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the family baking that we interrupted, and | ing the rich plain to the south of Lake we, too, were invited to squat around the Urumia from tbe hostile attacks of the oven and watch the proceedings. This is Kourdish tribes. what we saw: One woman - she of infe- A few miles after leaving Sainkallà we rior skill – made dough into balls about bade farewell to the men Haidar Khan the size of one's fist; these she beat with had sent to protect us, and entered the her hands into flat cakes about a quarter territories of another potentate — “a most of an inch thick and ten inches across; important man,” our khan continually im. respectfully, she handed this preparation pressed upon us; and, sure enough, as we to the chief bakeress, who presided over turned a corner of the road we saw twenty the oven, and who, by some mysterious drawn up, ten on either side of our path. legerdemain, by merely throwing the cake I must own that when I first saw them I from hand to hand expanded it into a thin got a shock, thinking that we had fallen oval sheet the thickness of paper; this into the hands of thieves, but our khan she deposited on a dirty pillow, one end instantly reassured us “they are the of which was opened to let in her hand, escort sent by Norooz Khan to conduct us and, poising it proudly in the air, she safely through his territory.” dashed it against the heated side of the We were now in the hands of an interoven and when baked to her satisfaction esting little tribe, and under the protection she removed it with two sticks. The of an interesting man, Norooz Khan, chief women of Sinjate were very kind to us, of the Chehar-Dowleh tribe. I always taking us over their vast expanse of mud think those hard Eastern names look bétroofs, and showing us the interior of their ter translated, so we will proceed to speak homes; and as we passed by the women of Count Newyear, chief of the “four govalways greeted us by lifting up their ernments" tribe. He has quite a palace hands.

at his capital, Mahmoud Jute, about twelve We began to descend rapidly from Sin- miles from Sainkallà, and here he lives in jate along the side of a considerable almost regal state. Though small in numstream which rejoices in the quaint name ber, the “four governments ”tribe has a. of the Checkatoo, and which eventually great reputation for bravery; originally becomes a large river before falling into they came from South Persia, and were the southern extremity of the Salt Lake placed in the neighborhood of the town of Urumia. A few hours' ride along its of Kasvin by Fatt-i-Ali-Shah, the grandbanks brought us to the town of Sain- father of the present sovereign. His son, kallà which nestles beneath a mud fort when he came to the throne again, transbuilt on an eminence. This place forms planted them to the banks of the Checka sort of capital for the Afshah tribes atoo, gave them tracts of fertile territory, who frequent the neighboring mountains. and here they have fourished exceedHere Haidar Khan holds his court during ingly. half the year, and much as we wished to Count Newyear and his tribe were the see him, we could not regret his absence, only people in this district who succeeded for we were lodged in his house, which is in keeping the invading Kourds at bay, the only respectable abode in the place; consequently, the castle and village of and so pleasant was it after our mountain Mahmoud Jute is the only one we passed experiences, with its shady garden and through which does not bear evidence of freedom from a staring crowd, that we the ravages of war. Here he lives perpet. elected to stay there two days to rest. ually, and may be said to be almost an Sainkallà boasts of a little bazaar where independent sovereign, for though he we were able to obtain many things much wears the uniform of a Persian general, needed; but it is at best a desolate spot, and talks of his regiment in Mezanderan, having been entirely ruined during the he refuses to pay any taxes, will not go to invasion of the Kourds a few years ago Teheran when told to, and exercises regal under the much-dreaded Sheikh Albi. authority over his small realm. Dowleh ; during the invasion irreparable The count is a thick-set, stout man, with harm was done to the homes of the Al- thick lips, and hair with a tendency to shahs, who retired to the mountains for curl, pointing to the Arabian origin of his safety, and on their return found their tribe, and suggesting that, at no very • homés destroyed; and their fields laid remote period, he numbered a negro waste. From its position Sainkallà is amongst his ancestors. His reception of important, commanding as it does the en- us was most gracious; officials lined our trance into eastern Kourdistan by way of path, and at the entrance gate stood his the sources of the Checkatoo, and protect:| Majesty, stick in hand, and apologized for


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not coming to meet us lower down, stating passed into a different sphere altogether ; that an attack of gout had much curtailed occasionally we went by an underground bis locomotive powers. From his recep- village which the nomads had now detion-room, fitted with long carpets and serted for the upper levels, and occasiondivans, we enjoyed an extensive view over ally, too, we sighted a train of wayfarers the valley of the Checkatoo, richly culti- bound for the mountains, but to all intents vated country, and the distant Kourdish and purposes we had left the nomads bemountains from which we had just come. hind us, and with them the delicious free Before giving us our repast, we were taken air of the Median mountains. At the next round his palace, which covers two acres village we actually saw a wheeled vehicle, or more with its buildings and gardens. that is to say, a cart consisting of a trianAround the whole runs a thick mud wall gular wooden plateau fifteen feet long, at with fourteen bastions, on the top of each ihe apex of which buffaloes were fastened, of which storks had built their nests, as and the whole supported by an axle joinalso they had done on every available ing two wheels without spokes - plain, point of vantage, so that the place seemed round pieces of wood. alive with these sacred birds Hadgi Buffaloes here are in constant use ; they laclacs, as the Persians call them, from revel in the muddy waters of the Checktheir supposed migration to Mecca every atoo, and seem blissfully happy when their winter and their presence is a sure sign backs are scratched by the naked urchins, of peace and prosperity. Around the for. who attend them to their bath. With the tress is the village, with many prosperous advent of carts and buffaloes we felt that houses, a little bazaar, and those horrid we had seen the last of our nomad friends, underground houses which swarm so with and the Mountains of Media were in the vermin.

mist behind us. Count Newyear told us much about his

J. THEODORE BENT. tribe; he owns, he said, two thousand houses, and has about five thousand male dependents; his territory stretches from Sainkallà to the town of Mianduwab; his

From Belgravia. subjects are chiefly sedentary now, and

THE STORY OF A are engaged in cultivating the fertile vale of the Checkatoo, though there are still

(MLLE. DE HAUTEFORT.) among them certain families who adhere to the nomad life, dwelling in the village

MRS. E. M, DAVY. during the winter, and going up to the On a certain afternoon in the year 1629, yaëla, or mountain pasturages, during the the celebrated Princesse de Conti was summer months. He told us, too, that walking along one of the most fashionable there is a tradition in their tribe of having promenades of Paris, accompanied by a once conquered four other tribes, and strikingly beautiful young girl. All the hence they adopted the name of the “ four world asked the question, Who can this governments." Be this as it may, there is girl be? The same evening nothing was no doubt of the Arabian origin of this peo- talked of but the charming child. ple, from their general cast of countenance A few days later it was announced that and physique.

Mlle. de Hautefort was appointed one of Our repast was excellent, surpassing in the maids of honor to Marie de Medici, quality and quantity that provided for us the queen-mother, by the Afshah chief. A table was brought. This girl of fourteen, who caused so in for our benefit, and we were allowed to sudden and universal a sensation, was the use our own knives and spoons. Our youngest daughter of the Marquis de Khan, however, and Newyear sat below us Hautefort. Born in 1616, in an ancient on the floor and made us marvel at the feudal castle of Périgord, and losing both dexterity with which they introduced into parents in infancy, she was brought up by their mouths such difficult material as her grandmother, Mme. de Hauterive. poached eggs and rice, with the assistance But she wearied of the monotony of counonly of their fingers. My wife paid a visit try life. She heard people talk of the to the ladies, and was much struck with court - that brilliant French court where the elegant decorations of the harem she felt herself destined to play her part rooms; and after a cordial farewell we set - and daily prayed to God that she might out on our way once more along the banks go there. of the Checkatoo.

It was not long before her prayer apHeaceforth all was cultivation we had peared to be granted. Private affairs






called Mme. de Hauterive to Paris; she high esteem on the part of the king and took with her the pretty child.

virtue on the part of the young girl, elle On being appointed a maid of honor, devint leur confidante. Marie followed the queen-mother to Lyon, Memoirs of the time abound in piquant where the king had fallen seriously ill. It details of this platonic love of Louis XIII. was there, in 1630, that Louis XIII. saw Mademoiselle, the king's sister, writes : Mlle, de Hautefort for the first time.

“ La court étoit fort agréable alors. Les She was only fourteen, and “pour mar- amours du roi pour Mlle. de Hautefort, quer son extreme jeunesse et son innocent qu'il tâchoit de divertir tous les jours y éclat,” they gave her the name of l'Aurore. contribuent beaucoup.”

Louis XIII. was a very different man And she goes on describing hunting from his father, Henri IV. His mind was parties, the ladies riding gorgeously casombre, his thoughts gloomy. The facile parisoned horses, and all wearing the same beauties who composed the court of his colored dresses with large bats decked mother and his wife had no attractions for with quantities; of drooping feathers to him; but the modesty of Marie de Haute- shade them from the sun. There were fort as much as her blonde beauty touched also two musical evenings a week, when him profoundly. Wher, on his return most of the airs sung were the king's own from Lyon, state interests and his fidelity composition ; he often wrote the words, to Richelieu compelled him to send away and the subject of them was always Marie his mother, he took from her the young de Hautefort. maid of honor and gave her to the queen,

Even had Mlle. de Hautefort been less asking her to love her pour l'amour of good than she was beautiful, it does not him ; at the same time he appointed Mme. appear that the love of the king would have de Hauterive lady in waiting.

been very dangerous to her. Anne of Austria received the present Every evening he conversed with her in with a bad grace. She regarded the new the queen's salon; but he spoke mostly of maid of honor as a spy an enemy. She dogs, birds, and hunting; and his manner soon found out, however, her mistake. was so respectful that "il osait à peine en

One remarkable trait in the character of lui parlant s'approcher d'elle.” Mlle. de Hautefort was a half Christian, If the king's passion was innocent, at half chivalric devotion, impelling her to least it was strong enough to render him side with the weak and the oppressed. violently jealous. He knew that Mlle.de When she saw her royal mistress perse- Hautefort cared for none of the young cuted and unhappy, she was at once at- lords about the court, but this was not tracted to her; and by degrees her loyalty, sufficient to satisfy him; he exacted that her perfect candor, her wit and grace, none should love her, none should speak succeeded in charming the queen as much to her, nor even look at her attentively. as her beauty, youth, and innocence bad These absurd jealousies, added to the charmed the king.

long and wearying assiduities of her royal The first act of gallantry shown by Louis lover, not unnaturally weighed on the XIII. to Mlle. de Hautefort was at a “ser- young girl; and with proud independence mon ” when the queen and all the court she showed it. Stormy disputes followed. were present; the maids of honor, accord. When these took place, everybody sufing to the custom of the times, being fered; the court amusements were susseated on the floor.

pended; and if the king visited the queen The king took the velvet cushion on of an evening, he sat gloomily in a corner which he knelt, and sent it to Mlle, de without speaking, and no one dared say a Hautefort.

word. She was surprised, and looking up saw “ Mile. de Hautefort n'avoit aucun goût the eyes of all the court upon her. The pour lui ; elle le maltraitoit autant qu'on blush that rose to her fair face increased peut maltraiter un roi," writes Mme. de her loveliness. She received the cushion Motteville. She asserts also that he was with so much modesty, such respectful miserable in every way; for he did not grace, that none could withhold their ad- love the queen, and was a martyr to Mlle. miration, and the queen herself made a de Hautefort, whom he loved in spite of sign that she should take it. Marie himself. placed it before her, without any attempt

One common cause of the king's quario make use of it. No act could have been rels with the young maid of honor was his better calculated to command approval. Majesty's deeply rooted conviction that

After this incident, the queen was the Anne had been concerned in Chalais's first to reassure her. Seeing nothing but conspiracy. He was jealous of the girl's

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loyalty to her mistress, and seeing at last She disguised herselí as a grisette; that it was impossible to detach her affec- daubed her beautiful face, hid her blonde tions from the queen, he said: “Vous hair beneath a large coiffe, and in the early aimez une ingrate, et vous verrez un jour morning, when not a soul was stirring at comme elle paiera vos services !

the Louvre, she left it by a side door, and It pleased Richelieu well enough at first drove in a common fiacre to the Bastille. that the king should take a fancy to a Aware that the Chevalier de Jars, since young girl who belonged to no party. He his capital sentence had been commuted, exhausted compliments and attentions on was allowed to receive visitors, she the young favorite in the hope of gaining judging his character by her own - beher to his side ; but she, who had not sac- lieved him ready to risk his life a second riticed her mistress to the king himself, time. She gave out that she was the siswould have blushed to listen to her perse- ter of his valet, who, being seriously ill, cutor. She rejected his advances, and had sent her to speak on private matters. disdained his friendship, at a time when But De Jars, knowing quite well that his "il n'y avait pas une femme à la cour que valet was in good health, refused to be ne fit væux pour en être seulement re- disturbed ; and in consequence the fair gardée."

Marie de Hautefort was forced to wait This girl of fifteen was of so noble a some time in the guard-room, exposed to nature that she was incap le of seeing the the rough jests of its occupants. At length evil around her. She understood neither the chevalier appeared and began speak. French interests nor those of Europe ; noring to her flippantly ; but signing that he history, nor politics. It appeared to her should follow her into the courtyard, she quite natural that the queen, ill-treated there raised her coiffe and showed the and neglected by her husband, oppressed lovely features which, once seen, it was by Richelieu, should appeal to her brother, impossible ever to forget. the king of Spain, and defend herself by She explained in a few words what the any means in her power. Entirely igno- queen required: that it was necessary to rant of the jeunesse un peu légère of Anne, convey to La Porte a sealed letter instruct. she saw only her misfortunes, and believed ing him how far he might go in his decas firmly in her friend's virtue as in her larations. De Jars, however, appeared to

But soon, finding that it was impos. waver. sible to win her, Richelieu began poison

" What?

Do you hesitate when you ing the king's mind against the young see all I risk ? ” asked Marie de Hautemaid of honor. Perfidiously exaggerated fort. reports reached Louis that, in private with “ I have already mounted one scaffold,” the queen, Mlle, de Hautefort "faisait replied the chevalier, “and this may lead avec elle des plaisanteries sur ses mani- to another; but what the queen asks shall dres, sur son humeur, et sur son amour; "be accomplished.” and so successful was this new ruse of the The girl returned to the Louvre undiscardinal, that it brought about an es- covered, and the Chevalier de Jars did trangement which lasted two years. wonders.

In 1637 Anne entered into an equivocal His chamber was four étages above the correspondence with her two brothers, dungeon of La Porte. He pierced the while Spain was at war with France. La floor and passed the letter down, tied by a Porte, one of her servants whom she em- cord, begging the prisoner on the second ployed in this correspondence, and who étage to do the same, observing the strict. knew her secrets, was arrested and fung est secrecy. Thus the letter of the queen, into the Bastille. The queen, after deny passing the various floors, arrived per. ing everything became alarmed, and made fectly intact in the hands of the faithful confession. But she did not admit the valet, enabling him to justify himself and whole ; and, fearing lest La Porte should his royal mistress. : do so, it became necessary for her to hold In 1638, the king is said to have been communication with him. But was such more in love than ever with Marie de a thing possible ? How could she get at Hautefort; and “ces amours furent comme him in a dungeon of the Bastille ? les premières, chastes et agitées.”

At this grave juncture Marie de Haute- To counteract her influence, Richelieu fort undertook to save her mistress. Al- sought a new distraction for the king; he ready she had sacrificed for her the favor placed about him a young man of rare of the king, and that of Richelieu ; now personal attractions. Cinq-Mars was only she was ready to risk what was a thousand in his twentieth year, and the weak mon. times dearer to her - her reputation. arch at once bestowed his affections on



him, little supposing that by so doing he | zarin restait seul avec la régente sous was simply playing into the cardinal's prétext de l'instruire des affaires de l'état.” hands.

The honest and discreet Mme. de As in the case of Marie de Hautefort Motteville preserves an ominous silence Louis insisted that Cinq.Mars should love on this point. But Mlle. de Hautefort him only; while the latter, urged by am- acted differently. She determined to dîs. bition - and by Richelieu demanded in puter le cœur de sa royal amie au beau et return that the king should not divide his heureux cardinal." affections with Mlle, de Hautefort. To She was dévoté, but she was not perfect. this request of the new favorite Louis Her devotion pushed to extreme became a weakly yielded, and undertook to banish fault. Instead of avoiding danger she prethe maid of honor for – a fortnight! ferred defying it. Her intense love for

“ Ces quinze jours dureront le reste de the queen 'emboldening her to speak out ma vie,” was the only remark made by fearlessly, she not only "ne cessait de Marie when she received the royal com l'avertir, elle la blessait et la tourmentait,” mand, and she retired at once to Le Mans. say the chroniclers of the time; so that It was there she heard of Scarron, of his the queen spent her life in grievous cruel infirmities borne with such coura- embarrassment, and the uneasiness of geous gaiety; she pitied him and became Mazarin increased each day. his friend.

It was a struggle too lively to last long. Those quinze jours grew into three The end came soon, and from a quarter years, at the end of which the queen wrote, least expected. recalling her in these words :

One August evening (1643), Anne of “Venez, ma chère amie, je meurs d'im- Austria was in her chamber with Mlle, de patience de vous embrasser.*'.

Beaumont in attendance, when Béringhen, In the year 1643, at the age of twenty-first valet to the little king, came and comseven, Marie de Hautefort returned to plained of the conduct of leur amie, of court, wbere for a short period she shone her want of respect for her royal lady and as one of the most brilliant stars - and the government. Mlle. de Hautefort, who certainly the purest. She was in the full was in the dressing-closet, heard the diséclat of her beauty and her popularity ; course, and coming forward. defended and Anne of Austria promised to love her herself with her accustomed vivacity. all her life.

A stormy altercation followed, of which A portrait of the queen's favorite at Mme. de Motteville gives a detailed acthis time is thus described :

count. Says she: “She has a quantity of light curly hair, Nous pouvons dire nos avis a nos a high forehead, and large blue eyes. Her maîtres et à nos amis ; mais quand ils se nose is slightly aquiline; her mouth small déterminent à ne pas les suivre, nous dewith brilliant red lips, a little dimple is in vons plutôt entrer en leurs inclinations her chin; the oval of her face is perfect. que suivre les nôtres." She has pearls in her ears and round her Beautiful court maxims unquestionably ; neck, and wears a sort of fancy cuirasse but they did not accord with Mlle, de finished at the waist and shoulders with Hautefort's ideas. The accused shed gold ornaments and ribbons. Her appear- tears, a patched-up peace ensued. Mlle. ance rather gives the idea of strength of de Hautefort' appears to have promised character and nobility of soul than of ease more than she could perform, for she conand grace.”

tinued to show her disapproval of the Everything was changed at court. Louis situation if she did not speak it. XIII. and Richelieu were no more ; Anne Mme. de Motte ville relates that one as regent and Mazarin as cardinal reigned night, when the queen was retiring to bed, in their stead. Of the ascendancy of the Mlle, de Hautefort, while taking off her latter over the queen there could be no Majesty's slippers, mentioned the case of question, but when the breath of scandal an ancient serving-man who was in need first linked their names together, Mlle. de of assistance. Not receiving at all a warm Hautefort refused to listen. “Elle souf- response, she remarked with des souris frait impatiemment le bruit comme s'il dédaigneux, that old servants ought not l'eut atteint elle-même.”

to be forgotten. She could not bear even the appearance The queen, who was only waiting for of evil; and certainly appearances were some such occasion, did not fail to take fire against the queen. For instance, those at this, and said angrily that she was tired evening conferences with Mazarin, pro- of these incessant reprimands, and that longed. often far into the night, “où Ma- elle était fort mal satisfait de la manière

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