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Borris would be forgotten, and all his though he was irreconcilably hostile to confidence in Irish sincerity and loyalty fixity of tenure, he thought that the prin. annihilated.

ciple of free sale might be further extended For Ireland, however, Kavanagh was wherever it did not interfere with the able to do pretty nearly as much out of claims of justice or with the moral author. doors as he could have done in the House ity of the landlord, to which he continued of Commons. Mr. Gladstone's Land Act to attach great importance. To this end of 1881 created a new sphere for his activ- the landlord was to have “a veto on an ity. He had supported such parts of the objectionable incoming tenant," and in first Land Act as he thought, under exist. districts ing circumstances, might be the lesser of where enormous sums have been spent by the two evils, thus showing himself oo enemy landlords in improving their properties -on to exceptional legislation when necessary. some few properties it has been proved that But the second he denounced in terms the English system exists in its purity, the which carried conviction to every impar- landlords having made all the improvements tial mind. If we quote one passage from - and on holdings where tenant right formerly a speech made at the Rotunda on a phase existed and has been bought up by the landof the question which has long since be- lord, instances of which have been proved –. come ancient history, it is only because a its extension or re-establishment would in my disposition has been manifested to apply opinion be simple confiscation, and an unwar

rantable and arbitrary interference with rights the same principle to the tithe question.

of property which the circumstances could in It has been announced [he said] that the no sense justify. rent is to be fixed, not according to the value of the land itself, but according to the capa

His great work at this time, however, bility of the occupying tenant to get value out was the Land Corporation, of which he of it. The extravagance of such a principle gave a full account in a letter to the is too glaring to require comment. A hold. Times, of June 24, 1882. On the 17th of ing may be of the best description, the land March following, the company was regisof the richest quality, with every sacility for tered, and the effect was instantaneous. realizing its productiveness. It may be that The object of it was to counteract the these very facilities were conferred by the landlord's expenditure. But according to this operations of the League, and this it was new theory, if it be held by a drunkard, a

proposed to do by the formation thriftless, idle, or slovenly tenant, who fails for the cultivation of derelict lands to work the holding to profit, the landlord is lands, that is, for which the owner could to get nothing out of it: A direct premium is find no occupier in consequence of League held out to all kinds of extravagance, by which intimidation. The Corporation would it would not be difficult for the tenant to arrive either advance hiin the money wherewith at the stage of not paying any rent at all. . to cultivate it himself, or take it off his

We have another announcement not a whit hands and farm it for him. If necessary, less extraordinary in the case of a tenant hold- they would buy it. It might be asked how ing a rich bit of meadow-land in the vicinity, they could procure labor; but it is to be I think, of the city of Limerick. proved that the land had been of considerable noted that Kavanagh, in his Bessborough value from its fertility. But this went for report, comments on the fact that the nothing on the landlord's behalf, because it genuine agricultural laborer in Ireland had was proved for the tenant that by taking little in common with the farmers either excellent crops off it year by year, without small or great. There was therefore no putting a single bit of manure on it, he had difficulty on that score. The mere threat completely exhausted it.

The rent was re- of handing over the land to the Corpora. duced to the value, I believe, to which the tion was often enough to bring the tenant tenant had by his wanton and, I might almost to his senses ; and in a letter to Mr. W. say, his malicious conduct, deteriorated it.

H. Smith in September, 1888, Kavanagh Kavanagh was a member of the Bess. gives some examples of its working which borough Commission appointed in July, inspire him with good hopes for the fu1880, and he sent in a separate report ture. Tenants were beginning to come which we have at full length in an appen- forward on several estates for the evicted dix. It is extremely interesting, and tes- farms, even on less favorable terms than tifies to the firm grasp of the subject which were offered them in the beginning of the Kavanagh possessed, as well as to the struggle. In fact all Kavanagh's belief in breadth and liberality of his views, and the the possible regeneration of his country openness and flexibility of his mind. He was founded on what he held to be an in. thought that the act of 1870 did not give disputable fact, namely, that there were quite enough security to the tenant; and two Irelands, of one of which the outside

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world knew very little, and two sources of than is necessary to promote a healthy discontent, political and social, entirely circulation. The class above is constantly distinct from each other. We have no recruited from among the fittest of the space to quote his statement at any length, class below. Such men are very likely to but it is of the greatest interest, taken in amass money, and to add acre to acre till connection with the objections now raised they accumulate a small estate. Where to the Government Land Purchase Bill. the owners of land are miscellaneous, and He seems to have believed that if the buy it for a variety of reasons, there will pressure of intimidation was once taken always be sellers ; and thus the danger of off, the orderly classes would be found subdivision is counteracted as fast as it far more numerous than has been sup: arises. But where a class of petty farmers posed, even among the lowest grades of is created by artificial means; where the the people ; that they would show them growth is forced by State assistance; selves amenable to reason, and ready to where the occupier is turned into an wait while the scheme in hand for creating owner, not because he is fit to be a propria large class of yeoman proprietors was etor, but because he is unwilling to be a gradually working itself out. This is just tenant; where the owners of the land what the critics of the bill deny, and what, would all belong to one class, with no judging only from past experience, it other prospects in life than what is afmight seem difficult to believe. Yet Kava. forded by it, - the case is very different nagh had all the qualities required in a indeed. Under the one system the tenfirst-class witness, - complete knowledge dency is always towards consolidation, in of the subject, perfect honesty of purpose, the other towards subdivision. In the one and the sound judgment and powers of there is change, variety, and progress; in calculation which he had displayed in so the other immobility and stagnation. eminent a degree in the management of

Moreover, under the artificial system his own estate. A resident Irish proprie- you do not get a picked class who have tor for thirty-five years, with all the sym- raised themselves by their own merits, pathies, traditions, and prepossessions of and whose success nobody grudges. You his own order; the lineal descendant of get men with no claim to such good foran ancient and warlike race, with all the tune beyond their fellows, to which all, instincts of an aristocrat, - he was not therefore, will seem equally entitled, and likely to recommend anything calculated which all, therefore, will equally demand. to subvert the system of which himself Now it is a remarkable fact that while adand his ancestors had been the creators vocating a wide extension of the Land and defenders, which had worked so ben- Purchase system, Kavanagh insisted on eficially in his own hands, and to which the necessity of its being gradual. Any he himself was still devotedly attached. sudden or sweeping change would, he

We must suppose, therefore, that the thought, be very dangerous. It is plain, great problem to be solved in connection therefore, that he must either have over. with the Irish land question did not seem looked such considerations as the afore. to him insoluble - and that is, how to said, or have thought such apprehensions combine the establishment of peasant-pro- groundless. No doubt there is this to be prietors on a large scale with the mainte- remembered, that all his ideas on the sub. nance of an order of landed gentry, which ject of land purchase were based on the it is perfectly clear that Kavanagh had no indispensable condition that the orderly thoughts of giving up: From an unpub. classes should be efficiently, universally, lished paper composed in 1883, from an- and permanently protected. But by these other written at the Carlton just after the means he seems to have still thought it election of 1886, and seen only by a few possible that the better class of sentiments friends, and from the letter addressed to surviving in the Irish people would have Mr. W. H. Smith in September, 1888, we room secured for their expansion and de. may glean his general views, though it is velopment, till in time they had leavened impossible to say whether the particular the whole population, and made the trade difficulties foreseen by writers on the Irish of the agitator worthless. He reinforces question at the present moment had pre. this argument by referring to the efforts sented themselves to his mind. In En- of the Land League to prevent tenants gland or in any other country where the froin buying, knowing that the general growth of peasant-proprietorship is left to success of the Land Purchase Act would Datural causes, the process is inevitably be fatal to themselves. But nothing could gradual, and creates no further disturb- be done - he admitted that - unless the ance in the land system of the country | Irish people were convinced that they had

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got to the bottom of England's conces. | purchaser for a holding rendered vacant by siops. “There is,"

," he writes in 1886, “a the action of the State in enforcing payment. growing belief in the minds of the ten. The most powerful weapon in the Land ants,” based upon some speeches of Mr. League policy would thus be made inopera

tive. John Morley, “that the powers of the State will not be much longer used to en- It is much to be assured that, with his force payments of rent, and that by obtain knowledge of the Irish people and the coning money from the State to purchase their dition of Irish agriculture, with his sound holdings, they would be exchanging a lia. judgment, temperate disposition, and great bility which they would be forced to meet capacity for business, all united with for one which they would not.” Hence strong cooversative and aristocratic in. he sees the chief impediment to the work- stincts, Kavanagh regarded the prospects ing of any such scheme not more in the of such a measure as the present governunwillingness of landlords to sell than in ment have brought forward with a favorthe unwillingness of tenants to buy, and able eye. At the same time, he founded talks of compulsion being applied to these his hopes of its success chiefly on the last. Any way, however, we are only permanence of conditions which cannot be landed in this dilemma - Damely, that if otherwise than precarious, and on a change the tenant did jump at the proposal, there in our method of administration to which would be an ugly rush, and that if they it would take some time for the English hung back nothing would be done. But people to become accustomed. His deKavanagh himself declined to be pailed mand was for continuity, continuity, conto either of these alternatives. He be- tiouity – continuity in the administration lieved that means might be found of in- of the law, and continuity in the governducing the tenants to purchase, without ment of the country. He would have creating any dangerous discontent among substituted for the present lord lieuten. those who were obliged to wait, without ancy a permanent viceroy, independent of necessarily compelling the landlords to all parliamentary changes; and the ap. part with their estates, and, last but not pointment to such a post of a member of least, without any financial risk to the the royal family would, he thought, have State. The tenants must be convinced an excellent effect. It may occur perhaps that they had no further concessions to to some people that if we could only have expect. Subdivision might be guarded such a system as this, we should want no against by reserving to the State or the Land Purchase Acts. With it or without landlord some powers of intervention. it, however, Kavanagh thought the experi. The landlords, when they pleased, instead ment worth trying - and that is perhaps of parting with the fee-simple, might grant all that its warmest advocates could say long leases or “perpetuities," and the for it. State would have excellent security.

We should not' omit to add that Mrs. In the first place, it would have the fee- Steele has given us a most interesting let. simple of the land bought. In the second, it ter, addressed by Mr. Kavanagh to Mr. would have the value of the tenants' interests, Goschen in December, 1885, on the cattle evidence of which is afforded by the enormous trade and cattle breeding of Ireland, showprices still paid for “ tenant-right." People ing in the clearest colors the suicidal who would lightly forfeit the possession of character of the land agitation. The cattle land would not be so eager to acquire it as the trade is the main branch of Irish agricul. prices they pay for it prove them to be. As ture. If the quality of Irish store cattle each succeeding instalment was paid to the had been sustained, the foreign stores State by the occupier, his acquired interest in

That the land would be increased, and he would be would hardly have been looked at. the more unwilling to lose it by default. If quality has not been sustained, because the occupiers were satisfied that a speedy and the means by which the best sires of all irredeemable eviction would follow the non- kinds were secured for breeding purposes payment of the yearly instalments, the neces- have been destroyed. These means were sity of the State having recourse to such would, the agricultural shows, at which prizes save in very exceptional cases, at once cease. were offered for the best animals, amid To provide against these, I would suggest a keen competition. Now the landlords are system of mutual responsibility, so that all living within a certain area would become these societies, and the farmers are told

impoverished and cannot subscribe to mutually responsible for each other's pay: that shows are landlord institutions, and ments : all sympathy with defaulters would thus be put an end to, and the other occupiers that they ought to have nothing to do with of the area affected would, in their own inter- them. So down goes the Irish cattle ests, endeavor to find a solvent substitute or trade.

From The Contemporary Review. Holy Communion. His impressions had
JOHN WESLEY.

been deepened by his remarkable escape MARCH 2, 1891, is the centenary of the from the burning ruins of his father's death of Jobo Wesley. Many biographies vicarage when he was six years old. Epof him have been written, and the minut- worth parsonage was destroyed by fire. est incidents of his life are familiar to the The children were all asleep, and John, members of the religious community who left alone in the blazing nursery, was only are called by his name. Others are far snatched from death at the last moment, less acquainted with his personality, and after the vain efforts of his father to reach may not be sorry to be reminded what the room. From that day his mother dedmander of man he was,

icated him to God, and regarded him as a For, indeed, the reformers of Churches, child marked out for great ends. In one the redressers of injustice, the reawakeners of his early publications a house in flames of dead consciences, the slayers of drag- is represented beneath bis portrait, with ons and monsters, have in all ages been the words, “Is not this a brand plucked men marked out to their great work by sim- out of the fire ?" ilar characteristics. They who would beat He tells us that till the age of ten he was down the hundred-headed hydra of invet- not conscious of having committed any erate evils must use the same Hercules grave sin, or of having lost the grace of club of moral conviction and absolute self- baptism. At that age he was sent to school sacrifice.

in London, at the Charterhouse. English The father of John Wesley was the good public schools in those days were not only vicar of Epworth, and labored for long very rough training places, but were also years in poverty, disappointment, debt, scenes of much vice and godlessness. But and many trials, amid a rude, hostile, and though Wesley as a schoolboy lost some heavy peasantry. John and his brothers of his deep religious seriousness, he still and sisters in a numerous family had, to continued to go to church, to read his his own great advantage, to bear the yoke Bible, and to pray both morning and evenin their youth. Mrs. Wesley was an able, ing. We hear of him as a “brave boy, a active, and deeply religious woman. She good scholar, learning Hebrew as fast as gave herself up, heart and soul, to her he can," and probably his faults were not home duties and the right education of her more serious than such as rise from a natuchildren. We are told that she taught her ral buoyancy and hilarity of spirit, which children, even as infants, to cry softly, and thinks but little of religion in the glow and trained the little boys and girls in habits bloom of opening life. of the finest Christian courtesy.

In 1720 he went to Christ Church, Ox. The discipline of those days was stern; ford. Although at first he did not recover but in the hands of a good and wise his old piety, we hear of no fault except mother it probably erred far less in the that he got into debt ; and it was difficult direction of sternness than ours does in for him to do otherwise with the slender the direction of effeminacy. Mrs. Wesley allowance which alone his father could set apart an hour every day to talk and afford. The religious atmosphere of Oxpray with her boys in turn, and retained a ford at that time was singularly cold and powerful spell of influence over them, dead, as indeed was that of England, and even to advanced age. She did much to the Church of England generally. But a mould Wesley's character. In spite of decided change soon passed over him. the opposition of the commonplace curate Without extinguishing a natural cheerfulof the parish, and the timid doubts of her ness which made him say that he could own husband, when he was absent in Lon. never remember being in bad spirits for a don for the meetings of Convocation, she quarter of an hour all his life, a sense of assembled the parishioners together in religion awakened him to deep seriousher kitchen to a service, which they ness. Young as he was, he wrote to his found more profitable and blessed than mother, “ Leisure and I have taken leave the dry and soulless ministrations of the of one another. I propose to be busy as parish church.

long as I live, if my health is so long inThe little John and Charles were present dulged me.” at these meetings, and we see in them the After taking his degree, he was elected germ and spirit of their future work. a fellow of Lincoln, and acquired much

Brought up in such a home, John Wes. reputation as an Oxford tutor. Various ley grew up so serious, so earnest, and so books fanned the flame of his religious promising a child that even at the age of earnestness. Thomas à Kempis, by the eight years his father admitted him to the “ Imitatio Christi," woke in his mind the

LIVING AGE. VOL. LXXIV. 3809

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desire for a closer walk with God; and the glory with him." Yet we are astonished purely monastic and ascetic elements of à to read that in those days, at an Oxford Kempis's.ideal were corrected by Jeremy College, to attend the Sacrament was to Taylor's “Holy Living and Dying." His make oneself a target for all the polite soul was stirred still more deeply by Law's students, and the practice of visiting the “ Serious Call ” and Perfection.". By poor was an offence to be punished with these books, he says, “I was convinced the threat of expulsion. Indeed, so semore than ever of the impossibility of rious did the opposition gradually become, being half a Christian, and determined to that Wesley again sought his father's be all devoted to God; to give him all my counsel. His father wrote that he rejoiced soul, my body, and my substance." to have two sons at Oxford — for Charles

He was ordained deacon by Bishop had now joined his elder brother, John – Potter, and never forgot his advice: “If “ to whom God has given grace and couryou wish to be extensively useful, do not age to turn the war against the world and spend your time in contending for or the devil, which is the best way to con. against things of a disputable nature, but quer them. .. Go on, then, in God's in testifying against notorious vice, and in Dame, in the path to which your Saviour promoting real, essential holiness.” An- hath directed you ; . .. walk prudently, other remarkable sentence was addressed though not fearfully. I doubt whether a to him when he was ordained priest. Dr. mortal can arrive at a greater degree of Hayward, Bishop Potter's examining perfection than steadily to do good, and chaplain, put to him a question on which for that very reason, patiently and meekly he often pondered, and of which his whole to suffer evil. Bear no more sail than is after-history was an illustration : “Do you necessary, but steer steady." know,” he asked him, “what you are In 1727 Wesley went to assist his father about? You are bidding defiance to all in the rude hamlet of Wroote, where he mankind. He that would live a Christian stayed till 1729. He tells us that he did priest ought to know that, whether his not see much fruit of his labors, because, hand be against every man or no, he must in his preaching, he neither laid the founexpect every man's hand would be against dation of repentance nor of believing the him.” He had already learnt by expe- Gospel, but rather assumed that his hearrience the truth of the remark, for his very ers were already believers and already goodness, his blameless morals, his efforts penitent. In 1729 he returned to Oxford to help others, were made grounds for to find that his brother Charles had there sneers and opposition.

founded a little brotherhood of students To any one who looks a little below the to encourage each other in the practice of surface, and watches the reception ac- a holy life. They met for prayer, selfcorded in our own age, as much as in any examination, the study of the Scriptures other, to any line of conduct not purely and the Greek Testament. Later on they conventional, this will not appear wholly formed plans to visit the sick and the strange. No one in these days would prisoners. They were nicknamed “the openly venture to taunt another in the Holy Club," and Whitefield was one of House of Commons as “the honorable the little band. They were also called by and religious gentleman,” as one member that name Methodists,” which still adof Parliament taunted Wilberforce; nor heres to the society of which they formed would many men make personal chastity the earliest nucleus. The name Metha ground for depreciatory innuendoes, as odist had first been invented in the reign in the eighteenth century they did to the of Nero, for a school of physicians who younger Pitt.

But when Wesley stood thought that “all diseases could be cured for election to his fellowship at Lincoln by a specific method of diet and exerCollege, there were some who tried to ruin cise. Charles Wesley, who was of a his chance by ridiculing his serious be- more poetic, tender, and emotional cast of

havior; and he wrote to his father to ask mind than John, had been the first leader . for his advice. The letter of his father in the movement, and he added a glow of was admirable. “Does any body think,” warmer spirituality to the hard

and more wrote the Vicar of Epworth, “that the prosaic temperament of his brother. The devil is dead, or asleep, or that he has no numbers of this little society were never agents left? Surely virtue can bear being laughed at. The Captain and Master en

* Auson, Idyll, ix. 67: "Triplex quoque forma me

dendi Cui logos, et méthodos, cuique experientia Do dured something more for us before he men.” entered into his glory, and unless we track

As methodist Musus killed with hellebore." his steps, in vain do we hope to share the

(Marston, Scourge of Viliany, 1599.)

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