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Amongst the gifts, which to me had all per ton, while retail dealers pay about the charm of novelty, was a basket of forty-seveo rupees for the same weight, it cashew nuts - an excellent, kidney-shaped follows that government profits to the put, which grows in the most eccentric extent of about nine hundred per cent. fashion outside of a pear-shaped fruit. Curiously enough, it is proved that What with fruit, flowers, and living crea- whereas the annual consumption of salt in tures, our limited space was being rapidly India is less than six pounds per head,
that in Ceylon is just double, averaging Next morning we started early on the twelve pounds per head. Whether this return voyage to Puttalam, but lost the implies a peculiarly strong craving for salt morning breeze while halting at the Kara- in these islanders I know not, but its im. tive salt-pans, so the crew had a long day portance is so fully recognized that on of hard work rowing in the sun. These various occasions both the Dutch and the salt-works, with those at Puttalam, Chilaw, Portuguese contrived to bring the king of and other points, are the special industry Kandy (i.e., of the mountain province in of the district, the salt being obtained the beart of the isle) to terms by blockfrom the great, calm lagoon, whose waters, ading every route by which salt could be owing to ceaseless evaporation in the carried from the seacoast to the mounburning sun, are very much more salt than tains. those of the ocean by which it is fed. The The price of the article of course varies lagoon is nearly thirty miles in length, enormously with the distance to which it with a breadth of from four to eight miles. has to be carried. To fish-curers on the
As salt is deposited more rapidly by coast it is supplied almost gratis, with a still water than by that which is subject view to its encouragement as an island to tidal movement, a large part of the lake industry, instead of as at present importis enclosed by a mud embankment where ing large quantities of salt fish from India. the waters are held captive for a given in the towns on the seaboard, to which period, after which they are led by small salt is conveyed by boat, the addition of ditches into shallow enclosures or pans, freight is not very serious, but in inland where evaporation goes on still more rap. districts, which can only be supplied by idly, and the brine is left till it becomes toilsome bullock-cart and coolie transport, further condensed. This saturated solu- the price is enormously increased, and in tion is then again transferred to another the hill districts the difficulty and cost of series of shallow enclosures, where it is transport are so great that the salt, wbich left till the salt is precipitated in snowy at the salt-pans sells for two cents per crystals, forming a glittering crust of from pound, may fetch from one to two rupees two to three inches in thickness.
in the mountains. It is hoped that ere As much as five hundred thousand hun. long a branch railway may greatly facilidred weight is thus obtained in this neigh- tate the traffic. borhood in the course of a season, though Besides these salt-works on the west at other times not one-tenth of this amount coast, there are others at Hambantotte in may be collected. The quantity eventu- the southern province, and smaller ones ally stored depends greatly on the sun, for on the north and east seacoast. the harvest is as precarious as that of kelp Sunday proved anything but a day of or of bay, or whatever else depends on rest for the bishop, who had come to Putfickle weather, and the most promising talam in order to consecrate the new deposits vanish literally "like snowdrifts church, and who in the course of the day in thaw,” should unseasonable rains chance held all possible services in English and to fall.
in Tamil, beginning with a baptism in the This work (which in this district gives early morning and ending with a confirmaemployment to upwards of a thousand tion in the evening. Amongst the candipersons) is chiefly carried on by Moormen dates were several very smart Tamil ladies, working under government supervision, who wore short-sleeved jackets of brightfor the salt trade, here as in Hindostan, is colored silk and muslin skirts which by no a government monopoly, and one which means veiled their bare brown feet and forms a very important item in the reve-ankles. According to Oriental custom,
(i.e., about 80,000l.). The cost of their large muslin veils duly concealed manufacture being only about threepence their faces till the moment of confirmation, per hundredweight, and the price paid to when the veils were thrown back. ihe salt contractors only about four rupees We were glad to end the evening by a • The rupee in India and Ceylon is equivalent to a
stroll on the sea beach, watching a lovely sunset; but we were assured that this
would not be so pleasant at all seasons, as called from a fancied resemblance to the in one monsoon shoals of jelly.fish are worm which bores holes in palm-trees. washed ashore, and lie rotting in the sun, Its body is of a dark claret color, crossed poisoning the whole atmosphere. A pleas- by five bars of delicate yellow, while each anter gist of the sea is the oyster crop, separate scale is edged with green. Bands which here is said to be excellent. We of yellow edged with pale blue meander passed through the fish-market and saw a over the head. great variety of fishes - some odd, some When one hears of a squirrel-parrot, * beautiful; but both these we saw in larger one naturally expects to see something numbers a few days later at Chilaw, a very grey or brown, but this is by no means the pretty village lying between the sea and case. It is a gorgeous fish, about eighteen a river, only separated from one another inches in length, of beautifully shaded by a very narrow belt of sand. The coast green with longitudinal stripes and dots of there is infested by sharks, and monstrous crimson; its head is likewise green and saw-fish, fully fifteen feet in length, are crimson, and its tail fin striped scarlet and sometimes captured.
gold on a green ground. The pumpkin. In that market we saw young sharks of parrot, which averages three feet in length, three distinct species, sa w.fish, dog-fish, has a blue-green back and bright green and many more some of the most vivid tail, grey under-side and yellow head, with scarlet with sky-blue spots, some scarlet sienna fins; but it is covered all over with shaded with crimson, others mauve and a honeycomb pattern of bright yellow. silvery grey, like the doves of the sea. A very lady-like looking member of this There was every shade of color, in every family is the balistes, robed in delicate conceivable combination and variety of silver; its eyes are bright golden with marking, with odd scales and fins. In the large black pupil. The green tulip-parrot fish world, as elsewhere, the gaudiest are is also a dainty little fish, only about six by no means the best. Those most in inches in length, apparelled in lovely favor for the table are the seir, soles, shaded green, while the cocoanut spare mullet, whiting, mackerel, dories, and good row f is a small creature with head, iail, little sardines.
fins and cross-bars of yellow on a claretBut for gorgeous coloring we turn to the colored ground. family of parrot-fishes of lustrous green, Perhaps the most marvellously varie. gold, purple, or crimson, varied by bands gated of all these creatures is the flowerof the richest scarlet, grey, and yellow, the parrot, which chiefly frequents the coralwhole being toned by cross-stripes of vel reefs off the south of the isle. Its lustrous vety black. Then there are great fire-fish robe has horizontal bands of silver, blue, of vivid fame color, and Red Sea perch crimson, bright green, and dark green, of dazzling scarlet. One lovely fish, about covered by black bands and patches of eighteen inches long, is specially sacred yellow. The fins are straw-colored, the to Buddha, being clothed in his colors of head has crimson and bright green stripes lovely gold barred with rich brown sienna. radiating from the eye. The red pahaya is also brilliant red, tinted Even the excellent herring of Ceylon with gold; it grows to about two feet in displays an Oriental love of color, for its length, and is excellent to eat. The bas- sivery body is striped with red, and some ket-parrot has a green back fading into of its fins are yellow, while the others are yellow, with yellow fins; but the whole is dark steel-grey. But the triumph of fishcovered with straight lines and cross- millinery is reserved for a lovely, very rare patches, giving the exact effect of wicker- perch, dressed in silvery grey, with tail, work,
fins, and crown of the head of vivid gold, A very handsome parrot-fish about two just tipped with velvety black. feet in length has a dove-grey body with Another radiant buiterfly of the deep is black spots, fios brown with rows of dainty the malkotah, which is apparelled in green little black spots; the ventral fin is edged satin striped with scarlet, its fins and tail with delicate green, while that on the back being also scarlet. is edged with scarlet ; tbe tail is scar But for oddity nothing can excel the with a white edge; the eye is bright gold, various members of the chetodon family set in a golden head with blue-green or “moon-stones," as they are called by stripes. Altogether, one almost fancies the Singhalese, because of their globular that a ray of prismatic light must rest upon form. One is just a ball of bright goldenit. Then there is the worm-parrot,* so yellow, with glittering yellow eyes and
• Lena-Giraweh. • Panoo-Girawah.
enormous brown fins. Another has a yel. The strife born of these disputes was low body with curved lines of purple, black most unedifying. Thus we were shown and gold tail and fins, and a black band on an island near Negombo (Dhuwa Island) the face. One little gem about four inches to which some notion of special sanctity in diameter is silvery grey shaded with attaches, and there the different orders bands of darker grey and silvery eyes. have had serious conflicts as to which Another equally tiny is of bright gold with should say mass first. The year before a blue back and gold dorsal fin.
our visit thousands had assembled, quite There are also crabs innumerable of all prepared for a free fight in support of their shapes and sizes, from the largest edible respective spiritual leaders; but the Britcrabs down to little tiny hermits which ish authorities having got wind of their scamper about the shore in thousands, intentions, a body of police took posseshiding during the heat of the day under sion of the chapel and ordered which the cool shade of the marine convolvulus, should take precedence. Afterwards the each tenanting some empty shell which it others held their service, although greatly has selected from the multitude which incensed at the preference shown to their strew the beach. But I must not linger rivals. too long over the wonders of the fish- I heard much of the miracle-plays permarket and of the seashore, which so formed on Good Friday in a building specially attracted us at Chilaw, from being adjoining the chapel. The room so close to that of the river where our boat chemically darkened, leaving only suffilay anchored.
cient light to distinguish three great cruHere we were taken to see some fine cifixes; all other figures were real. The wood-carving in the Roman Catholic Blessed Virgin was personated by a Sinchurch, where we were told the Sunday ghalese woman. Afterwards an image congregation averaged nine hundred per- representing the dead Christ was carried sons, for here, as elsewhere in Ceylon, a on a bier through the streets of the city, large proportion of the fishers and many which were lined with thousands of kneel. of the coast population are Roman Cath. ing women all dressed in black and wailolics — descendants of the Portuguese ing aloud. At Chilaw on Palm Sunday converts. Chapels are numerous, all built processions of large images of our Lord by the people themselves, and devout con- riding the ass, and of the twelve apostles, gregations attend mass daily at 4 A.M. are paraded on wheels, just as the Hin. The fishers give their priest a tithe of doos parade their gods. At Jaffna the their daily catch, and in stormy weather processions might well be mistaken for will never put to sea till he has sprinkled those of Juggernaut's cars, and no heathen the boats with holy water. Not one boat idol could be more repulsive than are the puts to sea on Sunday - a deference for images of many of the Christian saints as the day in honorable contrast with the here displayed. enormous amount of Sunday labor exacted Leaving pleasant Chilaw, we rowed back at the ports where foreign vesseis call, in glorious moonlight (oh! so beautiful as and where the toil of shipping and unship- seen from beneath the dark, overarching ping cargo goes on without intermission. fronds of tall cocoa-palms !) to the lovely
Having been converted by the Portu- Luna-Oya, and there anchored that we guese, the Roman Catholics of Ceylon might get full enjoyment of the early mornhave ever continued subject to the juris- ing light on its beautiful foliage and tan. diction of the Archbishop of Goa, whence gled creepers, and on the wealth of reeds, also their priests have been chiefly sup. acanthus, and innumerable water-plants plied. The French and Italian priests on its sedgy shores. The men camped and vicars apostolic sent from Rome have on shore, rigging up the brown sail as found less favor with the people, who have their tentand kindling a bright fire beneath shown themselves in no wise disposed to the trees. accept the dogma of “papal infallibility," Again with the dawn we rejoiced in all more especially since the pope decreed the voices of the wakening jungle life : that in September, 1884, the jurisdiction monkeys and jolly old wanderoos, parrots, of the Archbishop of Goa should cease kingfishers, barbets, jungle.fowl notes and the Goanese clergy be no longer of all sorts, harsh and liquid, the most competent to dispense the Holy Sacra- attractive being those of a cheery black ments, unless they would submit them and white bird, which Europeans call a selves to the pope's representative - a robin, because it has something of the change of allegiance to which they very friendly demeanor to human beings which seriously objected.
endears our own little redbreast.
All day long we sailed or rowed, and at which curls and breaks in dazzling surf sunset neared the village of Maravilla, but and with thunderous roar –a vision of catching sight of a crowd of natives pre- lovely peace blended with resistless force. paring decorations in honor of the bish- Sailing in the early dawn, we passed op's visit, we pretended not to have from the calm river to a still calmer canal, arrived, and turning back, anchored for and thence into the Lake Negombo, where the night near a grand old banyan-tree, we found a most picturesque native town amid whose dark foliage flashed fire-flies and fishing village, with a great variety of innumerable.
boats, most fascinating to a sketcher. A Immediately after early coffee, Mr. de hearty welcome awaited us in a pleasant Soyza, the fine old village “moodliar," bungalow between the sea and the lake, came to fetch us, and showed us over his and close to an old Dutch fort and a magsplendidly kept cocoa-palm estate, watered nificent banyan - tree with innumerable by the aid of a steam-engine, an outlay stems one of the finest I have ever well repaid by the luxuriant growth of the seen. Beneath its shadow sat groups of trees, young ones about eleven years of age Singhalese, waiting their summons having fronds of from twenty to twenty- business to the courthouse within the old five feet in length, while on an average fort. each full-grown tree yields twenty nuts six Long before sunrise we found our way times a year.
to the palm-fringed shore, and enjoyed the These fine fronds, torn into shreds and rare luxury of a delicious bathe in the plaited, figured largely in the decorations warm sea — rare because there are so few at the landing.place and at church, min- places on these shores where we could gling with the large fan-shaped leaves and feel safe from sharks; but here the water rich glossy brown fruit of the Palmyra lies so clear above the firm yellow sand palm, the scarlet screw-pine, and curiously that sharks seem afraid to approach, so woven pendent bird's-nests, the general our enjoyment of the perfect morning was effect being very light and pretty.
unalloyed. The congregation being all Singhalese, But the subsequent delay of lying idly the bishop of course conducted the service at rest in the verandah during the noonday in that language. The interest centred heat was tempered by alarming stories of in the baptism of two adults, converts from the terrible results of such indulgence Buddhism.
should the breeze happen to be blowing In the afternoon we resumed our voy- from the north-west, in which case it is age, sailing down stream between beauti- known as the “land wind,” which, blowing fully wooded banks where we saw several over feverish Indian jungles, arrives here great ungainly kabra-goyas and numerous hot and dry, and shrivels up whatever it small lovely lizards. We attempted to touches. Half an hour of this delicious but capture a bright green tree-snake about treacherous breeze blowing on a sleeper, four feet long, which was twined round a or even on a person lying at rest, often branch with a crested bird dead in its proves worse than a sunstroke, and is quite mouth, but at our approach it dropped into as permanent in its effects. Animals the water and swam to shore. Though not suffer from it as severely as human beings, venomous, it is dreaded by the islanders horses and deer being often crippled with because of its habit of darting at the eyes rheumatism or even blinded from this of man or bird.
Its effect op vegetation is also A sunset in which every gorgeous color most baneful, and even furniture shrinks blended was succeeded by an afterglow and splits under its drying influence. still more exquisite, and ere its brilliancy One of the objects of interest near Ne. had faded the moon shone gloriously, its gombo is a cocoanut palm with several light blending with that of the sheet light- heads, a growth so rare that we were taken ning, while the glaring torches of the men up the lake to see it, but found it as hide. fishing cast long fiery reflections and ous as are most other deformities,
I saw showers of sparks, as the fishers passed in a similar hydra-headed palm on one of the and out beneath the overhanging branches Fijian Isles, where it was equally, prized of the dark trees.
by the natives on account of its singularWe anchored for the night where the lity placid waters of the Ging.Oya mingle with I found a more attractive object for those of the Maha-Oya, and together flow pencil and brush in the majestic banyansilently into the ocean, the point of union tree, which claimed all my available time being marked only by the upheaval every at charming Negombo, to which we bade other minute of the majestic green wave, I adieu with infinite regret, my companions
returning to Colomba by land, while I and was directed to a noble end. Amid preferred returning by water and sailing the buffetings of fortune and the cares of down the lake in clear moonlight. It was business his heart never once swerved an evening much to be remembered on from the determination to realize the account of the wonderful phosphorescence dream of his youth, to find the existing of the water, the brilliancy of forked and remains of the cities and palaces of which sheet lighting, and the utter stillness Homer sang, and to force the earth to give broken only by the deep growling of dis- up the best relics she retained of heroic tant thunder. There was also something Greece. The realization was indeed utof novelty in finding myself alone with a terly different from the dream. Like crew of Singhalese, of whose language I almost all those who have done great scarcely knew six words !
things in the world, Schliemann was to We anchored at Tarracoolie, a very some extent the victim of illusion. Nevpretty spot with rich foliage and deep ertheless his purpose bore fruit, if not reflections, of which I secured an early exactly the fruit he had expected. Columsketch ; then once more sailed by lovely bus sailed to find the Indies, and discove river and canal, and ere the sun set the ered instead a new world. So Schliemann Castle Jermyn was safe back at her old set out to prove the literal truth of the moorings, and all her passengers (bipeds Iliad, and revealed instead unsuspected and quadrupeds) were in comfortable quar- mines of knowledge in regard to the life ters at St. Thomas's College under the and art, the manners and commerce of the bishop's hospitable roof.
Greeks of the pre-historic ages.
In sketching the outlines of Schlie. mann's career we must needs follow the
short and delightfully naïve autobiography From Macmillan's Magazine.
prefixed to the great work on « Ilios.” HENRY SCHLIEMANN.*
Sceptics may tell us that in recalling after
so many years the circumstances of his “Let us now praise famous men,” is a youth, the writer's memory or his imaginatext of which we can never tire. The man tion may have sometimes played him of whom I am to speak, whose loss is false. And we must allow that this is regretted by every academy and every scarcely unlikely in one of so ardent and university of Europe, belonged more than so imaginative a temperament. But we almost any man of our time to many lands, have no other source of knowledge; and and was in an eminent degree a citizen of after all, if facts in the autobiography be the world. Born in Germany, be migrated sometimes not uncolored, at least it pre. to Holland, and thence to Russia. He sents to us a clear likeness of the man. It frequently visited France and England, was in ancient Greece a wise and a magand was a citizen in America. Latterly nanimous custom that when a sculptor he lived in Greece. He died in Italy, and modelled a statue or relief of a dead man report says that he is to be buried at to adorn his tomb he did not reproduce Colonus in Attica, by the side of the two slavishly the features of the individual, great savants whom the gratitude of but rather represented the type, considGreece has selected from among the ering that those who died became thereby learned of Europe for that highest of Hel- free of accident and retained only the eslenic honors, a public burial — by the side sential. Let us follow the custoin in the of Karl Ottfried Müller and Charles Lenor. case of Schliemann. mant.
Born in 1822 in Mecklenburg, the son of A man who rises as did Schliemann a Protestant pastor, Schliemann passed a by business talent from utmost poverty to youth by no means bare of romance and wealth is sure to possess some fine quali-imagination. In the village churchyard ties. Persevering he can scarcely fail to was buried a robber knight named Henbe, and clear-headed and self-controlled. ning, who was said to have kicked in final But it is no necessary consequence that insult one of the victims whom he was he should be interesting. But interesting torturing to death; and the story was that Schliemann was - irresistibly interesting; out of his tomb grew for ages a leg covered and he moved on a higher level than that with a black silk stocking. The first proj. of common, every-day existence. The se- ect of excavation wbich entered into the cret was that his whole life from first to boyish mind of Henry Schliemann was last was penetrated by a definite purpose, one which had for its object the investi
• A paper read at a meeting of the Society for the gation of this remarkable phenomenon by Promotion of Hellenic Studies, on February 23rd.
digging up the robber's corpse. This