is nothing ing, the others collect sweets from flowers surprising in this. Men take offence at or fruit. Having filled themselves with practical jokes, especially practical jokes these, they return home, and on entering of a dangerous kind; and the wasp natuthe hive 'mount to the upper cells, and rally regards these wanton attacks upon there disgorge the contents of their honey-it, when actively engaged in the business bags for the benefit of the workers. The of the community, as dangerous impertibee is industrious, it may be admitted, but nences, and is not to be blamed for resent. he is industrious in a quiet and methodical ing them. The more one examines into way. There is no hurry about the bee, the habits of the bee and the wasp respecand any one who watches him at work will tively, the more one is convinced that the be inclined to admit that he does a good high esteem in which the former is held deal of pottering about. The wasp bas no by man is simply the result of man's love time for this sort of thing; he knows how for honey, and that the balance of supe. much there is to be done, and that there riority is wholly upon the side of the wasp, is not a single moment to be wasted. The who is a more energetic, a more vivacious, queen is laying her eggs; there are the a more industrious, and a more intelligent materials for the houses to be collected, insect than the bee, and should on all ground up into paste, and spread; there these accounts occupy a far higher place is food for the grubs to be gathered and in man's esteem and regard than it actusupplies for the builders to be brought in. I ally possesses at present.

A FATAL RESULT OF BAPTISM BY IMMER- was cardiac disease. As, however, there was SION. A most distressing occurrence is re- no doubt that the immersion was the deter. ported in a German medical journal. A young mining cause of death, the unfortunate min. woman who was a candidate for baptism by ister who performed the ceremony was at first immersion amongst the Baptists, after un- sentenced to a week's imprisonment. This dressing to her chemise and stockings in the was, however, ultimately remitted. The vestry, put on a cotton wrapper and came into neighboring Baptist congregations have, it is the chapel to be baptized. She was completely said, taken warning by the case, and have immersed in the baptistry, which was filled arranged to have the water for immersion with rain-water at a temperature of about forty always warmed in future, as is, we believe, degrees Fahr., the ceremony not lasting above the custom in this country. Another sugges. a minute. After this she walked back into the tion naturally arises from such an occurrence vestry, but immediately became unconscious, as the above — namely, that persons suspected and, notwithstanding all possible efforts being of heart disease should have the benefit of a made to resuscitate her, succumbed. The medical examination before being submitted post-niortem examination revealed that there to the rite of immersion.


Fifth Series, Volume LXXIV.


No. 2449.- June 6, 1891.


From Beginning

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James Bryce, M.P.,

New Review,

Cornhill Magazine,
Hon. W. E. Gladstone,

Murray's Magazine,


Contemporary Review, VII. “LA BELLA,.



Chambers' Journal,


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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTIO 2?. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of posiage. Remittances should

be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so.' Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

my lot


Years since I heard thy skylark, and caught


Which all the soul of springtide sends through

the blackbird's throat. Born, October 26th, 1803. Died, April 24th, 1891.

Oh, England, island England, if it has been STRONG, silent soldier, whom the unmarked years

To live long years in alien lands, with men Shaped to such service of the Fatherland

who love thee not, As seldom to one firm, unfailing hand,

I do but love thee better who know each wind A State hath uwed; to-day a people's tears Bedew the most illustrious of biers !

that blows, The waning century hastening to its close

The wind that slays the blossom, the wind

that buds the rose, Hath scarce a greater on its glory-roll,

Hope of thy land, and terror of its foes; Of foresight keen, and long-enduring soul!

The wind that shakes the knotty mast and War's greatness is not greatest; there are

keeps the topsail furled,

The wind that braces nerve and arm to battle heights

with the world : Of splendor pure mere warriors scarce may

scale, But thou wert more than battle's scourge

I love thy moss-deep grasses, thy great un

tortured trees, and flail, Calm-souled controller of such Titan fights

The cliffs that wall thy havens, the weed

scents of thy seas, As mould man's after-history. When thy star

The dreamy river reaches, the quiet English Shone clear at Koniggrätz, men gazed and

homes, knew The light that heralds the great lords of The milky path of sorel down which the

springtide comes. war; And when o'er Sedan thy black Eagles flew And the bold Frank, betrayed and broken, Oh, land so loved through length of years, so

tended and caressed, drew

The land that never stranger wronged nor One shuddering gasp of agony and sank,

foeman dared to waste, When thy long-mustered legions rank on rank

Remember those thou speedest forth round Hemmed the fair, fated city of men's love,

all the world, to be, Then thy star culminated, shone above

Thy witness to the nations, thy warders on All but the few fixed beacon-lights, which the sea!

owned A new compeer Long steadfastly en- And keep for those who leave thee and find throned

no better.place, In German hearts, and all men's reverence, The olden smile of welcome, the unchanged Suddenly, softly thou art summoned hence,

mother-face! To the great muster, full of years and fame!

RENNELL RODD. How thinks he, lord of a co-equal name, Athens, 1890.

Murray's Magazine. Thine ancient comrade in war's iron lists, Just left, and lone, of the Titanic Three Who led the Eagles on to victory?

Calmest of captains, first of strategists. Bismarck must bend o'er thy belaurelled bier

LOSS. With more than common grief in the unbidden The pathway of my life, since thou art gone, tear!

Seems like a dusty and exposed highroad Punch. Whose upward stretching weary length is

sowed With rough, uneven places. The bright sun

Streams pitilessly down; shade there is SPRING THOUGHTS.

Bewildered, dazed, instinctively I turn Thy help to claim.

Ah! have I yet to learn, My England, island England, such leagues What all men know, – that I must walk alone :

and leagues away, It's years since I was with thee, when April And though I am a woman in my years, wanes to May:

Whom others turn to for the help I seek,

Still is my troubled heart full of vague fears Years since I saw the primrose, and watched And desolate distress; sobs from me break, the brown hillside

As from some child, with sense of drcar defeat, Put on white crowns of blossom and blush Left wandering in an unknown public street. like April's brile;


R. C.



From The New Review.

the internal constitution of the State in LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS whose territory the injuries occur, or by OF THE LYNCHING AT NEW ORLEANS.

any practical difficulties which it may find BY JAMES BRYCE, M.P.

in enforcing its authority upon its own THE lynching a few weeks ago of eleven subjects. Italians by a New Orleans mob is an inci- The general question need not long dent which has many aspects and sug. detain us, because there is no great differgests many reflections. That one of those ence of opinion regarding it among intersecret societies which have long been a national lawyers, nor much difference as curse of Italy ard Sicily should have taken regards the practice of civilized States. root and become terribly powerful in the The well-admitted principle is that every New World is of itself a singular phenom- civilized State is bound to secure to the

That in a great and wealthy city subjects or citizens of another friendly like New Orleans it should be found prac- State the same measure of personal libtically impossible to bring notorious assas- erty, personal security, and protection to sios to justice by the regular process of property as it affords to its own subjects. law is a still stranger and still more de- A Frenchman is entitled in Engiand to the plorable phenomenon. That the men who same recourse to the civil and criminal seized and slaughtered the acquitted Ital. courts as an Englishmen has, and to be as ian criminals should be the leading citizens fully cared for by the police. Particular of New Orleans; that they should have disabilities may no doubt be imposed on preferred this method of protecting their an alien. He may be required to produce

. community to that of improving the legal a passport, though passports are not reprocedure and administration of the State quired from native subjects; or he may of Louisiana ; that their conduct should be unable to hold real estate; or he may have met with far more sympathy than be required if plaintiff in an action to give reprobation over the United States gen. security for costs which would not be de. erally, are facts curiously illustrative of manded from a subject. Special reasons the history of the southern States and of exist in these respects. But so far as the condition of society there. It is of regards the ordinary rights which are none of these points, however, that I am needed for the protection of person and about to speak in these few pages, but of property, he ought to receive just the the legal and constitutional questions treatment which the native subject has, no growing out of the demand for redress more and no less. If he does receive which the Italian government promptly less, his government has a primâ facie addressed to the government of the United right to demand redress for him ; and this States, and which was emphasized, in a redress may be either in the way of crimsomewhat brusque and hasty fashion, by inal proceedings against those who have the withdrawal of the Italian minister from injured him, or of pecuniary compensation Washington. These questions are of in- from the authorities of the State which terest not only to American publicists, has permitted him to be injured without but also to Englishmen, for they are ques. affording him due satisfaction by the tions which may in a different, but, per- methods which are open to its own citihaps, not less serious, form arise out of zens. the anomalous position in which Britain To this general statement we must now stands to her great self-governing make one addition. Injury to a foreigner colonies.

may proceed either from the execuzive The best way to treat these questions officials of the State in which he is residwill be to deal, first, with the general sub-ing, or from its judicial officers, or from ject of the liability of one State to another private persons.

If from the executive in respect of injuries inflicted in its terri- officials, the liability of the State is obvi. tory upon the subjects of that other, and ous because they are its agents, and their secondly, to inquire how far this general wrongful acts or omissions are its acts liability may be modified and limited by or omissions. If from judicial officers, the liability is much less direct and pal- | it, has been expressly declared and recog. pable.

nized in a treaty securing equivalent rights As regards private persons, the State, it to the citizens of each of the contracting is obvious, has still less to do with them, States in the territories of the other. This and is responsible not directly for their has happened as between the United acts, but only for any neglect on its own States and Italy. By the treaty concluded part, either in preventing wrongs which a in 1871, it provided that well.ordered government ought to prevent, The citizens of each of the high contracting or in omitting to provide proper means parties shall receive in the States and Territofor the effective administration of justice ries of the other the most constant protection to punish those wrongs, or award compen- and security for their persons and property, and sation for them.

shall enjoy in this respect the same rights and So far we have spoken of civilized privileges as are or shall be granted to the naStates. As regards semi-civilized coun- tives, on their submitting themselves to the contries, such as Turkey or Morocco, where ditions imposed on the natives. the amount of protection given to persons We may now, therefore, ask, What are and property falls far below the standard the rights of the Italian government in which the European nations have come to respect of lawless violence inflicted upon observe, it is of course impossible for its subjects within the territory of the these nations to be content with obtaining United States ? Let us leave out of sight for their subjects what the unlucky subject the federal structure of the American gove of a Mussulman sultan has to put up with; ernment, and assume the United States to and they have therefore made special ar- be a unified country like the United King. rangements under which Europeans may dom, in which the queen's writ ruos every. reside and carry on business in these where, and where the executive and the countries with some better guarantee for legislature have exactly the same powers their security than the local laws and in every part of the country. Or, to put courts and police afford, To enforce these the same thing in other words, let us as. arrangements is not always easy, so that sume that the lynching happened, not in our envoys at Constantinople or Tangier Louisiana, but in the Federal District of are constantly employed in trying to ob-Columbia, where the Federal government tain redress for the injuries which English is supreme. men suffer. The disorders in certain of

Italy might demand satisfaction in the the Spanish-American so-called republics form of punishment to be inflicted on the have occasionally brought them into what lynchers. As the government of a free is practically the same category. There people can proceed only in the prescribed are, therefore, cases in which the behavior way of regular judicial process, all the of a State to its own subjects cannot be Federal government could do would be to taken as the measure of its international have the lynchers indicted for murder or obligations. If it falls short of the stand. manslaughter. The matter would, as in ard which is generaily observed and ex- England, come first before a grand jury, pected, it cannot acquit itself by alleging and if the grand jury found a true bill, the faults of its own administration. then before a petty jury. If the grand

Reverting to civilized nations, the re-jury refused to find the bill, or if the petty sponsibility which their governments ad- jury acquitted the prisoners, the govern. mit for the protection of the subjects of a ment could do no more. Its powers would friendly power rests upon what may be be exhausted. So would the

of called general international comity. It the British government in a like case. exists in the absence of any formal treaty And in fact, as has been observed in provisions, because it is suggested not America, this is exactly what Lord Palmonly by considerations of humanity, but erston replied to the Austrian government by the common interest of all States alike. when it complained of the rough handling But in many instances this “international which General Haynau received from cummon law,” as one may venture to call | Barclay and Perkins's Craymen in 1850.


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