finished her day's work, for her empty a splendid opportunity for the time-hon. earthenware pots swing carelessly from ored game of snow-balling makes a grand the long pole which she holds with one mistake. I thought so, too, once, and tried hand over the right shoulder.

the experiment, and so discovered my Now our sledge must move aside to error. The snow is far too dry, and has make room for a party of soldiers in their a distinct quality of its own, being much dull uniforms and bashlyks, a kind of cloth more like salt than anything else. When hood to protect the ears, not only worn by on any high ledge exposed to the wind, it the military, but also by schoolboys, po- forms into the prettiest little silver feathers licemen, and even occasionally by ladies. imaginable.

But I have omitted to mention one But our driver cracks his whip, and we of the most prominent as well as most soon leave the gardens far behind us. unsavory features of the street-life – 1 Here we are already in front of the for. mean the beggars. There they sit and tress, an ugly, useless, building of wide stand, no matter how severe the cold is. extent. We rattle under the old gateway, Nowhere can one escape them. Their and passing a small market or bazaar of profession is exceedingly lucrative, for all very dingy aspect, we commence a rapid good orthodox Russians consider alms- descent down the hill. Our man, in spite giving as a religious duty, and practise it of all remonstrances, does not in the slightwithout any regard to the wisdom or not est degree slacken his speed, and we arof supporting and encouraging a large rive at the bottom with a decided feeling class of often utterly idle and worthless of relief. Our rather alarming descent vagrants.

had prevented us from paying much attenBy this time we have turned the corner, tion to the wide prospect -- the immense and a charming view is before us, decid- fiat plain, stretching miles and miles away; edly more Oriental in appearance than the great frozen river, hardly to be dis. European. Kieff is situated upon a range tinguished from the equally frozen earth; of hills, rising abruptly from a great plain. the monotonous, leaden hue over all, only Essentially a city of churches, Kieff is broken by the lines of dark pine forests known as the “ Holy city upon the Dnie. in the distance. per," and boasts of being the most ancient But now the short winter day is waning,

ous metropolis of Russia, and the and we intimate by gestures to our isvosht. first spot from which Christianity was chik, or coachman, that it is time to turn preached to the rude tribes then inhabit back, but not by the same road. We are ing the land. Thousands of pilgrims visit now passing under the high, overhanging the celebrated monastery, whose dazzling cliffs, along the banks of the river, over cupolas and tall towers we see standing which rough sledges heavily laden with out against the blue sky. Upon the oppo- ice, dug from the stream, are slowly maksite hill, high above the low, green-roofed ing their way. This little chapel built into houses, towers the cathedral, the golden the wall, before which these peasants cross dome glittering in the morning light. To themselves so devoutly, contains some of the left we just catch a glimpse of the red the sacred icons, the very stiff, expressionbuildings of the university; to the right less pictures so much venerated by the is the broad summer promenade upon the Greek Church. cliffs overhanging the river. And above But we are nearing the end of our drive, all, and more than all, in the valleys and and are crossing the principal street, coron the hills shine the silver, gold, red, and responding to the High Street of an Enblue cupolas of the many churches, giving glish provincial town. The shops, though a peculiarly picturesque appearance to the much admired by the townspeople, show whole scene. Close at hand is the Impe- little attractiveness, at least on the outside, rial Garden, a garden in name, but partak- Past the market, up the hill, and we are ing much more of the character of a small home. I regret that the red firelight does wood, and what a delicious wood now! not welcome us, but the samovar (a sort Not a bare branch is to be seen. The of large tea-urn) is steaming on the table, keen hoar-frost causes the trees in their and at least one gets good tea in this part silver sheen to sparkle like diamonds in i of Europe. the rays of the glorious sun. The snow The dogs are let loose ; the dvornik, or upon the upperinost boughs, which has bouse porter, whose duty it is to act as thawed in his genial glow, now hangs in watchman, and who seems capable of en. tiny icicles from each little twig. Not a during the most extreme cold, and will trace of brown earth, not a footstep. often lie down and sleep in the long winter

But any one who imagines that here is | nights when the thermometer is many de.


grees below zero, station himself outside, now appear to have made up their minds and the stillness of night seems to fall that all is safe, and are content to leave upon all. Hooray! what do we find wait. one sentry, who either stands on some ing for us? The greatest event in the elevated part of the field, or walks slowly day has happened; the post has been, and with the rest - never, however, venturing brought us "letters from home.”

to pick up a single grain of corn, his whole energies being employed in watching," After describing the march of the geese across the field with “a firm, active, light

infantry step," St. John says: “ When the From The Spectator. MILITARY TACTICS OF ANIMALS.

sentry thinks that he has performed a fair

share of duty, he gives the nearest bird to The training of dogs to act as messen. him a sharp peck. I have seen him some. gers and sentries in war, reminds us that times pull out a bunch of feathers if the many animals are themselves in the habit first hint is not immediately attended to, of using methods and means to secure and at the same time uttering a querulous their own safety against surprise, or the kind of cry.” St. John was constantly success of attacks on the lives or property baulked of a shot by these sentinel geese, of others, which in some cases exhibit a and when stalking wild swans on a loch, high degree of military training and or. he noticed that the whole flock would ganization.

sometimes have their heads under water Regular seotries, duly relieved at inter- except a sentry, who was relieved from vals, are employed by so many of the time to time. The Port Meadow geese gregarious quadrupeds and larger birds, near Oxford prefer to roost, except in that their use seems to be rather the rule floods, on a mud-bank in the river, where than the exception. Chamois, wild sheep, they are perfectly safe from attack. It is ibex, and other mountain antelopes, as necessary that the sentry should be able well as the guanacos of South America, to give a signal of danger which shall be always post a sentinel. So do seals when universally understood, and it will be sleeping on the rocks; and the peccaries, found that most of the animals named have the small, wild pigs of South America, a special alarm-note. Ibex, mountain which are food of lying in the hollow sheep, and prairie-dogs istle, elephants trunks of fallen trees, are said to leave a trumpet, wild geese and swans have a kind guard at the entrance, whose place, if he of bugle-call

, rabbits stamp on the ground, be shot, is occupied almost mechanically sheep do the same, and wild ducks, as the by the next in order within the trunk. writer noticed during the late frost, utter This instinct survives even with animals a very low, cautious quack to signal“ The in captivity. When the prairie-dogs at enemy in sight.” Tactics of offence are the Zoo occupied a small paddock, instead rare among the larger gregarious animals. of the den with earth-filled boxes which is Deer, antelopes, sheep, and even wild now their home, they always kept a sen, horses are generally peaceable creatures, tinel on duty, though he seldom uttered and if a dispute arises between two herds, his warning whistle, having learnt, prob- the leaders fight a duel, and the conqueror ably, that the visitors would not come in-annexes the rival's following. When Lady side the railings. The prairie-dogs at the Florence Dixie's horses were attacked by Jardin d'Acclimatation at Paris observe a wild drove, the biggest of the tame ani. the same precaution. Wild geese and mals fought the wild leader and was wild swans take turns at “sentry.go," the beaten. None of the others attempted former when feeding on land, the latter on resistance, and their owners could with the water. Of the former birds, St. John, difficulty prevent their being driven off says: “ They seem to act in so organized by the conqueror. But horses have a natand cautious a manner when feeding or ural taste for drill. The riderless chargers roosting as to defy all danger. When a at Balaclava ranged themselves in line flock of wild geese has fixed on a field of with the surviving troopers; and Byron's newly sown grain to feed in, before alight- fine lines in “ Mazeppa : ing they make numerous circling fights, and the least suspicious object prevents In one vast squadron they advance, them from pitching. Supposing that all A thousand horse, the wild, the free, is right and they do alight, the whole flock Like waves that follow o'er the sea. for the space of a minute or two remains They stop, they start, they snuff the air, motionless, with erect head and neck, re. Gallop a moment here and there, connoitring the country round. ... They | Approach, retire, wheel round and round,


do not seem to exaggerate the natural might quarrel with strangers, went on to military instinct of the horse. The writer allege that monkeys inhabited the banks remembers to have read of a number of which would roll down stones on the cavalry horses abandoned on the coast in steamers. “The two last facts,” the rea retreat, ranging themselves in squad- port added, "would lead to complaint from rons and fighting a battle on the sands. the English, and embroil the Celestials The stories of their forming a ring to re. with them, especially if the men or the sist the attacks of wolves may be true; but monkeys kill any English.". it is difficult to find any reliable account The facility with which large herds of of such combination. Indian wolves have animals or flocks of birds travel for great been seen to leave some of their number distances in close array without crowding, in ambush at points on the edge of the confusion, or delay, has always struck the jungle, while others drove in antelopes writer as the necessary result of some feeding in the open ground beyond. But system and method well understood by wolves, as a rule, hunt alone or in families, them, though in many cases not yet ascer. except when pressed by hunger. Wild tained by us. There are some exceptions dogs, however, habitually combine to to the general smoothness which marks hunt; and Baldwin, in his “Game of Ben- the evolutions of these animal regiments gal," mentions a case of four or five mar- and army corps; the blind rush of the mitens hunting a fawn of the "muntjac,” or grating bison has been known to force barking deer. But in real military organ- thousands into the bottomless mud of ization and strategy, monkeys are far ahead American rivers, and the swarms of lem. of all other animals, and notably the differ- mings are said to march into the sea. But, ent kinds of baboon. Mansfield Parkins as a rule, herds of antelopes, or deer, or gives an excellent account of the tactics even flocks of mountain-sheep, will travel of the dog-faced Hamadryads, that lived for days without disaster, arriving simul. in large colonies in the cracks in the cliffs taneously at the point desired, and “keepof the Abyssinian Mountains. These ing distance,” that great difficulty of the creatures used occasionally to plan a march throughout the journey. A large foraging expedition into the plain below, herd of deer will gather in column, or and the order of attack was most carefully break into file, and disappear through a organized, the old males marching in front inountain-pass in less time than the same and on the flanks with a few to close up number of trained troopers would take to the rear and keep the rest in order. They " form fours ;” and a flock of half-wild had a code of signals, halting or advancing sheep on a Yorkshire moor will assemble, according to the barks of the scouts. descend into the valley, cross a river in When they reached the corn-fields, the single file, and form upon the opposite main body plundered while the o!d males bank without a false movement by any watched on all sides, but took nothing for one of their number. The military prethemselves. The others stowed the corn cision with which flocks of birds wheel or in their cheek-pouches and under their advance is even more remarkable, because, armpits. They are also said to dig wells in the case of some birds at least, a reg. with their hands, and work in relays. The ular geometrical formation is always obGelada baboons sometimes have battles served. Wild geese, wild ducks, and their with the Hamadryads, especially when the relations adopt the V formation; and not two species have a mind to rob the same only adhere to this, with certain modifica. field, and if fighting in the hills, will roll tions to suit circumstances, but also to a stones on to their enemies. Not long ago, regular scale of distances between the difa colony of Gelada baboons, which had ferent birds in the flock, so closely, that we been fired at by some black soldiers at- are forced to infer that they have some tending a Duke of Coburg-Gotha on a strong motive for observing such an order. hunting expedition on the borders of The old-fashioned explanation, that by Abyssinia, blocked a pass for some days advancing in a wedge the front bird acted by rolling rocks on all

This as a kind of pioneer, to break the force of seems to give some support to a curious the wind, is, however, probably the exact objection raised by a Chinese local gov- reverse of the truth. Wind, in moderation, ernor in a report to his superior on the is almost a necessity to the sustained fight difficulties in the way of opening to steam- of birds, and the probable object of the ers the waters of the Upper Yangtze, wedge-formation when advancing against which was quoted in the Times. The re. the wind is, that each bird avoids the port, after noting that the inhabitants on o wake ” of its neighbor, while at the same the upper waters were ignorant men who time the flock has a leader. When the




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wind blows on the side of the V; it has are of full age. They seemed very devoted
been noticed that one limb is generally to each other. I cannot say that I noticed
much longer than the other, or that the anything suspicious or wild about Mrs.
birds forming one limb occupy positions Marriot. If she was agitated I put it
which coincide with the spaces between down to natural causes. I have now
the birds on the windward side, and are reason to fear that I did not mark her
thus exposed to the wind-current. But sufficiently.
often with a stroag side-wind the wedge. They went first to Paris. Perhaps a
formation is abandoned altogether, and week had elapsed before Marriot wrote to
the ducks fly in single file, though the me. It was a long letter, and I never read
“ distances are always accurately kept. it through, as I happened to need a pipe.
If these distances could be measured, they light just then, but what I glanced at
would probably be found to bear some showed me that he was ill at ease. “I
relation to the space required by the par- love her more than ever,” he wrote bravely,
ticular species to make a turn more or less “ though I evidently, never knew her
complete, to either side. The sudden rightly until now. You who saw her
changes in the method of flight, from bright and animated cannot guess how
steady beats of the wing to gliding or sail- deep ber feelings are. Last night we were
ing, which takes place with such wonderful at the theatre, and I noticed that she did
uniformity of time and action in the flight not pay much attention to the acting.
of flocks of starlings or plovers, are prob. Suddenly her eyes filled with tears, and
ably due to corresponding changes in the she asked me to take her back to the
force or direction of the wind, affecting hotel. From some conversation I had
simultaneously all the birds of the flock. with her I see that she did not catch a
But for determining the causes of these word of what the actors said. I entreated
ordered changes in the aerial tactics of her to tell me of what she had been think-
birds, a body of observation has yet to be ing so deeply, but she would not. She
obtained, for which London, with its parks implored me never to question her on the
and lakes and wild fowl, offers unusual subject, and her hands shook so that when

I took hold of them mine shook too. It
does seem a little odd, but women are such
nervously fashioned creatures
I lit my pipe.
Marriot's second letter

from From The Graphic.

Monte Carlo. “ You will be surprised to see that we are here,” he wrote. “I am

surprised myself. I cannot understand BY J. M. BARRIE.

Marian. She used to speak of gambling In precisely two hours from now, Mar. with abhorrence, yet it was she who riot and his wife, who have been abroad dragged me here. I am very anxious for their honeymoon, are due at London about her. She pines for excitement, Bridge Station, where I am to meet them. keeps me at the tables for hours, and is I have had the strangest letters from Mar- sometimes quite hysterical. Twenty times riot about his wife, who seems to have in a day she shows me that she is devotsomething on her mind, and though I can.edly attached to me (unworthy though I not make out what the trouble is, I have am); then suddenly she seems to rememdecided to write an article about it before ber something, her face becomes white, going to the station. I will not post the and she draws back as if in presence of article until I have had a moment in pri- some nameless dread. More than once I vate with Marriot, who may by this time have thought that she has begun to hate have solved the mystery. If he has any- me; but thing further to tell I will add it in pencil. Then came a letter from Naples. “Why

Some six weeks ago I was “best man" do you not answer my letters ? The plain at their marriage in Edinburgh.' Marriot truth is that this secret of Marian's (for is an old friend, but I had not met the there is no doubt that she has a terrible lady before. She was pleasant and pretty, secret) is becoming a wall between us. however, and I liked her. You may care She is rushing me over the Continent, as if to koow that her age is twenty-one. I unable to rest anywhere. Is it possible discovered this immediately after the cer- that she is being pursued ? She will tell emony, because in Scotland a bride and me nothing. To-day I handed her a bridegroom have to sign their ages instead cheque for five hundred pounds, thinking of, as in England, merely stating that they that perhaps she had debts on her mind,

" Then



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but this only seemed to add to her distress. reflect upon the female character. I look 'Take it,' I said, as a spontaneous gift to you for enlightenment." from your loving husband.'. Her reply (it Then this morning I had a telegram: was almost a shriek) rings horribly in my "We arrive London Bridge to-night.

“ • Husband !' she cried, “how do Eight. Meet us. - MARRIOT. you know that you are my husband ?' In forty minutes I shall meet them if

You are my wife,' I answered in agony. their train is up to time, and unless Mrs. · Who can tell ?' she said, and ran to her Marriot has at the last moment decided to bedroom, where she locked herself in. I go to Moscow instead. But what to say think I am going mad.”

to Marriot? I have fifty theories, as, for Next week their address was Rome. "I instance, that his emotional bride fell in cannot give you an address," he wrote, love with the best man at the wedding. for we wander miserably and aimlessly. Yet this best man was very careful. MarYou remember my telling you she was riot asks my advice as a novelist. Well, thoroughly domesticated ! I am now con- such a situation is not uncommon in novvinced that she loathes the very sight of els, and then the wife's secret is that she me. My touch makes her shudder. A few was married secretly years ago to a handdays ago I told her that if she did not con- some villain. She thought him dead, but fess everything to me we should have to immediately after her second marriage he separate. A dreadful scene followed, which reappears to drive her distracted. Prob. ended in my promising never to refer to ably this is Mrs. Marriot's trouble. Poor her secret again. She admits, you see, Marriot, when I tell him my suspicions that she has a secret. Perhaps I should But it is twenty to eight. I must not write of these matters to you, but I am be off to the station. heartbroken, and you are my only real Just time to add in pencil that Marriot friend. Surely you can clear this mystery and his wife have arrived, both very happy. up. I am too agitated to consider it All is well. She has confessed. Her secalmly. I hope I have not led you to cret was that she had given her age as think that I have ceased to love her. twenty-one, when she was really twentyThere are still moments when I think she two. She feared that this bad made their loves me.

You write novels, don't you? marriage illegal. How adorable women If so, you must often have had occasion to l are.

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A FIND OF OLD CHINA. — About one hun- smuggle in a portion of the pottery and silver dred and fifty years have now elapsed since ware, as the divers found that many

hundreds the Swedish barque Göteborg, in full sail for of these articles were carefully hidden away in Europe, encountered a heavy gale when near the hold of the vessel. There is even a tradi. ing the coast of Sweden, struck upon a dan- tion in the neighborhood that the Göteborg gerous rock, foundered, and became a total was purposely run aground by the officers and wreck. She was the property of an associa- crew; and it is believed that many valuables tion of merchants of Gothenburg, and was were removed from the ship soon after she returning from China laden with a cargo of struck upon the rock. The bulk of the cargo silk, silver, tea, and a great quantity of val. was, however, ultimately brought to England uable articles of Chinese manufacture, includ- and the market literally flooded with these ing upwards of thirty thousand blue and white blue and white bowls. It was at this time that china bowls of different shapes and sizes. the rage for old and Oriental china was at its Some years ago attempts were made by divers height. Considerable excitement was created to raise the cargo; and, after great difficulties, by the strange discovery of these thousands their arduous efforts were rewarded with suc- of curious bowls; and the interest attaching to cess, and many thousands of unbroken china the fact of their having remained for so many articles were brought to the surface, consisting years beneath the sea, together with the danprincipally of plates, teacups, and bowls of gers and difficulties which attended their revarious designs and qualities. A small quan-covery, caused them at first to realize high tity of silver plate was also discovered, which prices as curiosities. Unfortunately, howwas evidentiy intended for the royal family of ever, for the promoters of the scheme, the Sweden, as it was embellished with the mono- craze which was then at its zenith, commenced gram of Frederick I. A great number of the to decline rapidly, and the financial result of teacups were particularly fine and elegantly the enterprise proved so disastrous that the shaped, being almost equal to glass in trans- company which made the explorations was parency. It had, no doubt, been intending to thrown into liquidation. Chambers' Journal.

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