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This young gentleman has received an ed-1 (shade of the great Crusader! what think ucation costly beyond the wildest dreams you of your direct descendant having to of the mediæval student; he is one on certify his identity by a number like a whom thousands of pounds have been convict's ?)“ requests that 1,000 c. f. E.C. lavished to give him the standing of a cartridges, No. 6 shot, may be sent to him scholar; he has means enough to make at Hieover Hall, Huntingfield." iim absolute disposer of his own time, and is of such station in life where a consid letter to admit us to the writer's mind, for

The third and last is going to be the erable degree of mental culture may

it is expected. Here are surely the head and

To his Friend. the hand to bring the Phænician's inven

“ DEAR OLD MAN, You wanted to tion to consummate fruit. Learning and leisure, with all the luxurious appliances know what we did here. Friday – Cockof a wealthy country house at their com- shot Wood, 5 guns, 720 pheas., 213 hares, mand, bampered by no irritating defect of 30 rab., 2 woodcock, 18 various; total, circumstance mind will commune with 1,083. Saturday — Bangover Covers, 105 mind; and as we prepare to look over his pheasants, 65 part., 19 hares, 573 rabb.; 10 shoulder, we anticipate a real intellectual woodcock, 2 various; total, 774. Weather

blagard [sic], powder straightish. We treat.

Drawing a sheet of exquisite smooth- don't shoot to-morrow; there's a rotten ness from the stand, and dipping a new cattle-show or something: I'm off on grey-goose quill in a silver fox-bead ink. Tuesday — home.

Haven't seen you for stand, the scribe pauses, biting the feather an age. I don't suppose we shall meet of the pen and gazing with a far-off look till about the Derby. Take care of your

life. Yours ever, out of the window. His eye wanders over the soaked lawn, which was once the clois

• BO DE CRESPIGNY." ter garth of an ancient religious house. Alas! it seems as if the cheapness of corEven so in olden days may a monk, wearied respondence has brought upon it the pro. with the task of illuminating a psalter, verbial corollary. Yet this is an age of have rested his eyes on the same emerald copious, if not fastidious, reading. It is sward. To tell the truth, our friend is still recognized as a duty to society to puzzled to remember the day of the month, make one's self as agreeable as may be in though that happens to be displayed in conversation. It would therefore seem large black figures in a frame on the man worth the little extra trouble involved to teipiece. The mental effort seems too make a letter as attractive as a paragraplı much for bim, for, laying down bis pen, in an evening paper.

If it were once he pulls out a morocco-leather cigar-case; realized that it is as much a breach of and it is not till he has a fine regalia under good manners to write slatternly as io way that he begins a letter

speak curtly, the habit of adequate literary To his Sister,

expression would soon be acquired. it

is as integral to good breeding to amuse “ CAROL PRIORY, SOPPINGHAM, or inform a friend at a distance as to do

Sunday. “ DEAR POLLY, Please tell the gov- dinner.

so to one sitting in the next place at ernor I shall arrive on Tuesday by the

It is easily imagined how, in former 5.15, and will be send a trap for me. Rain times, the arrival of the weekly post must ing like anything. Yours, Bo.”

have been a vivid incident in the dulness Evidently he reserves the confidence, al- of country life; but ways so facile and full between brother

Born a goddess, Dulness never dies, and sister, for their early meeting.

Before beginning the next leiter, some and she seems to have avenged herseit for minutes are devoted to reflection and cal- the greater frequency of letters by pouring culation, aided by the aromatic incense of her spirit upon their pages. Havannah. Ah! he is now going 10

In this country we look back to the lattor commit to some intimate friend choice half of the eighteenth and the first quarter thoughts from that well-shaped, capable of the nineteenth century, as the last head. But no; the letter is

period when men took enough pains to

write letters worth reading ; but we should To the Secretary, Ariny and Navy Co- be slow to admit that friendship is less

operative Society, Victoria Street, prized now than then. Walpole, the prince S. W.

of correspondents, quarrelled with most of “ Captain de Crespigny, No. 1,291,065,” | his friends except Sir Horace Mann. Per


haps it was distance alone that prevented mother's heart yearn less achingly over disagreement with him ; but how full and her schoolboy's blotty scrawls, because

the current of sympathy flows she receives in a single morning more through the letters to the end! and, but letters from her friends than her grandfor this art, their friendship must have mother got in six months ? Not a bit. died early of starvation. It may be as As an avenue of intercourse, a bond of cypically true as ever, that although any affection, a source of delight, letter-writing man can say how many horses or cattle he has no more lost its virtue than speech possesses, none can say how many friends bas, only by our slipshod ways we let the he reckons; still, friendship endures; and, wine run in the kennel that we used to while it does so, it is passing strange that love to set before our friends. the priceless link of correspondence As with most metaphors, so fault may should be allowed to rust.

be found with that of a march to express At the risk of being wearisome, I must the increase of civilization. In some as. carry inquiry into this matter a little fur- pects it is like a stream that has ceased to ther. It is assumed that, because letters run in its old channels. For the first time are so cheap and common, they can never in history, from no cause that has ever be again what they were a hundred and been explained, we are without living fifty years ago.

It is not difficult to im- architecture. "In every former age, one agine what they were then. In a certain desiring to build a house or a church in. Scottish country house there hangs on the structed his architect as to the scale of wall of the central hall a mighty fabric of the work, but never thought it necessary appliqué work, originally intended for and to specify the style. That was spontaneused as a carpet. Chairs and sofas are ous; in the eleventh century the windows covered with the same material. It is the and doors would have round arches; in handiwork of a former lady of the house, the thirteenth century, pointed with capand dates from 1767–77. The faithful effi- itals on the pilasters; in the fifteenth cengies of hyacinths, crown imperials, fritil-tury the mode dispensed with capitals — laries, honeysuckle, hellebore, tiger-lilies, and so on. In each age it was assumed moss and other roses - all the lavish that the new building would be in the heraldry of the seasons that flaunted in fashion of the day. Even when that the castle parterres in those long-ciead fashion was a renaissance, it was a uni. years — still attest the industry of this form, well-defined renaissance. Not till gentle dame and her maidens. One can Walpole built Strawberry Hill and Scott see them sitting around the plum-colored followed with Abbotsford was it evident fabric, stitching away as weeks, months, that architecture had ceased to live. years slipped by. The part she had to Henceforward pretty and interesting piles play in life is known to have been the might be reared with the bones of the * patient Grizel” business; there remain mighty dead (with becoming respect to her letters in witness of it, the ink more comparative anatomy), but houses could faded than her flowers. Truly to her, left no more be living fabrics. to struggle with the narrow supplies al- Modern architects can build excellent lowed her by her selfish and absent hus- houses in any known style ; he who pays band, the rare arrival of the post must for them has only to specify his fancy. have been an event much looked forward Hence the bizarre phenomena of justice to and greatly prized. But the point in- scowling down Fleet Street from the batsisted on is this — it is not the rarity of it tlements of a feudal fortress a Veretian that gave it value, but the trouble people Gothic palace trying to smile through the took to make their letters compensate for drizzle of the Western Highland – a timtheir rarity and cost. Obviously, it is the bered, red-tiled, Cheshire manor-house people who meet oftenest and on the perched beside a Renfrewshire coal-pit, easiest terms who most prize each other's like a pretty, smartly dressed lady in a company; so the ease of frequent corre-dust-cart. spondence ought to multiply rather than Signs of flickering life survived even detract from its value. It is easy test the Strawberry Hill and Abbotsford; there truth of this. Does the lover of to-day remained till within the last quarter centreasure one whit less fondly, or read over tury a semblance of a style of the day. one fraction less frequently, the daily letter Cubitt and Haussman may hereafter be from his mistress that costs him nothing, remembered as the last architects whose than the lover of last century, who got a work carries upon it the evidence of its letter but once a week that cost him eigh date. After them — chaos; Queen Anne teenpence? Does the nineteenth-century | elbows the Abencerrages, King John rubs

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shoulders with Adelphi Adams, and the from the hand of the restorer, but even his niggling confectionery of our native Tudor work is carried on more reverently dow; cringes before

and as for pulling down or wantonly defac.

ing Those marble garments of the ancient gods,

an effectual stop has been put to Which the blaspheming hand of Babylon

these. One can hardly imagine a state of Hath gathered out of ruins, and hath raised

public opinion that would allow of such an In this, her dark extremity of guilt.

act being perpetrated as that of which the

writ has lately seen mournful traces in a One is led to wonder what kind of sen- certain ruined Scottish priory. The south timent will hang in after-ages round the doorway of the nave is of late Norman ruins of the nineteenth century. It has work, enriched with delicately carved been said that prone as men are to revivals, mouldings; in adapting the building to no one will ever be tempted to revive the the requirements of a modern Scottish eighteen hundreds. It is indeed difficult kirk (presumably about two hundred years to imagine any one studiously reconstruct, ago), a deep, straight groove has been cut iog Buckingham Palace (itself a distorted right through the ornament on each side renaissance), nor can any one believe that of the arch, in order to support the gable any degree of antiquity can ever invest it of a porch. with the charm that hangs over the wasted Certainly one of the pleasanter sigos of walls of Holyrood, or even the well-pre- recent civilization is a new-born respect served dowagerhood of Hampton Court. for relics of the past. It is a sentiment

One thing is certain, - our architects which may not, perhaps, rank as a moral are preparing a pretty comedy of errors virtue, but is to be prized, if on no other for future generations of antiquaries. Mas. account, for the keen enjoymentit confers. sive Norman keeps that frown over En. No doubt the present often jars harshly glish meadows, boar peel-towers of the with the past, yet often it falls into unBorder, dismal brochs on Highland capes, expected harmony with it.

One spring countless country churches and manor. afternoon I strolled into the gardens surhouses — each has an intelligible story for rounding the cathedral of Tours. The the traveller; but heaven help him who sun shone brightly on the young leaves; shall try five hundred years hence to read an artillery band was playing; the towns. the tale of nineteenth-century civilization folk strolled about or sat' under the trees, by means of its buildings !

the men, as usual, vying with each other We do not realize the full absurdity of in ugliness of attire — the women, no it now

perhaps it is as well for the tem- doubt, displaying travesty of the last but pers of some of us that we do not; but it two Parisian fashion; children ran about; will reflect little credit on our art hereafter. nurses wheeled perambulators, -in short, A spick-and-span house built in the fash. it was just such a gathering as may be ion of a mediæval baron's stronghold is a witnessed on a fine day in any French common object on a Surrey heath or at a garrison town. But what has stamped it seaside watering-place. As parts of a de- as one of the fairest scenes in a life's tached villa, towers with machicolated memory is that high over the delicate battlements and loopholed turrets are greenery soared the grey cathedral towers, really nothing but an elaborate practical shining softly like columns of dull silver joke; an eligible seaside residence tricked against the blue vault. Eighteen generaout with these is about as serious as the tions or more have been laid in the earth men-at-arms in a lord mayor's show. The since these stones were reared heaven. architect displays a creditable acquaint. ward; rough fellows we should count the ance with archæology, but the effect is not builders if they stood among us now, and more pleasant than when a grown person we should expect them to be astonished at affects juvenile airs.

our progress, nor would they disappoint But however absurd some results of the us; yet it was their handiwork that gave Gothic revival may be, we are bound to be peculiar charm to the scene. The band grateful for others. Receiving its main would have played, the sun shone, the impulse from the skill of Pugin, guided trees given as soft a shade, but the whole and strengthened by the exquisite feeling thing would have been forgotten as a and noble language of the author of the sleepy fête day but for those cathedral “ Stones of Venice,"it has taken such firm towers, which a modern architect migbt hold of the popular imagination that each mimic, but could not design. year sees more intelligent care bestowed With all our accumulated experience we on our ancient buildings. In its early lack discretion in the art of enjoyment fervor it was the cause of terrible ravages seem indeed to be getting worse rather

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than better in this respect, more stupid | Mr. Gordon Cumming's work on African rather than wise. It is only possible adventure and sport, describing how he within reasonable limits to touch on an carried out the purpose defined in his instance of this here and there, but a very preface - “ to penetrate into the interior obvious one may be taken at random. further than the foot of civilized man had The hue of gold is that from which the yet trodden." His pages reek with the eye derives the fullest delight - not yel. slaughter of countless pachyderms as well low, as of a buttercup, but the hue of the as of elaods, giraffes, and lions. The metal itself. There is in it a sense of ful. term of a single human generation has ness and richness, a blending of glow and sufficed to extinguish these noble forms coolness, wbich the old illuminators well of life in Bechuanaland; their existence understood, and which no other substance is, indeed, incompatible with civilization, can give. Plainly, then, continence of unless by timely and kindly forethought taste would forbid the vulgar use of gold, the example of the United States govern. even after profusion of discovery had put ment is followed in reserving large tracts it within every one's reach. The cupola as national parks, wherein some of the of St. Paul's, the vanes of Westminster, old world animals may be preserved. the gates of the Monarch's park

We may plume ourselves, not without such as these it may be most rightly reason, on the restrictions placed in late spread, for these are what we have of years on the cruelty of human beings, most noble; but it is not reserved for whether towards each other or towards these - it is used in the king's palace not the lower animals. It is an astounding so profusely as in the gin palace, not alone matter for reflection how long the much on the state coach but on the panels of vaunted march went on before it ocevery backney cab; the trade advertise. curred to men that the world would be a ment, the publican's sign – everything better place if there were less suffering in that is common and much that is unclean it. Some of the pioneers of civilization

borrows the lustre of gilding, till our themselves suffered most bitterly. No jaded sight loses the sense of what should mortal ever was born upon this earth more be matchless beauty, and we derive less willing and capable to leave it a better pleasure from it than a negro rightly does place than he found it than the Franciscan from contemplating his glass beads. It is friar, Roger Bacon. In his day alchemy a sound canon of taste that places ormolu and astrology obscured the field to be under the same ban as stucco.

afterwards explored by the clear lenses of However, it is idle to repine, for if chemistry and astronomy; yet, hindered as sumptuary law were ever to be revived, he was by the prejudice and superstition there are perhaps sores for it to deal with of the thirteenth century, his genius deeper than this mere surface irritation. touched the true clue to physical knowl

It may not be too much to hope that the edge, and revealed to him, as through a reverence which is beginning to be shown mist, the outlines of truth. for ancient monuments may be extended The vast range of subjects dealt with in to apimate and inanimate nature. Hith his little-known works; the spirit in which erto civilization has dealt harshly with they are han so averse from the myslands and their wild creatures, altering ticism and obscurantism of his contempothe face of the former and brushing aside raries, – testify to his unflagging zeal and the latter to make way for omnivorous, seldom erring understanding. One has to josatiate man. In this country the regret picture the breathless, reverent patience that has long weighed on the minds of the with which he watched the veil moving few at the sight of devastated landscapes little by little aside from the face of nahas at length, almost too late, begun to ture, to note the masculine fibre of the find expression in the voice of the many. mind that steered so stoutly athwart the On no question does Parliament show strong current of contemporary thought, more vigilant jealousy than on those before realizing how bitter must have touching encroachment on waste lands; been the doom to which jealous ignorance railway engineers may no longer regard a consigned him. His precious writings common as a space intended by nature to were torn from him and condemned ; he have a branch line run through it. But himself, deprived of books and writing scored and seared and deeply smirched as materials, was imprisoned for many years; is the fair face of our island, a similar the piercing intellect, forced to refrain process is going on in all parts of this from observation or research, brooded in overcrowded globe. Many of us are old silence over the might have been. “I enough to remember the publication of was imprisoned,” he wrote mournfully in

after years, “because of the incredible piece of road, and underfed, overloaded stupidity of those with whom I had to do.” animals are mercilessly raced along it. Could human cruelty devise a more brutal It is a pity that horses suffer mutely. punishment than this?

If they could express their torments by Oh, but it may be said, this happened in yells as piercing and loud in proportion to the dark ages.

Very well ; skip three their size as, for example, a wounded hare hundred years, and observe the incidents utters, we should soon be enlightened as of the “ march just two centuries ago. to the amount of suffering in our streets. Sir Thomas Browne, doctor of medicine, Some of the hansom cabs which ply there the cultivated and lively author not only are admirably turned out and driven, but of “ Pseudodoxia Epidemica,” a work de- there are still many whose owners act on voted to the refutation of vulgar errors, the principle of a minimum of corn and a but of the far deeper and tenderer “Re- maximum of whipcord. In one such I ligio Medici,” appears in the witness-box was travelling one day; the driver plied to give evidence against two witches. his whip vigorously about the tenderest

More than a hundred years later (we parts of his horse's flanks, and awkwardly are getting towards the recent stages of allowed the lash to strike me across the the “march now) lively debates took face. The pain was acute, and I did not place in the House of Commons upon a suffer in silence; yet for one indirect cut bill to abolish bear-baiting. The bill was that I received in that journey, the unforthrown out by fifty votes to thirty-two, tunate quadruped received scores. He although, to illustrate the horrors of the received punishment at the rate of about system, the Hon. George Lamb, member fifty lashes a mile, which, if his average for Dungarvan, produced a printed paper daily task is moderately computed at (which is still in existence) in the form of twelve miles, would give the hideous total à playbill, having at the top the royal of six hundred lashes a day! arms between the letters A. R. (Anna This incident took place in broad day. Regina), of which the following is the light, but cabmen's night horses are in. texi :

deed a pitiful class. Nearly all of those

that are assembled nightly in Palace Yard, At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole, when the House of Commons is sitting, near Clerkenwell Green. These are to give notice to all gentlemen, caused by fast work on hard pavements.

are suffering from navicular disease, gamesters, and others that on this present You may see the unhappy aniinals standMonday, being the 27th of April, 1702, a great match is to be fought by a bald faced Dog of ing with first one fore foot, then the other, Middlesex against a fallow Dog of Cow Cross, pointed forward to relieve the pain, which for a Guinea each Dog, five let-goes out of must resemble toothache on a large scale, hand, which goes fairest and furthest in wins for it is caused by the decay of a bone all; being a General Day of Sport by all the nearly two inches long in the centre of the Old Gamesters and a Great Mad Bull to be foot. Would society endure horses being turned loose in the Game-place, with Fire worked in this condition if they could sig. works all over him, and two or three Cats tyd nify their pangs as plainly as a fine lady to his Tail, and Dogs after them. Also other variety of Bull-baiting and Bear-baiting. Be

with neuralgia? ginning at two of the Clock.

The barbarity of tight bearing.reins was

forcibly exposed and condemned by a It is true that the advertisement was at writer in “Maga” of June, 1875, and certhat time (in 1825) more than a century tainly the excessive use of them thereafter old, but there was nothing in the law as it became less common; but it is still too then was to prevent similar horrors, and often to be seen. It would not be seen at the House of Commons refused to alter it. all if people in general understood the pe.

This brings the matter down to our own culiar form of torture produced by it. A times. Much bas been done, but our pair of fat, well-groomed, 16-hands carhands are hardly clean enough for compla. riage horses standing in the street are not cency yet.

subjects to attract commiseration from Few societies have done more good passers-by; the restless tossing of their work than that for the Prevention of Cru- heads may be taken for the sign of pride elty to Animals, yet who can walk in the and spirit; but what heart-rending groans Birdcage Walk in the early morning and could alone express what these fine ani. watch the barbarous treatment of costers' mals have to endure ! Along the top of donkeys and ponies there without seeing a horse's neck runs a massive sinew, strong that more is wanted than any society, how- enough to support the leverage of the ever diligent, can effect? It is a long, flat head; it is attached to several vertebræ

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