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large. Some of its members died early ; | was told that some of the schoolboys were others fell away before the discourage inclined to despise others who came to ment and ridicule heaped upon them. school without shoes and stockings. How But John and Charles Wesley, and George was he to cure this? He did, what not Whitefield the organizer, the poet, the perhaps one teacher out of a million would orator of the Wesleyan movement - went have thought of doing, he himself. went on until they had become the revivers in barefoot to teach them! The boys could England of a dead and torpid religionism; no longer look down on comrades who the standard-bearers of what might well came to school without shočs and stockhave seemed to be a forlorn hope; the ings, when their own teacher - clergyvoices which cried over the valley of dry man, and scholar, and gentleman as he bones: “ Come from the four winds, 0 was came to school shoeless and stockbreath, and breathe upon these slain that ingless! They were amazed; but he kept they may live."
them to their books, and before the end In October, 1735, the two brothers sailed of the week had cured them of their vanity. with General Oglethorpe to Georgia. It is the custom to speak of Wesley's John's object was to sacrifice himself, not mission to Georgia as a failure. A failure only as a chaplain to the emigrants, but it was not. Whitefield, who followed him also as a missionary to the American to Georgia, even ventures to say: “The lodians. This was probably the least good which Mr. John Wesley has done in fruitful and the least happy episode in the America is inexpressible. His name is lives of the young evangelists. Both of very precious among the people, and he them were still High Churchmen of the has laid a foundation that I hope neither old Anglican school, with strong notions men nor devils will ever be able to shake.” of discipline. Joho never scrupled to re- He felt, however, that he was flinging prove any one, not only for notorious sins, away his best years in a partial effort. He but for anything - such as dress, or what was driven to return to England, which be regarded as levity in conduct; and he he only reached in February, 1738, after excited deadly animosities by repelling trying and dangerous adventures. He from the holy communion any one who did would hardly have survived the perils of not come up to his ideal standard, or who this journey but for the fine health and had not given him previous notice. His unbroken cheerfulness which were the life, indeed, was as blameless and noble result and the reward of his habitual temas it always was; but we see in his con perance, soberness, and chastity. By duct a certain hardness and autocracy, and self-discipline he had strengthened a conwant of sympathy and tact. Yet, nothing stitution so naturally weak that, but for it, could exceed his earnestness and self-instead of living to eighty-eight, he would sacrifice. He had but a small salary, he certainly have been cut off in early manate but little, he drank no wine, he limited hood. his hours of sleep, he rose at four in the This fine health and simple diet enabled morning, he labored incessantly at preach-him rapidly to get over the misery of sea. ing, visiting, and teaching. The early sickness in his homeward voyage, and colonists were of various nations, and during the six weeks that it occupied, his therefore he read prayers to them in Ital. work was characteristically energetic.
an, in French, and in German, as well as Overcoming his reluctance, he went in English; and since he also taught the among the sailors, and spoke individually children of his schools, bis Sundays were to every one of them. He taught the days of incessant and astonishing labor. cabin-boy. He instructed two poor ne" During his journeys in the colony he groes who were on board. To the single often slept all night in the open air, ex- French passenger he talked in French, posed to all the dews that fell. Sometimes and every day explained to him a chapter he was wet through with dew and rain. of the New Testament; and all this while He wore Indian shoes, and slept rolled he continued his own personal studies. up in a blanket. Though he travelled | Yet, among these noble, evangelistic, through places infested with wild beasts, apostolical, self-denying labors, Wesley, he would never carry a weapon ; he said in his own opinion, had not yet found the that he had a cane to try the depths of light. “It is now two years," he wrote, the rivers through which he had to wade, “and eight months since I left my native but would not have a ferrule at the end of country to teach the Indians the nature of it lest it should look like a weapon." One Christianity. But what have I learned instance of his sincerity and self-denial is myself in the mean time? Why, (what I well worth recording. At Savannah he the least of all expected) that I, who went
to America to convert others, was never tian. “ Have a care, Mr. Wesley,” said myself converted to God.”
Mr. Hutton, “how you despise the beneHis misgivings were the result of inter- fits received by the two sacraments." “ If course with simple, earnest, devout Mora- you have not been a Christian ever since vians on his voyage out. He had consulted I knew you," said Mrs. Hutton," you have a Moravian minister named Spangenberg been a great hypocrite, for you made us about his work. Spangenberg asked him all believe that you were one." Wesley a few questions. His first question sur- explained what he had meaot. He said: prised Wesley:
“ Does the spirit “When we renounce everything but faith, of God bear witness with your spirit that and get into Christ, then, and not till then, you are a child of God?” Wesley, a little have we any reason to believe that we are astonished at the question, hesitated for Christians.” He considered that up to
“Do you know Jesus Christ?” that time he had only had the faith of a said Spangenberg. “I know," said Wes: servant, not the peace and assurance of a ley, “that he is the Saviour of the world.” son. True," said the Moravian, “but do you
In this parrative is contained the secret know that he has saved you ? ' " I hope,” of all the mighty work of revival which said Wesley, “he has died to save me.' Wesley lived to achieve in England. A Spangenberg only added, “Do you know gentleman, a scholar, a High Churchman, yourself?” “ I do” said Wesley; "but," a presbyter of the English Church, a fel. he adds at a later time, “ I fear they were low of an Oxford college, there would vain words."
have been nothing even in the sincerity He dated his full conversion from the of his piety to lead to the great work of time of his conversations with a young his life — nothing to uplift him above the Moravian missionary, Peter Böhler, who somnolent respectability of the ordinary taught him a simpler form of the Gospel, easy-going Christian -- if he had not learnt and brought home to him the Lutheran doc- from the Moravians something of the trine of justification by faith. “By him,” depth of their convictions, and the flame says Wesley, “in the hand of the great God of their devoted zeal. It is needless to on March 5, 1738, I was clearly convinced follow the further incidents of his life. It of unbelief, of the want of that faith by was spent, without any intermission, in which alone we are saved.” He at once the fullest work of an evangelist to masses concluded that he was unfit to preach, but of his fellow.countrymen, whom the Böhler urged him to go on. 1. But what Church of England for the most part neg. can I preach ?” asked Wesley. “Preach lected and ignored, and whom it was his faith till you have it,” said his friend, mission to convert from the practical “and then you will preach faith, because heathendom into which they had fallen. you have it.” For a time he remained in His vast success was owing, first and uncertainty and heaviness, but on May foremost, to his inspiring conviction that 26, 1738, at five in the morning, he opened he was doing the work to which God had his New Testament at the words, “There called him, and doing it with God's visible are given unto us exceeding great and benediction. But no small part of the precious promises.” That day, at St. supreme impression which he made upon Paul's, he heard the anthem, “Out of the his age was due to the character wbich has deeps have I called unto thee, O Lord,”left to all time a luminous example. In and in the evening he went to a little reli- his case, as in all cases, self-sacrifice was gious meeting, where some one was read. infinitely fruitful. That spirit of self-sacing Luther's preface to the epistle to the rifice inspired especially his generosity, Romans. “ About a quarter before nine,” his courage, and his high endurance. says Wesley, “while he was describing 1. The example of such generosity as the change which God works in the heart Wesley's is not only rare, but almost through faith in Christ, I felt my heart unique. He rose completely superior to strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in that mammon-worship and avarice which Christ, Christ alone, for salvation; and an are the sunken reefs on which so many a assurance was given me that he had taken vessel of human life is shattered, and most away my sins, even mine, and saved me of all as it nears the close of its voyage. from the law of sin and death."
It was one of the principles of the Holy Shortly afterwards, at the house of his Club to give away every year whatever of friend Mr. Hutton, in College Street their income remained after they had proWestminster, Wesley surprised a little vided for their own actual necessities. company of friends by telling them that Wesley was foremost in this good work. five days before he had not been a Chris. “I abridged myself,” he says, “of all
superfluities, and many that are called courage. The world bestows a somewhat necessaries of life." When he had an disproportionate admiration upon physical income of £30 a year, he lived on £28, and courage. But Wesley showed that highgave away the rest. Next year he received est form of physical courage which is not £60, and gave away £32 in charity. The spasmodic, which is not only called out by next year, still confining his whole per a crisis, but which is required as a consonal expenses to £28, he gave away £62; stant habit of life. And it was voluntary and the year after £90. In other words, courage. It was courage in perplexing he gave away treble of what he spent, duties which were not demanded of him. wben bis whole income was only £118 a We might think it strange that the desire year.
to preach the gospel of Christ should Wesley, on less than the income of evoke such deadly opposition, alike of the many an artisan, was able to found a school so-called respectable and religious classes, of twenty children ; to clothe some, if not and of the rude and ignorant multitude. all of them; and to pay the mistress. And Yet, so it was. Wesley, and those who he continued this principle all through his worked with him, never had any other oblife. When he was sixty-three years old, ject than to offer the highest boon which a lady left him £1,000, probably the earth can.give to those for whom there largest sum he ever had in his possession. was no love and no pity among the reliBut in reference to it, Wesley simply gious clas Yet he was opposed with said: “I am God's steward for the poor. infuriated violence. Every form of oppoTo the poor it was so speedily distributed sition, we are told, was tried against him. that when, a year later, his sister, who had “ Mill-dams were let out; church bells been deserted by a worthless husband, were jangled ; drunken fiddlers and ballad applied for some of it, he wrote back: singers were hired; organs pealed forth ; “You do not consider; money never stays drums were beaten; street-vendors, with me; it would burn me if it did. Iclowns, drunken fops, and Papists were throw it out of my hands as soon as pos- hired, and incited to brawl or blow horns, sible, lest it should find a way into my so as to drown his voice. He was struck heart. You should bave spoken to me in the face with sticks, he was cursed and before Miss Lewen's money flew away." groaned at, pelted with stones, beaten to Yet one of the numerous lies which reli. the ground, threatened with murder, gious wickedness, and irreligious wicked- dragged and hustled hither and thither by dess was incessantly telling of him without drinking, cursing, swearing, riotous mobs, a blush, was that he “made a good thing who acted the part of judge, jury, and exe. out of Methodism!
cutioner. Knock him down and kill him A clergyman, who wrote one of the very at once,” was the shout of the brutal numerous clerical pamphlets against Wes- roughs who assaulted him at Wednesbury. ley, said “that after preaching so much On more than one occasion, a mad or a against laying by money, he had put out baited bull was driven into the midst of £700 to interest.” He replied: “I never his assemblies; ihe windows of the houses put sixpence out to interest since I was in which he stayed were broken, and riotborn, and never had £100 of my own ers burst their way even into his private together since I came into the world.”
“ The men,”
says Dr. Taylor, He might have had thousands of pounds “ who commenced and continued this ardu. a year of his own, had he so chosen. The ous service — and they were scholars and books he published in favor of Methodism gentlemen displayed a courage far surwere absolutely his own private property, passing that which carries the soldier and were very lucrative; but he gave all through the hailstorm of the battle-field. this money away. In one of his note. Ten thousand might more easily be found books, when he was an extremely old man, who would confront a battery than two he wrote: “For upwards of sixty-eight who, with the sensitiveness of education years I have kept my accounts exactly. I about them, could (in that day) mount a will not attempt it any longer, being satis. table by the roadside, give out a Psalm, fied with the continual conviction that I and gather a mob.” save all I can, and give all I can, that is III. To face all this, and to face it day all I have.” In 1782, he spent £5 195. for after day, and year by year, in England, in clothes, and gave away £738. Never a Scotland, in Wales, in Cornwall, in Irerich man, he gave away in his lifetime land, required a supreme bravery, and perhaps £40,000.
persistence. Yet it needed even greater 11. Another great quality in Wesley's courage to meet hurricanes of abuse and character was his heroic and unflinching | tornadoes of slander. Wesley had to face
this also on all sides. The most popular | superintending the complex and growing actors of the day held him up to odium interests of the numerous societies which and ridicule in lewd comedies. Reams of had sprung into buoyant being through calumny were written against him; shoals the labors of himself and his godly help. of pamphlets, full of virulence and false. ers. Once show him the path of duty, hood, were poured forth from the press. and with a dauntless step he trod it
. The most simple, the most innocent, the Nothing frightened him out of it. Nothmost generous of men, he was called a ing could allure him from it. However smuggler, a liar, an immoral and designing arduous the work, however great the priintriguer, a pope, a Jesuit, a swindler, the vations, if his master bade him go he most notorious hypocrite living. The went. My brother Charles,” he once clergy, I grieve to say, led the way. Row- remarked, “ among the difficulties of our land Hill called Wesley “a lying apostle, early ministry, used to say: 'If the Lord a designing wolf, a dealer in stolen would give me wings, I would fly.' I used wares ;” and said that he was “as unprin- to answer: 'If the Lord bids me fly, I cipled as a rook, and as silly as a jackdaw, would trust him for the wings.'” Hap: first pilfering his neighbor's plumage, and pily he outlived years of hatred, and died then going proudly forth to display it to a in honor. His work began in an underlaughing world.” Augustus Toplady said, graduate's room at Oxford, and, when he among floods of other and worse abuse, died, there were one hundred and twenty that " for thirty years he had been endeav. thousand members of his societies. There oring to palm on his credulous followers are now five million two hundred and his pernicious doctrines, with all the fifty thousand, under thirty-three thousand sophistry of a Jesuit, and the dictatorial ministers, and if children and general wor. authority of a pope; " and described him shippers be counted, there are, perhaps,
“the most rancorous hater of the gos- twenty-five millions. Might he not say pel system that ever appeared in En- now, in the words which he chose for his gland."
Bishop Lavington, of Exeter, text when he laid the foundation stone of denounced the Methodists as a dangerous the City Road Chapel, “ This hath God and presumptuous sect, animated with an wrought?” In Westminster Abbey thou. enthusiastical and fanatical spirit; and sands gaze with interest on the beautiful said that they were “either innocent mad- memorial which has been raised to bim men or infamous cheats.” Bishop Gibson, and his brother — the presentment of their of London, actually made it one of his faces in white marble not whiter than their grounds of complaint against them that lives. On it are carved three of his
they have had the boldness to preach in memorable sayings. One is : “I look on the fields and other open places, and by all the world as my parish.” Another is: public advertisement to invite the rabble "God buries his workmen, but continues to be their hearers ;” and he was indig- his work.” The third is his ejaculation : dant because Methodists thronged to the “ The best of all is, God is with us." He Holy Communion in such numbers that uttered it on his death-bed, and then, once the clergymen had no time to dine before more, raising his arm and lifting his voice afternoon service ! The revival of religion in grateful triumph, he emphatically re, had to make its way among hostile bish- peated: “The best of all is, God is with ops, furious controversialists, jibing and us!!” libellous newspapers, angry men of the Such was John Wesley. Exactly one world, prejudiced juries, and brutal lies. hundred years have elapsed since bis And yet it prevailed, because “one with death, and now we can judge him aright. God is always in a majority.”
He was a man, and therefore by no means Wesley's labors were marvellous. He exempt from the faults and errors which is described as a man not well fed or of spring from our human limitations ; but Herculean frame, but slight and frail; as few men have been more supremely faith. a man without indulgences, feeding for ful to the best he knew. My object in eight months every year chiefly at the this paper has merely been to sketch the tables of the poor ; wifeless, childless, outline of his life, and to indicate those homeless, yet always cheerful, always conditions of his labor and of his character happy, always hard at work, even to the which secured to one who in genius was age of eighty-eight flying with all the not equal to many of his contemporaries sprightliness of youth through the three the supreme honor of evoking the dormant kingdoms, preaching twice every day, in- religious instincts of millions of human doors and out of doors, in churches, chap- souls. It is not possible in this paper els, cottages, and sheds, and everywhere describe the great revival which roused
England from the general slumber and the who had been in state to a theatrical perwidespread godlessness of the eighteenth formance, by which it seemed he had been century; but the impulse which Wesley much affected. “ I cried, I do assure gave has not yet wholly spent its force, you,” the lord mayor had said, “and as and the electric flash which he thrilled into for the lady mayoress, she cry too;" and drowsy hearts is still potent to kindle the the gentleman smiled and told the little phenomena and the reality of life. The story so dryly and drolly that my sister Evangelical movement, the Oxford move. and I couldn't help laughing, and we went ment, even the recent enthusiasm of the on repeating to one another afterwards, Salvation Army, are traceable to his ex- “ As for the lady mayoress, she cry too.” ample, and to the convictions which he And then as asual we asked who was inspired. Faithfulness, energy, sincerity that. “Don't you know Lord Palmerston like bis will never be ineffectual. He by sight?” says my father. outlived the rage of the vicious whom he I have a friend who declares that Fate rebuked, and the jealousy of the neglectful is a humorist, linking us all together by who were shamed by his efforts and en- strangest whims, even by broad jokes at vious of his success. He has taken his times; and this one vague little humor of secure place among the benefactors of the weeping lady mayoress is my one permankind, and furnished one more illustra. sonal link with the great Whig administion of the truth that
trator of the last generation. Good deeds cannot die:
Another miscellaneous apparition out of They with the sun and moon revive their light, my caldron rises before me as I write. On Forever blessing those that look on them.
a certain day we went to call at Mrs. Proc
tor's with our father. We found an old F. W. FARRAR.
man standing in the middle of the room, taking leave of his hostess, nodding his head — he was a little like a Chinese man. darin with an ivory face. His expression
never changed but seemed quite fixed. From Macmillan's Magazine.
He knew my father and spoke to him and MY WITCHES' CALDRON.
to us too, still in this odd, fixed way.
Then he looked at my sister. “My little I AM suddenly conscious as I write that girl," he said to her, “ will you come and my experiences are very partial; a witch's live with me? You shall be as happy as caldron must needs after all contain hetero- the day is long, you shall have a white geneous scraps, and mine, alas ! can be pony to ride, and feed upon red.currant no exception to the rest. It produces jelly." This prospect was so alarming and nothing more valuable than odds and ends unexpected that the poor little girl sudhappily harmless enough, neither swel. denly blushed up and burst into tears. tered venom nor fillet of finny snake, but The old man was Mr. Samuel Rogers, but the back of one great man's head, the hat happily he did not see her cry, for he was and umbrella of another. The first time already on his way to the door. I ever saw Mr. Gladstone I only saw the My father was very fond of going to the soles of his boots. A friend had taken me play, and he used to take us when we into the ventilator of the House of Com- were children, one on each side of him, in mons, where we listened to a noble speech a haosom. He used to take us to the and watched the two shadows on the grat- opera, too, which was less of a treat. ing overhead of the feet of the messenger Magnificent envelopes, with unicorns and of glad tidings. One special back I cannot heraldic emblazonments, used to come refrain from writing down, in a dark blue very constantly, containing tickets and frock coat and strapped trousers, walking boxes for the opera. In those day's we leisurely before us up Piccadilly: The thought everybody had boxes for the opera sun is shining, and an odd sort of brass as a matter of course, We used to be inbuckle which fastens an old-fashioned stalled in the front places with our chins stock, flashes like a star. “Do look!” 1 resting on the velvet ledges of the box. say to my father.
“Who is that old gen- For a time it used to be very delightful, tleman ?? “ That old gentleman! Why, then sometimes I used suddenly to wake that is the Duke of Wellington," said my up to find the singing still going on and on father. On another occasion I remember as in a dream. I can still see Lablache, some one coming up to us and beginning a huge, reverberating mountain, a sort of to talk very charmingly, and among other Olympus, thundering forth glorious things describing some new lord mayor | sounds, and addressing deep, resounding