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that was too heavy to be borne; and the re- | 1847 of which the duke was director, the Earl maining lines of the well-known stanza : of Mornington's name appears to the glee Give me back, give me back, the wild freshness of the name, said to Sir Henry, “Ah, my worthy
“ Here in cool grot.” The duke, on seeing morning, Her clouds and her tears are worth evening's best fatber! Could he compose?” “Yes,” relight.
plied the conductor; "he has composed music Napoleon had no ear for music, his voice which any professor would be proud to claim.” was uomusical, at least so Miss Balcombe
“Ah, indeed !” rejoined the duke, “I am says, who frequently heard him sing at St. glad to hear it." Helena. Yet he liked songs, and simple George Ill. was exceedingly fond of melodies, and would often hum his favorite music. To him as to Saul it came as a air “Vive Henri Quatre.” Paisiello's comfort in trouble ; the one king it soothed music pleased him, “because,” he said, in time of madness, and the other got a “it did not interrupt his thoughts.” Fred- short suspense by it from his troubles erick the Great played on the flute, pos- with the priesthood. It is curious that the sibly more to his own than to his subjects' last piece selected by George III. for the content. But he really was fond of music, sacred concerts, prior to his final attack and would have a concert whenever he of insanity, comprised Handel's famous could after his dinner. Quantz would get passages descriptive of madness and blind. up an entertainment for him where the ness. So fond of music was King George great king would help to perform pieces 111. that he would always urge attendance of his own composition as well as music, on the Concerts of Ancient Music upon which may have given more delight to his bis courtiers, and the king was particuaudience than his own. Fasch says that larly pressing on one occasion with Lord of all the performers he had heard, his North, who cared very little about music, friend Bach, Benda, and the king, pro- reminding him that his brother always duced the most pathetic adagio.
attended the concerts. "Ah," replied We will set Frederick the Great against Lord North, “but your Majesty forgets Napoleon, and if that is not considered a that my brother is deaf.” sufficient reply to those who will have it When a meeting was held to decide that rulers of men are despisers of music, y upon a monument to Dean Stanley, Lord we bring Oliver Cromwell as an instance Granville observed : to the contrary. Oliver Cromwell and Frederick the whatever of music, and it is perhaps the one
I believe the dean had no appreciation Great were certainly rulers of men, and art which with most difficulty fits in with the may fairly be cited on one side against individual life of man. The dean told me he Napoleon on the other. “Oliver Crom- was very little influenced by music, but he had well,” says Wood, “ loved a good voice much greater pleasure, from historical assoand instrumental music," and, says Mr. ciation, in listening to a hymn of Luther or of Leslie Stephen, Wood goes on to tell the Charles Wesley, than to the most exquisite story of “a senior student of Christ harmony of Mozart or Beethoven. Church, expelled by the visitors, whom While this was the case with the Dean Cromwell restored to his studentship. in of Westminster, Stanley's great friend return for the pleasure which his singing Thirlwall was very fond of music, espe. had given him."
cially of the songs of Wales and Italy. Bismarck, certainly one of the rulers of Queen Victoria, it is well known, is not men, is said to delight in Beethoven, and only fond of music, but is an excellent generally with the highest order of music. pianist with a wonderfully correct ear. He would listen with zest to Joachim on The Baroness Bloomfield in her“ Reminis. the violin. In a letter to his wife he cences," relates how on one occasion the speaks of himself as “ well but suffering queen desired her to sing, and she, “in fear from homesickness, yearning for forest, and trembling sang one of Grisi's famous ocean, desert, you, and the children, all airs, but omitted a shake at the end. The mixed up with sunset and Beethoven.” queen's quick ear immediately detected
The Duke of Wellington, as is well the omission, and smiling, her Majesty known, was devoted to music. His father, said, “Does not your sister shake, Lady the Earl of Mornington, was a composer, Normanby?' to which Lady Normanby whose reputation one would imagine was promptly replied, 'Oh! yes, ma'am, she known to the son, but the following anec. is shaking all over.'". dote, if true, shows how true it is that no Lady Pollock tells us that man is a prophet in his own country :
Macready's ear was so defective that he could In the programme of one of the concerts of l never learn to recognize the tune of our Na
tional Anthem, and was often surprised when all kinds; very musical also, which is a joy to he saw the audience rise to it. . . . He held me at all times, one of the few pleasures music and its exponents in great contempt. neither age nor sadness can make one indiffer
ent to. To the long list of those who despised an art which nature denied them the Though having no reference to the subpower to appreciate, must be added Du- ject, yet I cannot resist another passage mas, who gave mortal offence to Wagner from this letter, in which Mrs. Norton by telling him that he considered music gives us the following delicious descrip. the most expensive of noises. We have tion of herself by a French gentleman. before spoken of Kant, but his objections He wished to be highly complimentary to were to the die-away music, for he admit. her mental and other characteristics, and ted his liking for a military band. Rogers, declares his worship of her because she whatever his dislike might be to music is “so spirituous and abandoned.” which was merely difficult, keenly appre.
Some men are born lovers of music, ciated really good music. No one more and some dislike it. This I take to be thoroughly enjoyed the delicious singing true of the rulers of men, as of all other of Tom Moore, or a seat at the Concerts men some like, some dislike. We have of Ancient Music, though Mr. Hayward a certain pity for those to whom nature tells us he preferred simple melodies to has denied one of her choicest gifts. complicated harmonies. Sydney Smith My old schoolmaster, George Poticary of said he would rather hear' Moore sing Blackheath, the master of the school than any person he had ever heard, male where Disraeli was educated, sometimes or female.
used to come into the schoolroom singing Though Kant thought music which was Anacreon's “ Oénw réyelv ’Arpeidas," and not military calculated to effeminate the most things offered him occasion for mumind, and lower the moral fibre, he is sical expression. probably in a minority in this opinion, and Father Prout, the author or “ The Re. we find Bourdaloue playing on the violin liques," a volume to have by your side at before he ascended the pulpit, that he breakfast-time, was no lover of music, might work himself up to the requisite though his ear must have been rhythenthusiasm.
mically attuned, as instance his beautiful Gray, says Mr. Twining, had “an en-song “ The Shandon Bells," on which thusiastic love of expressive and passion. were inscribed :ate music. Pergolesi was his darling."
Sabbato pango, Yet he did not appreciate Handel, though
Funera plango, holding in admiration the chorus in “Jeph
Solemnia clango. tha,” “No more to Ammon's God and
Musicas we have it, is, I suppose, King." One would expect that an ear so tuned to rhythm should be drawn towards quite a modern art. Jews and Greeks used music. Not that all poets are lovers of Romans had very little in their soul, and
it as an accompaniment to song, and the music. Moore in his diary – which by kept their noise for their triumphs. They the way should be re-edited and con discovered little taste for it, unless Nero's densed, omitting much repetition, and fiddling show a bias that way. many too trivial entries, for it contains a
Twining, in that choice book, “A perfect mine of anecdote — Moore ob.
Country Clergyman of the Eighteenth serves of Wordsworth that the poet in speaking of music, and the difference there of Greek music, they are enough, I should
" As for the specimens
Century,” says : is between the poetical and the musical think, to damp the keenest curiosity that ear, said he (Wordsworth) was totally de- ever forced its way through a page of void of the latter, and for a long time
• Aristoxenus.' could not distinguish one tune from an.
The Church took music in hand, but its other. In a graceful letter to Abraham Hay- rians, was of no high type. Writing to
early music, if we may judge by the Gregoward, written from Geneva à propos of Zelter, Mendelssohn observes in opposi
ady Emily Peel, sister of Lord Gifford, tion to Zelter's views apparently of these the gifted and beautiful Mrs. Norton Gregorians, “ I can't help it; it shocks me writes :
to hear the most solemn and beautiful This place is delicious, and Lady Emily words chanted along with such unm
meaning, charming, reminding me much, in a certain hurdy.gurdy sounds.” Something must earnestness and simplicity, of Gifford, her be said for them, for the great Gregory brother, and full of information and ability of found the Church music "too free and
secular in character.” Even in our own pany, I will promise to entertain you with day we find a tendency to secularize the much better music and more agreeable scenes music employed for “Hymns Ancient and than ever you met with at the opera. Modern," and I have heard one hymn Many men there are who enjoy a beauti. şung to an air perilously near to “Slap, ful melody, and may yet be wholly unable bang, here we are again !" Southey has to enter into the dreams of Schumann or well described what Church music should into the fancies of Chopin ; those who find be:
real delight in the abounding melody of There must be no voluntary maggots, no
Rossini without being able to follow the military tattoos, no light and galliardizing mind music of Beethoven, who taste, as notes; nothing that may make the fancy fully as the greatest lover of music, those trifling, or raise an improper thought, which two beautiful songs, “Should he upbraid would be to profane the service, and to bring or “Bid me discourse,” and yet be lost the playhouse into the church. Religious and fatigued by what appears to them the harmony must be moving, but noble withal
entanglements and mazes of Sebastian grave, solemn, and seraphic, fit for a martyr
Bach. The growth of harmony has, oddly to play, and an angel to hear. It should be contrived so as to warm the best blood within enough, been a cause of the decay of melus, and to take hold of the finest part of the ody. The childhood of music, with its affections; to transport us with the beauty of sweet simplicity, its holiness, to raise us above the satisfactions of life, and make us ambitious of the glories of Of linked sweetness long drawn out,
notes with many a winding bout heaven. So much for church music, and now curls and twiddles” of Purcell, appeals at
even with what Twining calls the “old back to our subject and old Pepys. Pepys belonged to those who loved him ; but thoroughly to enjoy the harmo
once to every one who has any music in melody, but who could not follow concerted nies' of modern music one requires an music with any pleasure. “Never was education, and some of them one ap. so little pleased with a concert of music in proaches with the same sort of distaste my life," he writes, when commanded by one has for olives till we learn to like royalty to Whitehall to hear an entertain them. Twining observes that “the steps ment provided by Monsieur Grebus.
by which ancient music got forward into On another occasion he writes :
modern, and melody slid by degrees into With my wife to the King's House to harmony, I take to be one of the darkest
Virgin Martyr.” That which processes of the dark ages.” I suppose pleased me beyond anything in the whole Beethoven's “ Fidelio” might be an inworld was the wind-musick when the angel stance where harmony overrides melody, comes down, which is so sweet that it rav- and that grandest of operas, “ Don Gioished me. I remained all night trans- vanni,” an instance where melody floats ported, so that I could not believe that ever any musick hath that real command over the
over harmony. This may be fanciful, but soul of a man as this did upon me, and makes is as it strikes an ignoramus, and I think me resolve to practise wind musick, and to Edward Fitzgerald says as much of “Fimake my wife do the like.
delio.” When writing to Sir Frederick Pope had no knowledge of music, melody in it as you do."
Pollock, he says, “ I do not find so much though he had a musical ear and a mu
I will wind up these remarks crotchsical voice; so much so that Southerne called him the "little nightingale."
ets may be — by asking what art is so Addison preferred the music of the plastic as music, so capable of responding
emotion of the soul? How it lent thrush to any other, and invited the Earl of Warwick to a concert of music " which intensity to David when with his harp he
made “the floods lift up their voice,” and I have found out in a neighboring wood.”
“ The voice of the Lord breaketh It begins precisely at six in the evening, and the cedar-trees; yea, the Lord breaketh consists of a blackbird, a thrush, a robin red- the cedars of Libanus." How it calmed breast, and a bull-finch. There is a lark that, the vexed spirit of Saul in his life-long by way of overture, sings and mounts till she contest with sacerdotalism; and how“the is almost out of hearing, and afterwards fall- hidden soul of barmony "inspired blind ing down leisurely, drops to the ground as soon as she has ended her song. The whole Milton, and flowed into his “ L'Allegro is concluded by a nightingale that has a much and “ Il Penseroso.” better voice than Mrs. Tofts, and something
Surely this all points to a valuable qualof the Italian manner in her divisions. If ity missing in a great leader of men if he your lordship will honor me with your com- | be incapable of receiving pleasure from
see the "
the deep thought of Beethoven, the per- perpetual cups of tea and taking a siesta fect grace of Mozart, the gaiety of Ros- every other hour. sini, the passion of Verdi, the dramatic Mirza Hassan Ali Khan is his name in instinct of Meyerbeer, or the fairy cho- full. In his belt he carries his inkstand ruses of Oberon. He misses much who and his roll of paper, bis insignia of office; is unable to place himself in accord with before reaching any place of importance Beethoven's interpretation of moonlight; he would always have his robe of honor with the melody of Rossini's “Barber; unpacked, and march before us in his flowwith the joyous dance music of Auber's ing cloak of yellow and gold. Every one “Masaniello," or with the rich imagina. except ourselves treated him with groveltion of Weber.
ling respect, and the sentences
i Khan Every feeling, and almost every mood sleeps," " Khan prays," “ Khan eats ” I of thought, has found its cry or its laugh soon understood to mean that nobody but in music — religious, sensuous, grave, or ourselves could disturb him. gay. The triumphant march of the sol. My wife was the chief object of interest dier, the joy of the bride, the solemn dirge in our cavalcade during this journey. No for the dead, the aspiration for immortal. European lady had ever attempted it beity, are all reproduced by this great art. fore, and the women of the tribes would Every whim and caprice of which man is stare at her with undisguised astonishcapable, though he be Heine himself, as ment. “Is she a boy? “ No, a womwell as every noble thought which might an.” “ Has she only got one leg ?” “No, find a home with Plato, the yearning of she wears them both on one side of her all the Romeos for all the Juliets, every horse," were constant remarks overheard. mood of the mind, and every passion of The journey with which we have now the soul are served, from the highest to to deal began at a town called Zenjan, on the lowest, from the demoniac tarantella the borders of the mountains of Media, to the divine aspirations of Mozart. and the last town where Persian is
G. B. spoken, and the first where Tartar-Turkish
predominates. Here we made our preparations for leaving the beaten track, bought provisions for the way, engaged our mules
and horses, and tried to gather together a From The Gentleman's Magazine.
few meagre notes concerning the route we IN THE MOUNTAINS OF MEDIA.
were about to follow. One sunny morning
in May our cavalcade left this town consistSEVERAL things induced us to make an ing of ourselves and servants, our khan expedition through this wild and unknown and two servants, a captain and two solregion of Persia. We should there be able diers for our protection, and three muleto study the habits of the nomad tribes teers. No one exactly knew where we who rove over these mountains in search were going or the road to follow, and before of summer pasturage for their flocks. We we were well clear of Zenjan we lost our should there meet with the observers of a way; all we could say was that we wanted quaint religion, details of which were ex: to go to a place called " Solomon's ceedingly hard to get away from the actual | Throne,” which was supposed to be about districts where it flourishes. The in- four days' journey in the heart of the Mesurmountable difficulties of travelling in dian mountains, and eventually to come these wild mountains were lessened for out on the other side of the great range us by the kind offices of our government close to the Salt Lake of Urumia. at Teheran, which secured for us a regu- The first part of the country we traversed lar escort under the command of a little was fertile and green, and at a distance of gentleman whom we soon dubbed “Our twelve miles from Zenjan we halted for Khan.”
He is secretary to the Persian refreshments in a garden of the last vilgrand vizier, and consequently a man of lage before commencing the mountain letters, and, whilst his master was absent paths. Here “Khan he ate and Khan in Europe with the shah, he was placed at he slept" under his large umbrella, and our disposal. He is exceedingly particu- the first symptoms of impatience on our lar about a not over attractive person, part began to manifest themselves. hates hurry of any kind, and I verily be- Amidst wild and treeless mountains, as lieve that if we had not recourse to wrath, the shades of evening were coming on, we and threats of remonstrance in high quar- found by accident, not by premeditation, ters, we might have still been wandering the miserable mud village of Dehshir – amongst the mountains of Media, drinking the first of many villages we passed
VOL, LXXIII. 3795
through inhabited by the Afshahs, one of inade of the same manure and mud prepathe most important of the Tatar-Turkish ration as the fuel, as is also a small domed tribes, the members which during the tomb of a Seid, or the sacred saint of the summer heats wander over these moun tribe, on either side of which are two gauot tains with their tents and flocks.
poles erected for decorations during the There is but meagre information to be annual festival of Mohurrim. “Most of gathered concerning the origin of this the graves are empty,” remarked the man tribe. We learnt that, nearly four hun- who accompanied us. Why?” we asked dred years ago, the Afshahs in conjunction in surprise. " Because the wolves won't with six other tribes made themselves very allow the corpses to remain long." And useful to a Persian shah in his wars, and we returned to our mud habitation hoping obtained for their tribes, amongst other not to die in that locality. A funeral privileges, that of wearing a red cap, which amongst these tribes is a striking and solgained for them all the sobriquet of the emn affair, especially if the deceased be a red heads."
man of note; then the wailing and lamenOne mud village inhabited by the tribes tation is more intense, and the riderless closely resembles another, and they are horse is led to the tombside to pay his last conspicuous chiefly for certain round con respects to his master. structions, standing about fifteen feet in After leaving Dehshir we crossed a very height and built in the form of a dome; igh pass indeed, called the “five fingers these are made of dried cakes of manure of Ali,” from some peculiar pointed rocks and form the only fuel possessed in this which are greatly venerated by the tribes; district. Each house possesses one ; and and all around are little piles of stones before each house is spread the commodity placed by passers-by in token of respect in question, which is mixed with mud, and - a custom common all over the East when it has assumed the desired consist- near sacred shrines, thougb I never before ency, women for the fair sex is always saw a natural phenomenon thus sanctified. employed in this industry- plaster round Clambering down a steep ravine, we encakes on the wall to dry, and then build tered the valley of a great river called the them up into the domed structures, which Kizil Uzen. It is the most important are technically known as kusks, or kiosks, streamin Media, and is supposed to be though differing widely from our idea of the Gozan of Scripture. It rises in Mount what a kiosk should be.
Zagros of Kourdistan, and after a meanAs we entered the village of Dehshir we dering course of nearly five hundred miles interrupted a Passion Play. The carpets empties itself into the Caspian. We stood of the tribes, rich-colored ghelims, and on its banks in great uncertainty for some thick brown nummuds of camel's hair time, for the river was very swollen. At were spread out on the largest available length some men came up, stripped off portion of level ground; the performers, their clothes, and gave us a lead. Needdressed in coats of mail and brandishing less to say, we and our baggage were well the daggers and weapons commonly found soaked by the waters of Gozan, and we amongst them, were performing the well- had cause to remember the stream by known tragedy of Houssein and Hassan. which the captive Israelites were placed Big strong men wept as if their hearts by the Assyrians to sit down and weep. would break, and the womankind uttered Another steep ascent brought us to a screams of distress. After the happy dé. level plateau covered with cows and horses nouement they all got up, and, with hands enjoying the rich pasturage; we spread towards Kerbela, thanked Allah for much impressed by these horses of the mercies vouchsafed. I have seen these tribes, which are bred with Arab sires, plays often performed in Persian towns, and thrive exceedingly in these natural but never such intensity of feeling shown meadows. For the night we halted in the as amongst these wild nomadic mountain- village of Savandi, where we were accom
modated in a newly constructed house beThese Afshahs all belong to the Persian longing to Kerim Khan, the chief of the sect of Shiah, and are of course deadly Shah-Savand tribe. Of all the tribes of enemies of their neighbors the Kourds, this district this is the most conglomerate, who are of the Sonnee persuasion; and it and the most aristocratic. It was founded is reckoned even more righteous for one of by Shah Abbas the Great early in the these Mahomedan sectarians to kill one seventeenth century, to counteract the another than it is to kill an unbelieving power which the "red caps ” had arroChristian. Outside the village we visited gated to themselves. He summoned volun. the graveyard ; the slabs on the graves are
teers from all the tribes of his dominions,