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No baboo ever turned out a more deli- | numerous family consisting of the aforecious mixture of queer English and Orien- said five female women, and three males, tal imagery than this : Respectfully the last of whom are still milking the Sheweth. That your honor's servant is parental mother. That your generous poor man in agricultural behavior, and honor's lordship's servant was entreating much depends on season for the staff of to the Magistrate for employment in Mu. life, therefore he prays that you will favornicipality to remove filth, etc., but was not upon him, and take him into your saintly granted the petitioner.

Therefore your service, that he may have some perma- generous lordship will give to me some nently labor for the support of his soul easy work, in the Department, or and his family; wherefore he falls upon something of this sort. For which act of his family's bended knees, and implores kindness your noble lordship's poor serto you of this merciful consideration to a vant will, as in duty bound, pray for your damnable miserable, like your honor's longevity. I have the honor to be, sir, unfortunate petitioner. That your lord- your most obedient servant,

Candiship's honor's servant was too much poorly date." during the last rains and was resuscitated There is such an amusing assumption by much medicines which made magnifi- of self-satisfaction in the following that it cent excavations in the coffers of your also deserves to be quoted : “Most Rehonorable servant, whose means are cir- spectfully Showeth, -That your petitioner cumcized by his large family, consisting being given to understand that your honor of five female women, and three masculine, is in want of hands to do the duties of the last of which are still taking milk from signaller and porters begs to offer himself mother's chest, and are damnably noiseful as a candidate for one of these : that your through pulmonary catastrophe in their petitioner can read and write him his own interior abdomen. Besides the above Vernacular and that he has a special gift named, an additional birth is, through of Almighty, viz., he is a very tall young grace of God, very shortly occurring to my man beyond the ordinary hight of human beloved wife of bosom. .. . That your population in this country where the inhonor's damnable servant was officiating habitants are mostly short, and that on in several capacities during past genera- this ground he will make himself more tions, but has become too much old for useful for the office of flag holder should espousing hard labor in this time of his your honor be pleased to confer me a situbodily life ; but was not drunkard, noration I shall pray God for your long life thief, nor swindler, nor any of these kind, and prosperity.” but was always pious, affectionate to his

A FEW FACTS ABOUT THE GREAT SIBE-, meval forests which have never been cut, and RIAN RAILWAY. — The great Siberian Rail-through countries abounding in mineral and way, which will more closely connect Europe vegetable wealth. When the line is ready it with the teeming millions of China, Japan, will be possible to work the rich gold, silver, and eastern Asia, will be commenced this iron, copper, and plumbago mines of eastern spring. The total length of the line will be Siberia, which have hardly yet been touched four thousand eight hundred and ten miles, in consequence of the scarcity of labor and and the cost about thirty-two millions ster- the absence of machinery. The rich and ferling. In case permanent bridges are built tile regions of the Amoor and Usuri, which over the immense rivers Obi, Yenesei, Lena, boast of a climate as fine as that of France, etc., the outlay will be still greater. The will then be open to colonists, and also milcommercial and political importance of this lions of acres of land which are at the present undertaking is greater than most people sup-moment almost unpopulated. By means of pose. It will not only help to open out the this railway Russia will be able to convert immense resources of southern Siberia, but Vladivostock into a great naval and military will enable Russia to compete more success-station like Sevastopol, and, if necessary, fully for the Japanese and Chinese carrying pour several hundred thousand troops on the and import trade. Goods that are now sent Chinese frontier in less than three weeks' by sea to Europe will ten years hence be car- time. And last, and not least, among the ried overland into Europe, and a good deal of benefits which will accrue to mankind through the Chinese carrying trade will go into the this undertaking, will be the possibility of hands of Russia. A large portion of the rail- visiting China or Japan in about a fortnight way will run through millions of acres of the from central Europe, with all that comfort finest virgin soil, over immense rivers, pri- that is attached to railway travelling in Russia. Fifth Series, Volume LXXIV.

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No. 2444, -May 2, 1891.

S From Beginning,

Vol. OLXXXIX.

.

II. Eight DÂYS. Part xv.,

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CONTENTS. I. THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON LITERATURE,

Contemporary Review,

Cornhill Magazine, III. AN IRISH LANDLORD,

Blackwood's Magazine, IV. JOHN WESLEY,

Contemporary Review,
V. MY WITCHES' CALDRON. Part II.,

Macmillan's Magazine,
VI. ARCHÆOLOGICAL NOMADS RUGGED
CILICIA,

Blackwood's Magazine,
VII. SARK,

Longman's Magazine, . VIII. WINTER IN KIEFF,

Chambers! Journal, IX. MILITARY TACTICS OF ANTS:

Spectator, X. A YOUNG WIFE,

Graphic,

259 267 278 289 295

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POETRY, THE FORGE BY THE FOREST,

258 | “GOD SENT A POET TO REFORM HIS "I KNOW WHAT BEAUTY IS, FOR THOU,”;

EARTH, A PORTRAIT,

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THE FORGE BY THE FOREST.

A PORTRAIT. It stands half hidden in the greenwood's edge, The clock strikes one, and he is here; Its music greets the dawn that glimmers See, as he comes he wears a smile; white,

He takes his own accustomed chair, Before the sunbeams chase away the night, And nods gay greetings all the while. Or the first warbler twitters in the sedge; I know his friends: they are not fast, All day the anvil rings beneath the sledge,

But neither are they old nor portly, The forge-fires roar, and gleam with ruddy Although the youth of each is past, light

And some must take to glasses shortly. Till crimson sunset crowns the distant

They shout his name, and bid him sit height,

Unnoticed leave the knife and fork: And all its fringes fade along the ledge.

They like their luncheon served with wit; Then, though the whispering leaves above it

They know that humor haunts his talk.

He chaffs a friend who is no dunce bend, And night-birds call, and moonbeams round

Good-natured always is his banter; it play,

He caps each argument at once, The voices of the smithy die away;

And, with a laugh, wins in a canter. When in the dusk the evening dews descend While many fly to work anew, In silent slumber all its labors end

A few will stay and have their smoke. Its music mute, its ashes cold and grey. A tale is toid; he tells one too, Chambers' Journal. J. G. F. NICHOLSON. Which, like his others, has its joke.

The day glides on, he comes again;

Two hours his hat and coat he'll doff: He plays for fun, but likes to gain.

He has his whist, and then goes off. I KNOW what beauty is, for Thou Hast set the world within my heart;

A lumb'ring cab, a sorry steed, Of me Thou madest it a part;

His umbrella found, “Good-night," I never loved it more than now.

He cries, though 'tis to one, indeed,

Whose name he never fixes quite. I know the Sabbath afternoons;

He has his foibles — quite a score The light asleep upon the graves ;

First, fashion cannot change his dress; Against the sky the poplar waves;

He can't forgive a chronic bore, The river murmurs organ tunes.

Nor the American Free Press. I know the spring with bud and bell;

His scorn is great for foreign lands; The hush in summer woods at night;

He thinks bed is the proper place Autumn, when leaves let in more light; (At ten) for weary head and handsFantastic winter's lovely spell.

In fact, for all the human race.

He thinks one woman's like the rest;
I know the rapture music gives,

To be convinced he is unwilling;
The power that dweils in ordered tones;
Dream-muffled voice, it loves and moans,

His heart with pity is impressed

His hand is ready with a shilling. And half alive, comes in and lives.

Gentleman's Magazine. The charm of verse, where love-allied, Music and thought, in concord high, Show many a glory sailing by, Borne on the Godhead's living tide;

God sent a poet to reform his earth, And beauty's regnant all I know;

But when he came and found it cold and poor, The imperial head, the starry eye;

Harsh and unlovely, where each prosperous The fettered fount of harmony,

boor That makes the woman radiant go.

Held poets light for all their heavenly birth, But I leave all, thou man of woe!

He thought: Myself can make one better

worth Put off my shoes and come to thee, Most beautiful of all I see,

The living in than this — full of old lore, Most wonderful of all I know.

Music and light and love, where saints adore

And angels, all within mine own soul's girth. As child forsakes his favorite toy, His sister's sport, his wild bird's nest;

But when at last he came to die, his soul And, climbing to his mother's breast,

Saw earth (flying past to heaven) with new Enjoys yet more his former joy –

love,

And all the unused passion in him cried : I lose to find. On white-robed bride O God, your heaven I know and weary of; Fair jewels fairest light afford;

Give me this world to work in and make whole. So, gathered round thy glory, Lord, God spoke: Therein, fool, thou hast lived and All glory else is glorified.

died. GEORGE MACDONALD.

A. MARY F. ROBINSON.

LITERATURE.

From The Contemporary Review, but they mean nothing. Those of the THE INFLUENCE OF DEMOCRACY ON optimist do not mean much either. A

little more effort is required to produce It is not desirable to bring the element his rose-colored picture, but we are not of party politics into the world of books. really persuaded that because the brown But it is difficult to discuss the influence marries the blonde all is for the best in of democracy on literature without bor. the best of all possible worlds. Nor is rowing from the Radicals one of the wis much gained by prophecy. We have been est and truest of their watchwords. It is listening to a gentleman, himself a biogof no use, as they remind us, to be afraid rapher and an historian, who predicts, of the people. We have this huge mass with babe-like naiveté, that all literary perof individuals around us, each item in the sons will presently be sent by the democcoagulation struggling to retain and to ex- racy to split wood and draw water, except, ercise its liberty; and, while we are per- perhaps, "the historian or biographer.” fectly free to like or dislike the condition in this universal splitting of wood, some of things which has produced this phe heads, which now think themselves mighty nomenon, to be alarmed, to utter shrieks clever, may come to be rather disastrously of fright at it, is to resign all pretension cracked. It was not Camille Desmoulins to be beard. We may believe that the whom Fate selected to enter into his whole concern is going to the dogs, or we own promised land of emancipated literamay be amusing Ourselves by printing ture. Cook's tickets for a monster excursion to We gain little by a comparison of our Boothia Felix or other provinces of modern situation with that of the ancient Utopia ; to be frightened at it, or to think commonwealths. The parallel between that we can do any good by scolding it or the state of literature in our world and that bioding it with chains of tow, is simply in Athens or Florence is purely academic. silly. It moves, and it carries the supe. Whatever the form of government, literarior person with it and in it, like a mote ture has always been aristocratic, or at of dust.

least oligarchic. It has been encouraged In considering, therefore, the influence or else tolerated; even when it has been of democracy on literature, it seems worse independent, its self-congratulations on its than useless to exhort or persuade. All independence have shown how temporary that can in any degree be interesting must that liberty was, and how imminent the be to study, without prejudice, the signs relapse into bondage. The peculiar proof the times, to compare notes about the tection given to the arts by enlightened weather, and tap the intellectual barome- commonwealths surrounded by barbaric ter cheerfully. This form of inquiry is tyrannies was often of a most valuable rarely attempted in a perfectly open spirit, character, but it resembled nothing which partly, no doubt, because it is unquestion can recur in the modern world. The stimably one which it is difficult to carry ulus it gave to the creative temperament through. It is wonderfully easy to pro. was due in great measure to its exclusiveclaim the advent of a literary Ragnarok, ness, to the fact that the world was shut to say that poetry is dead, the novel sunken out, and the appeal for sympathy made to into its dotage, all good writing obsolete, a restricted circle. The republic was a and the reign of darkness begun. There family of highly trained intelligences, are writers who do this, and who round off barred and bolted against the vast and their periods by attributing the whole con- stupid world outside. This condition can dition to the democratic spirit, like the never be re-established. The essence of sailor in that delightful old piece played at democracy is that it knows no narrower the Strand Theatre, who used to sum up bonds than those of the globe, and its the misfortunes of a lifetime with the re- success is marked by the destruction of current refrain, “ It's all on account of those very ramparts which protected and Eliza.” The “uncreating words ” of these inspirited the old intellectual free States. pessimists are dispiriting for the moment, The purest and most elevated form of literature, the rarest and, at its best, the influence of literature on democracy, but most valuable, is poetry. If it could be hardly of democracy on literature. We shown that the influence of the popular may examine the series of Lord Tenoyadvance in power has been favorable to son's volumes with care, and scarcely the growth of great verse, then all the rest discover a copy of verses in which he can might be taken for granted. Unfortu- be detected as directly urged to expression nately, there are many circumstances by the popular taste. This prime favorite which interfere with our vision, and make of the educated masses has never courted it exceedingly difficult to give an opinion the public, nor striven to serve it. He on this point. Victor Hugo never ques. has written to please himself, to win the tioned that the poetical element was applause of the "little clan,” and each needed, but he had occasional qualms round of salvos from the world outside about its being properly demanded. has seemed to startle him in his obstinate

retirement. If it has grown easier and Peuples! écoutez le poète,

easier for him to consent to please the Ecoutez le rêveur sacré !

masses, it is because he has familiarized Dans votre nuit, sans lui complète,

them more and more with his peculiar Lui seul a le front éclairé !

accent. He has led literary taste, he bas he shouted, but the very energy of the not dreamed of following it. exclamation suggests a doubt in his own What is true of Tennyson is true of mind as to its complete acceptability. In most of our recent poets. There is one this country, the democracy has certainly exception, however, and that a very curi. crowded around one poet. It has always ous one. The single English poet of high appeared to me to be one of the most sin. rank whose works seem to me to be disgular, as it is one of the most encouraging tinctly affected by the democratic spirit, features of our recent literary history, nay, to be the direct outcome of the influ. that Tennyson should have held the ex- ence of democracy, is Robert Browning. traordinary place in the affections of our It has scarcely been sufficiently noted by people which has now been his for nearly those who criticise the style of that great half a century. That it should be so deli- writer that the entire tone of his writings cate and so Æolian a music, so little introduces something hitherto unobserved affected by contemporary passion, so dis. in British poetry. That something is the dainful of adventitious aids to popularity, repudiation of the recognized oligarchic which above all others has attracted the attitude of the poet in his address to the universal ear, and held it without produc- public. It is not that he writes or does ing weariness or satiety; this, I confess, not write of the poor. It is a curious appears to me very marvellous. Some of mistake to expect the democratic spirit to the laureate's best-loved lyrics have been be always on its knees adoring the prolebefore the public for more than sixty tariat. To the true democracy all are years. Cowley is one of the few English veritably of equal interest, and even a poets who have been, during their life- belted earl may be a man and a brother. time, praised as inuch as Tennyson has In his poems Robert Browning spoke as been, but where in 1720 was the fame of though he felt himself to be walking Cowley? Where in the France of to-day through a world of equals, all interesting are the “Méditations" and the “Harmo- to him, all worthy of study. This is the nies” of Lamartine?

secret of his abrupt familiar appeal, bis If, then, we might take Tennyson as “Dare I trust the same to you?” * Look an example of the result of the action out, see the gipsy!” " You would fain of democracy upon literature, we might be kinglier, say, than I am ?” the inces. indeed congratulate ourselves. But a mo- sant confidential aside to a cloud of unment's reflection shows that to do so is to named witnesses, the conversational tone, put the cart before the horse. The wide things all of which were before his time appreciation of such delicate and penetrat. unknowo in serious verse. Browning is ing poetry is, indeed, an example of the hail-fellow-well-met with all the world,

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