was quite as well known a god as the people whose whole life is spent in the Corycian Jove, whose cave and temple we open air. In the district we traversed, have just visited. Around this hole also now nameless, but which once was Olba, dwelt many nomads in their tents, and there are some twenty of these collections hovels, constructed out of the débris of of scattered hovels. On a threatening the surrounding ruins. The approach to evening when our tents would have been this ancient town and its depression is by out of the question, we reached one of a valle the sides of which ar honey. these called Vei Selli, and found no one at combed with rock-cut tombs, with quaint home; the doors were locked, and all the bas-reliefs over them, and inscriptions inhabitants had gone off to their tents. threatening dire penalties on the riflers Disconsolately we sat down on our bag. thereof. “Let him who opens it eat the gage, and lit a fire to boil our kettle, whilst liver of his own child,” ran one of the a messenger was despatched to the owner most awful of these threats. In these of the best of the hovels for his wooden ready-made houses many of the nomads key, — for luckily the tribe had not as yet have taken up their abode, and it is curi- migrated very far. Towards sunset it ous to hear in these quondam homes of came, and we inspected our tenement. the departed the thud of the cotton-beater, The stable opened out of the dwelling. the grinding of grain, and the gay chatter room, and sent forth fetid odors; the floor ing of the nomad women. We ourselves was sticky with mud; and there was no were not sorry during wet weather, when | window, but a little light struggled down tents were anything but agreeable, to a chimney, up which no smoke would go, house ourselves in a rock-cut tomb. The fand we sighed for the comforts of our stone benches on which the sarcophagi tomb. once stood formed excellent receptacles The country we traversed

was very for our mattresses. On the flat space in similar — always the same grey rocks to the middle we set up our table and chairs, the right and left of us, peeping out of we hung a curtain before the aperture, and the everlasting and almost impenetrable lit a fire outside the curtain to warm the brushwood. At one time our rugged path air as it came in. In point of fact, archæo- led us up a deep gorge; at another time logical nomads could wish for no better we were on an undulating plateau ; and abode than a clean, dry, rock-cut tomb, ever and anon we had to dismount, bag and never again shall we look upon those and baggage, whilst our horses and our as necessarily mad who dwell in tombs. chattels were literally dragged up and The large stone mausolea of the departed down places which were never intended Greeks, with which this district is plenti- for quadrupeds. No wonder the ancients fully supplied, are used by the pastoral called it "rugged Cilicia ;” and in these nomads for many purposes besides houses. fastnesses behind this rugged approach In them they store their grain, in them the pirates felt secure. Then, again, those they shut up their kids when their mothers wretched pirates had a fancy for placing are out at pasture, and they are entirely their most interesting relics in all but inwithout ghost stories — a fact which would accessible places. A fine series of thirbe at once highly discouraging to any one teen bas-reliefs, with two inscriptions, intent on psychological research.

were carved on a ledge in the rock halfWe got very much interested in these way down an almost sheer precipice. We wandering Yourouks during our stay got there, and with exceeding difficulty amongst them. Sometimes we dwelt in got back, but we never contemplate a sectheir stone hovels, horrible holes with mud ond visit to so dangerous a place. floors and dripping roofs approached by On the undulating plateau grow amongst an aperture without a door, and occasion. the brushwood wild olives and wild carobs, ally lighted by an aperture without a win- which told of former cultivation; and at dow. In these many of the nomads of a every ruined village or town were winesedentary tendency dwell for the three presses and wine-reservoirs, which told of winter months - a period they look upon vineyards in abundance which have long with natural horror, and speak of as “the since disappeared, and that the Cilician ninety days," subdividing it again into pirates were not strangers to the festive three periods. The first of these they bowl. Occasionally we came across little call Kampsin, which lasts for fifty days; flat spaces in the mountains, clear of the then comes Karadès, or “ black winter,” a grey rocks, and full of rich, red marl. On period of only ten days; and then one this the nomads grow their grain, and the month called Zembrai, or the opening, a contrast of the red soil with its skirting of period naturally hailed with delight by a Igrey rocks, and the dark green foliage of

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the brushwood, the holly-oak, the liquorice, down from the castle to the stream, which the arbutus, and that awful thorn which is fifteen hundred feet below. This stair. the Greeks call “the devil with the many case is not practicable now, as many of the nails,” is very striking. This rough undu- steps have been eaten away in the lapse lating country, gradually sloping upwards of years. to the mighty snow-capped peaks of the The castle of Pireneh is now the haunt Karamanian Mountains, is rent by numer- only of the ibex or wild goat and the bear. ous gorges, formed by tiny streams which During the summer months these wild have eaten their way through the calca- animals come down to the Lamas stream reous rocks.

to drink when the mountain ponds are dry, Of these streams, the so-called Lamas and are shot by the nomads, who hide River is the most considerable, and in our behind the rocks on the paths they are wanderings we went up almost the whole known to frequent. These mountains are of its course to its source in the Karama- full of big game, and it is a quaint idea of nian Mountains. For this course, only the nomads that if a civilized individual about fifty miles with all its windings, the drinks of the rain-water which lodges in Lamas eats its way through a gorge which the crevices of the rocks, he will become resembles somewhat forked lightning. In wild as they are, and in this way they acthe heart of the Taurus, at eventide from count for their love of roving. In these our quarters on the plateau above, we same clear pools their diviners profess to watched the curious effect of clouds rising see the future, and tell the events which out of the gorge, and showing the zigzag are to come. The Lamas River fed the course of the stream almost to its mouth. aqueducts of two big towns in the days of The Lamas gorge is never more than half the pirates, and it is still a useful river, a mile across, and the stupendous walls on turning water-mills, and providing splendid either side of it, of sheer precipice, reach fish. Woodcutters send down trees by it an elevation in some places of two thou to the shore and the nomads use it to sand feet. In one part the passage is so irrigate the tiny little fields in which they narrow that it does not even afford a foot- sow their grain on its banks. The sheer hold for the acrobatic nomad; and the cliffs are full of tombs, and in these at one pathway is therefore on the mountain period anchorites used to dwell, who have above, and not unfrequently you have to painted in red letters on the walls pious go for miles along the edge of the cliff texts and other relics of their occupation. before finding a ineans for descent. In In truth it is one of the most exquisite certain places the nomads have paths spots nature could ever have invented, descending to the stream known only to with its rich verdure below, plane-trees themselves, and practicable only for a overhanging the rapid streams, and fig. people of goatlike mode of life.

trees clinging to the rocks, which climb to All along the Lamas gorge the Cilician such a height on either side. pirates had their eyries. Every three or The natural abode of the nomad Youfour miles we came across the ruins of rouk is his black goat's-hair tent with open their towns with their polygonal masonry, sides, against which, for protection, he and walls of massive pre-Roman structure places his camel pack-saddles in a row, always perched on the cliffs, which go forming a sort of wall. In the centre are down sheer into the stream. Some of spread the family mattresses by night, these had evidences of high civilization, which are rolled up by day and placed on - public buildings, theatres, and temples; the saddles to be out of the way. His life and yet, such has been the oblivion in is occupied in looking after his flocks, and which this wild district has been shrouded, according to the season he moves from both ancient and modern geographers are one pasture to another. Into such a form silent as to their existence. On most of of camp life we plunged, when engaged in the fortresses we found heraldic devices, studying a ruined town of the pirates, at a or local marks carved on the edge, show. spot now known as Maidan. On a little ing that the pirates had made some ad- green plateau were collected half-a-dozen vance in the study of heraldry. Perhaps tents ; in the brushwood for miles around the most curious of them all is the castle were other tents belonging to the same now called Pireneh, built on a peak, jut- tribe. It took but little time for Captain ting out like a promontory into the gorge, Achmed to persuade them to evacuate two and protected on two sides by it, whilst of their tents for our benefit, and we gave the third is only approachable by a narrow up our own to the use of our servant. The ledge, but in the days of the pirates a one allotted to us was exceedingly open, flight of many steps cut in the rock led one side being formed by a rock, and the bottom of the others being merely closed | Yourouks identified the horse' and the by branches of brushwood. But as it thief, as he was on his way with it to the was fine weather and warm, we were very mountains. They fired on him, and he comfortable. Here we remained for sev. fled into the brushwood, leaving our horse eral days, and the story of our life whilst behind him, which was duly restored to there was the story of a Yourouk, be he its overjoyed master. On one occasion pastoral or archæological.

we suffered ourselves from this honesty Each tent has its spinning-wheel and its of theirs, for certain officious Yourouks loom, a hole for working the pedals of gave information to the governor of the which is dug in the ground, and all the neighboring town of Selefkeh that suspi. women of the tribe were engaged in mak- cious travellers in search of treasure were ing the far-famed Karamanian carpets. in their midst. He accordingly sent a There is the wooden mortar for grinding small army to capture us, and, much the roast coffee-berries in, the decorated against our will, we had to go to prove in wooden platter in which they cool the his august presence our innocence and same, the wooden water.jars made out of our identity, and when we had done this, the hollowed stems of pine-trees. Every- to abuse him soundly from daring to take thing almost they use is of wood, and gaily free-born Englishmen prisoners without a decorated with rude patterns, according to cause. The Yourouks have great ideas of their fancy. When reaping, a Yourouk their own about treasure hunting. They uses wooden gloves to protect his left believe that the builders of the ruins hand from the sickle. When tending his amongst which we were searching were flock, the Yourouk shepherd has a long their ancestors, and that they put up inwooden flute, encased in a carved wooden scriptions on rock and ruin to guide their case made of two bits of wood glued to descendants to the spot where treasure gether, and strung with ribbons and col. lies concealed. With our own eyes we ored beads across his shoulder, looking have seen them digging a hole beneath a for all the world like the African assegai, Greek inscription, and chiselling into an or some other primitive weapon of war. inscribed column in perfect faith that gold In it he always keeps a long stick with will be found inside ; so no wonder they goat's hair at one end to clean it, and really looked with suspicion on us, and could the weird music that he produces with this not see what we could be doing with the iostrument, known as the nai, is very inscriptions, unless it was to find the striking, and suitable to the surroundings. locality of hidden treasure.

In one corner of the tent are the bee. It was interesting every evening to hives — long trunks of trees hollowed out, watch the home-coming of the flocks, the and the ends stopped with dung.cakes. rushing to and fro of frantic, bare-legged The bees travel with them, wherever they women, with bags of salt in one hand and go, on the backs of camels, and their bowls in the other — for salt is the bribe honey resembles cakes of soap, for they which they offer to the refractory goat to boil it, wax and all, before eating it. The induce it to stand still, — and their lanYourouks have not the remotest idea of guage is anything but feminine on these letters, and carry on their transactions occasions. Then the kids, which are usuwith the outer world by means of wooden ally in charge of the children of the tribe, tallies, - four-sided bits of wood, some. and do not go far from the camp, are let times gaily carved, sometimes plaid. loose, bleating and leaping over one an. Notches are cut first down one angle and other, all eager for their evening meal, and then down the other when payments are many were the kicks and rebuffs these made, and a fully notched tally is equiva- little things got when in their eagerness lent to a receipt. They are by nature very they selected a wrong mother. When all honest, and the Turks call them “the po- was quiet again, and the goats had retired licemen of the mountains," for they are to their enclosure for the night, the women ever ready to give useful information to proceeded to prepare the evening meal at the authorities concerning Circassian and the tent door before darkness set in. Fires Kourdish robbers who haunt these moun- of sticks were lighted, and on wooden tains. One night a horse of ours (not platters they rolled up dough. Into this Strabo) was stolen. Its owner was in great they put green herbs, and cooked the cakes tribulation, and Captain Achmed used over the fire on iron platters. When ready, dire imprecations, whilst I felt confident the family was summoned, and all ate in we should never see it again, and much silence. With the darkness all retire to walking for the future would be my por rest, for lights other than turpentine tion. As luck would have it, a set of torches are unknown amongst them.


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Their flocks consist of goats and sheep: | bacco or fractions of a peony, known as The goats are of several descriptions and metallics, to those who professed to be various colors some with long, twisted able to guide us to such things. They horns, some without; some with the long, generally chose the tobacco, and terrible flowing, silken hair of the Angora, others walks they would take me at times; their with short, stubbly growth; but the sheep hour generally grew into two or three, or are all of that quaint Oriental description sometimes four. Now and again my la. which one sees depicted on the bas-relief bors were rewarded with success, and a of Persepolis, with such enormous tails of further item was added to the history of fat that cases are on record of shepherds the pirates; but as often as not their exproviding tiny wooden carts for the sheep peditions ended in some miserable fiasco, to carry its appendage on. I have fre. fatigue, and loss of temper. A rock with quently seen sheep quite weighed down by natural marks upon it was supposed to be them, but I have only beard of and never an inscription. 'A cave, supported by a actually set eyes on the cart. These sheep natural pillar, was in their idea a ruid of are mentioned by Moses in Leviticus, and exceeding importance. Tombs of a recent by Herodotus, who tells us that the tails date were the frequent cause of acute dis

one cubit in width.” This weighty appointment. But notwithstanding the “ bustle " is usually about the size of an many failures, each walk had a charm of ordinary football, and coosists of a mass its own amongst the gorges, the rocks, of fat on each side of the sheep's spinal and the brushwood of rugged Cilicia; and cord, and forms, as we discovered, a most each walk increased my admiration for the excellent substitute for dripping, and far instinct for locality possessed by these preferable for cooking purposes to the nomads, who could thread their way with rancid butter the nomads provided us with. unerring steps through this mazy laby

Most tribes of Yourouks on the south- rinth. ern slopes of the Taurus go in largely for In their home life the Yourouks have camel-breeding. The stunted brushwood their peculiarities. They are the least amongst which they live is excellent pas. religious people I ever

across, turage for them. They produce here that though professiog to be followers of Mosort of mule camel known in Asia Minor hammed. They have no mosques, nor did as the Toulou camel, - a cross between I see them saying the prayers or performthe Syrian and the Bactrian, excellent for ing the ablutions inculcated by the Koran standing heat and cold, mountain or plain. more than once or twice during the months Every encampment we visited had a num- we spent amongst them. They have their ber of camels, - tiny foals a few hours children circurycized, for the fact was forold, and broken-down old camels which cibly brought before our notice one day had carried for many seasons the Yourouk during our stay at Maidan, when the trav. tents up into the mountains. A camel, we elling operator appeared to initiate the learnt, has a great fancy for tobacco, and young Yourouks into the first mysteries of will often stretch its long neck around to their religion, and the greensward before receive a whiff from its owner's cigarette the tent of the aga, or chief man, was or pipe.

chosen for the ceremony, and the children As for the Yourouks themselves, they from all the neighboring tents were here will do anything for tobacco and coffee, assembled for treatment. Beyond this smoking the dried leaves of certain moun. outward symbol there appears to be but tain herbs they know of when they cannot little of the religious zeal common in Moget the genuine article ; and for coffee, hammedan communities, and the Turkish too, they have an excellent substitute, officials are constantly urging them to bave slightly medicinal, and more aromatic in mosques in certain spots, and to employ flavor, which they produce from the seed hodjas to instruct their children. But of a sort of thistle which grows abundantly they will have none of these things. In on their mountains (Gundelia Tournefor- one settlement we visited, high up in the tia). Coffee and tobacco are often more mountains, a pious Mussulman had built serviceable to the traveller to have with them a mosque, but its roof was off, and him than money when amongst the nom. I should think no service had been perads, for everything is done over coffee. formed there for many years. Whenever we wanted to ascertain the Nevertheless, it is perhaps too sweepwhereabouts of ruins or inscriptions, Cap. ing an accusation to say that there is no tain Achmed would summon the men of religion amongst them. A Yourouk of the tribe to a solemn cup of coffee and a the mountain has his sacred tree, speci. conclave. Then he would offer either to. mens of which we frequently came across io wild, remote spots. Rags are hung to all occupy the same tent, nor even the them, and wooden spoons as votive offer- same encampment, but are scattered hither ings. Little piles of stones are heaped up and thither with varied occupations. One by passers-by in the vicinity, and when a wife minds the camels, two or three look person dies they bring the corpse to one after the flocks in different pasturages; a of these trees, read a few verses of the wife to spin and a wife to weave, a wife to Koran over it, and take a handful of the cook and a wife to hew wood and draw small stones to put upon the grave ; and water, completes the probable sum total furthermore, the idea is current amongst of a Yourouk's harem; and as hired labor them that a corpse should be buried near a is unknown amongst them, the multiplicapathway, that the passers-by may pray for tion of family ties is absolutely necessary its welfare. Religion in a modified form for advance in life. A poorly clad You. is present with them, and the religion of rouk was very glad to earn a few coppers honesty and the respect for the good of by acting as our guide when we were enothers is far more present with them than camped at a spot called Jambeslii, amid it is amongst the Orientals who inhabit the ruined fortresses of a pirate town built the towns and haunts of men. A verbal on the edge of a gorge.

He was said to contract made over a cup of coffee is as be very low indeed in the scale of humanbinding to them as a written one, and the ity; and on inquiring, I found that he was biggest rogues in the Levant are those to only able to keep three wives, and I could whom this primitive verbal contract has see that the Yourouks estimate the social lost its value — those who are, so to speak, position of their neighbors, much as we do in the transition stage between patriarchal in England, by the number of servants simplicity and the laws of civilization. they are able to keep.

One of the most intelligent Yourouks Womanhood is, as a natural result of we came across was called Osman. He this system, suok very low amongst them. knew something of letters, and could dis- A woman in her red petticoats, open tinguish them from marks on the rocks, so jacket, and untidy head, is condemned to that he never took me wild-goose chases rush bare-legged after the goats, amid whilst we were in his district. He had a stones and brambles. Her only ornaments pleasing, round face, like all his race, but are cowrie-beads and brass bracelets; and far more intelligent. His long white pet- the surprise evinced at seeing their wrinticoats, blue jacket, and red fez made him kled faces in the looking glass proved that decidedly picturesque, though perhaps the sin of vanity is unknown amongst not so strikingly so as some of his fellows them. When at the well fetching water, who indulged in yellow cotton and red or at the stream thumping their clothes girdles. He gave me a good deal of in between stones to get them clean, they formation on the religious question, and appear to have hardly anything on, and spoke of the desire the government had to they are not ashamed; poor, hounded centralize the nomads, and induce those things, they have no cause for shame. with families to reside, for some months Anything like immorality is unknown of the year at any rate, where some instruc amongst them. tion could be got for their young. · But,” We saw one or two betrothals and mar. said he, “the spirit of roving freedom is riages whilst among them. At the beinnate in us; we could never conform to trothal the husband-elect generally agrees any other mode of life.” And I could on the sum which he can pay for his fancy that the nomad races of Asia Minor, future bride. In fact, the betrothal is the like the Indians of America, if brought purchase of a slave pure and simple. into immediate and forcible contact with When all arrangements are made, some the sedentary habits of the civilized, would one plays a tambourine or a flute, guns are dwindle away and become extinct. let off, and the engaged couple exchange

For the present, however, there is no handkerchiefs. The marriage ceremony fear of such a contingency, for a more is a trifle gayer. Men go round with the polygamous race can scarcely exist than bridegroom on horse or camel back to the the Yourouks of the Taurus. Every wife tents in the neighborhood three or four has a large family, and if it were not for times before the day of the wedding, and the high rate of infant mortality, they feasting and dancing are indulged in in would iccrease and multiply alarmingly. the evenings. Generally on the fourth day A well-to-do Yourouk would think himself the bride is brought to her husband's tent, disgraced had he less than six or seven he entertains his guests with coffee and wives, or, more properly speaking, six or food, and the ceremony is concluded. But seven slaves. These good ladies do not these oft-repeated weddings lose their zest,


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