opinion among the Bering Island Aleuts, other hand, not having reached its full that an early departure portends a severe size, has also not reached its full value. It winter, while on the other hand, if the an- is evident, then, since the slaughter of the imals remain beyond the usual time, a cows would be manifestly an unwise promore open season will be experienced. ceeding, that the males between the ages

Both on land and in the water it is with of two and five years should alone be the fore limb that the seal progresses. killed, if it be desired to keep the rookeries When swimming, steering only is managed undiminished in numbers and to obtain by the long hind flippers, which bear a the best commercial results. This syssingularly close resemblance, both in text. tem, with still further limitations, is that ure and appearance, to a lady's long black- adopted. The holluschack has unconkid glove. The animals seem to take par- sciously lent himself to its fur:herance. ticular care of these appendages, either The playgrounds, being distinct and sepakeeping them straight out at the side, or rate, not only permit of his being driven lifting them up in ridiculous manner when off comfortably to the slaughter without walking. The gait is awkward, making any difficulties of separation from others the creature appear as if partly paralyzed, of different sex or age, but also obviate a step or two being first taken with the the necessity of disturbing the breeding. fore limb and the hind-quarters then ap- grounds, which are seldom penetrated even proximated by an arching of the spine, by the officials. When therefore a “drive" the method of progression thus resembling is resolved on, two or three natives run ihat of a "geometer” caterpillar. Al in between the holluschicki and the sea though slow, the seal can cover a good and herd them landwards, an operation deal of ground and is often found at some which with these slow-moving animals is distance from the sea. He is, moreover, easily affected. As many as it is desired a very passable climber, ascending rocks to kill are then separated, and the march and cliffs which those unaccustomed to to the place of execution commences. It his habits would deem quite beyond the is fittingly funereal in pace, for, if overrange of his powers. All, adults and driven, the animals not only die on the young, are very sensitive to atmospheric road, but the quality of the fur in the surchanges. Their ideal weather is certainly vivors is spoiled. Even at the rate of half

A cold, raw fog is most appre. mile an hour many are compelled to fall ciated, and sun, warmth, and clear skies out of the ranks. No difficulty is experi. drive them at once into the sea.

enced, and with a man or two on either There is probably not another instance flank and in rear, the seals are herded in the animal world in which the male dif. with far less trouble than a flock of sheep. fers so strikingly from the female as in the In some instances the killing-grounds case of Callorhinus. Up to the age of are at a considerable distance from the three years they are alike in size, but after rookery, in others they are quite near. that period, while the female ceases to Strange to say, the proximity of thou. grow, the bull increases from year to year sands of putrelying carcases of their kind in size and fatness until he becomes gi- does not seem in any way to affect the surgantic. Thus, according to Mr. Elliott, vivors. the weight of a three-year-old male is about Arrived on the ground, the animals are ninety pounds and its length about four left a while to rest and get cool, and are feet, but an old bull would weigh six hun- then separated out in small batches to be dred pounds and measure seven feet. killed. "A staff between five and six feet Enormous masses of fat load his chest in length, with a knob at the end, weighted and shoulders, and the increase in bulk with lead, is used in the operation. The reoders him unwieldy and unable to get animal is struck on the head, and a knife about like a holluschack. It is these old thrust into the chest penetrates the heart warriors, nevertheless, who get the best or great vessels, and causes rapid death. places in the rookery, where weight rather Upon the subject of cruelty in the slaughthan agility wins the day. Taking the ter and skinning of the fur-seals much average weight of a female as ninety or unnecessary ink has recently been shed. one hundred pounds their consorts when Whatever exists is neither more nor less arrived at full growth may be said to be than is perpetrated by English butchers in just six times their size!

the course of their daily avocations. The When the seal has reached its sixth skin is removed at once, and the carcase year the fur it yields is much deteriorated left to rot where it lies. In this way enor. in quality. Still older, it is practically mous quantities of valuable oil are wasted. worthless. The skin of the pup, on the The animals killed are, without exception,

not ours.

fourth years.


males at the beginning of the third and | er's hold will be found on enquiry — of

the captain to have been killed on the The after-history of the skins it is not broad bosom of the Pacific. within the province of this paper to relate, The question, as I have said, is one infor a description of the method of curing volving general interests, and does not would alone fill many pages. It is enough merely affect the company renting the to say that they leave the islands roughly islands, and the government which obsalted and tied together in bundles, the tains its £60,000 or £70,000 therefrom. company's steamer calling twice yearly. The system of slaughter at present in The interest at present is centred in the vogue must be put a stop to. But a inare living animal and not in the product - in clausum is to England as red rag; she the goose and not the golden eggs; and will have none of it. Nor, indeed, can it the life-history, as we have just studied it, be said that it would set the matter at rest; of the animal now so largely attracting the for it would not entirely do away with illicit world's attention is of no little importance stealing. One alternative at least remaios in the question whether Bering's Sea shall — the establishment of a close time, to be or shall not be open to British and other recognized internationally and enforced by foreign vessels. That sealing, as carried cruisers of the various nations concerned on by the poaching schooners, is a very in the preservation of this valuable animal. paying trade there is no doubt whatever. In the spring-migration northward, every Year by year the number of vessels thus adult female seal is heavy with young. engaged increases. It is not easy to ob- From June till August the breeding seatain information, but probably not less son is at its height, while from the latter than thirty fit out on the American sea month till the end of October the fur is in board, and about the same number on the bad condition and of little value. Most Asiatic side. We know that over forty of the animals taken by the schooners are thousand seal skins were landed on the shot or harpooned while swimming or American continent in 1890 and we cannot lying asleep on the surface of the water, estimate the “take” of the craft from when it is impossible with certainty to Japan and China as much less than thirty ascertain the sex. Given these facts, the thousand. This is almost equal to half inference is obvious. A close season the combined yield of the Komandorskis should be established from April until the and the Prybilovs. At this rate the fur- end of October, during which time it seal will at no very remote period in the should under no circumstances be permis. future become as extinct as his former sible to kill seals except upon the rookcomrade the Rhytina. It cannot be de. eries. The animals would sti!l remain nied that international interests, totally feræ naturæ, and then capture during the apart from any political question, demand southern migration would be legal. But that this danger shall be averted.

under these circumstances it is highly imIt has been stated, by those who hold a probable that the illicit sealers would find brief for the “illicit" schooners, that the the trade sufficiently remunerative to be seals breed at various places on the North undertaken. Of the slaughter of cows in American coast and its islands - - a state. young, males with useless pelts, and unment which, it true, would of course mate- dersized pups we have had enough. By rially alter the aspect of the case. But this means the question would be shifted though doubtless a good number of the an- from political to zoological grounds, and imals stop to rest there and “haul-up,” or a the recently established and totally unjusfew even, from rarely occurring causes, to tifiable trade of the seal-poacher would be give birth to a young one, these localities effectually, but legitimately ended. cannot for a moment, I think, be put for

F. H. H. GUILLEMARD. ward as the real source of the schooners' cargoes. Zoology reaches us that the furseal is a gregarious animal, and it is in the immediate neighborhood of the vast breeding.grounds I have just described that the

From Temple Bar. bulk of the skins is obtained. Although perhaps actual landing on a rookery is not “Yes, I had heard of Kinglake's chivso much practised as formerly, the dense alrous goings on,” writes Mr. Kenyon to sea-fogs render the three-mile limit a dead- a common friend under date October 31, letter. As a poacher's rabbit is “one as I 1854. “We were saying yesterday that just found dead in the hedge, sir,” so the though he might write a book, he was greater number of sealskins in a schoon. I among the last men to go that he might


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write a book. And a friend of his added, , or parodied. He was often at his best "he is wild about matters military, if so when two or three were gathered tocalm a man is ever wild.' We all hope gether, or long ago at his mother's dinner. that he may come home unscathed; that table, when the world was younger, and no ill-natured fellow may say, 'Serve him before Louis Napoleon had found his right for going at all.'”

chronicler. Kinglake was in the Crimea at the above Kinglake was only an intermittent talker date. He was with Lord Raglan's staff at in general society, for rare habit even the storming of the heights of Alma. The among the wisest of us he never spoke first sensation of being in battle be likened unless he had something to say. Ye gods, to the excitement of fox-hunting; but in what golden silence there would be if this far other terms he described the night were an abiding law in our hearts ! Crabb scene, when the din and turmoil of the Robinson averred that Kinylake somefight was over. He was amongst those time slept for a brief space, when his in. who carried succor to the wounded terest in the conversation flagged, much succor to friend and foe alike - on the as he himself describes ministers doing dead encumbered field, where many a at the celebrated Cabinet Council where ghastly sight was seen under the dancing peace and war were in the balance. lanterns borne by the searchers.

Mr. Grote was once heard to remark Kinglake's interest in military matters that for a person of his reputation, Mr. was indeed very genuine; it was a great Kinglake was the dullest man that he had disappointment to him in life that his ever met at a dinner-party.” But then, as extreme shortness of sight rendered him Sydney Smith said, " Mr. Grote was so physically unfit for the profession which ladylike.” He was in fact, in his measof all others he would have preferred. In ured, courteous manner, the very type the daily routine of conventional exist of that “utter respectability " which is ence his nature became somnolent; it was railed against as soul-deadening and antiprobably the unconscious effort to escape pathetic to the natural man in the pages of from this deadening influence that sent * Eöthen." Kinglake, encased in his own him in early life to encounter the dangers formality, would doubtless, have warmed and difficulties of Eastern travel, and towards “the gentlemanlike Mrs. Grote," again at intervals to Algeria and to the who, with her robust language and trenchCrimea, that the blast of trumpets and ant remarks, never lost time over euthe roll of drums might stir to action the phemisms, or cared to call a spade by frost-bound volcano of the soul within any other name. Kinglake, by force of him.

contrast, liked dash and vigor in a talking Mr. Kinglake's defective sight may in cornpanion; he declared that his heart some degree be held responsible for the stopped if he was bored. A lady friend shyness and formality of his manners in of his suggested that his pulse should be general society. In person he was short felt at dinner after the second entrée, and and slight, with finely chiselled features if not satisfactory he should be allowed to and an intellectual brow; he had a singu- change places. larly bloodless complexion, not the pallor Kinglake was certainly not in a state of of ill-health, but rather the grey whiteness boredom when he shrewdly observed, in of a two thousand years old Greek bust. speaking of the sage of Chelsea, whom he His cold, impressive manner, his slowness did not love,“ Carlyle talks like Jeremiah ; of speech, and gentle voice, were strangely but so far from being a prophet, he is a at variance with the biting sarcasm that at bad Scotch joker," adding, “I believe he times fell from his lips. But his pen was knows himself to be a windbag.” Kingever more virulent than his spoken word. lake was not in sympathy with German His hatred of wrong-doers was expressed modes of thought; his early prejudice with so much elaboration and reiteration against everything Teutonic' was very that the tirade occasionally lost somewhat marked. He went so far as to say that he of the genuine force of spontaneity. In did not believe in any one succeeding in his happier moods of table talk, Kinglake life who took up strongly with the German would poise his epigrams with extraordi- language or its literature. Though far nary deliberation. His wit had the charm froin being a typical Englishman, he had of all true wit – unexpectedness; you felt some amusing insular prejudices. One of that he said what no one else would ever the few canons of his creed was — at least have thought of saying; therein was the he averred it was - a belief that if a Frenchquintessence of its favor, a manner of man behaved well, he would be rewarded thought and expression not to be imitated by finding himself born an Englishman in


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a future life; and vice versa, a badly con- sedate friendships with the other sex ; his ducted Britisher would be degraded into life-long regard for Mrs. Proctor is an inbecoming French in his secondary stage stance. After his return from the East he of existence.

read with her husband for the Chancery In describing “ Marshall St. Arnaud, Bar; and in this way became acquainted formerly Le Roy,” Kinglake says he was with one of the cleverest, and at the same the impersonation of what our forefathers time one of the most sarcastic, women in had in their minds when they spoke of “a London society. It was believed amongst Frenchman;" then follows, as every one his associates that Mrs. Proctor was ““ Our will remember, the pitiless dissection of a Lady of Bitterness," alluded to in the character whose nearest approach to virtue preface to “ Eöthen.” This preface, by was personal daring and unscrupulous the way, unlike most things of the kind, is ambition. Kinglake's bitter animosity excellent reading. Kinglake felt and beagainst this soldier of France, may be ex- lieved in female influence; he used to say, plained by the fact that he had been with " Men will never be made really religious St. Arnaud in Algiers ; had ridden with till the Church establishes an order of him in fellowship across the desert when Priestesses. Women have their spiritual the French forces were sent to punish the pastors; a man should have his priestess revolted tribes, The Englishman had his Egēria.” cordially admired the handsome colonel, On being asked why he had never mar. with his charming manner and eager style ried, certainly being no woman later, he of speech, little thinking that beneath that replied, “ Because he had observed that gay exterior and light-hearted vanity there wives always preferred other men to their lay concealed, in grave secrecy, the hellish own husbands.” Kinglake was chivalrous purpose that doomed five hundred fugi- about ideal men and women; his imagtives to a hideous death in the cave of ination revelled in a picturesque glamor Shelas. St. Arnaud's letter to his brother of things; but his fastidious nature would describes the event with unparalleled cyn. never have borne with equanimity the inicism. He says :

evitable rubs of life in double harness.

Kinglake's fastidiousness moulded his I had all the apertures [of the cave] hermet- manner into its ultimate form of literary ically stopped up. I made one vast sepulchre. No one knew but myself that there were

presentment. His letters generally were five hundred brigands therein. . . . Brother, wanting in the characteristic brilliancy of no one is so good as I am by taste and nature style that marked his finished work. ... I have done my duty as a commander, Some men's letters, on the contrary, in and to-morrow I would do the same again. their freshness and freedom, are better

reading than their more labored producThe disgust and horror excited by this tions. The proof-sheets of some portions foul deed, executed in secrecy and cold of the “Invasion of the Crimea ” were a blood, in close proximity to where he perfect marvel of elaborate and careful stood, as he (Kinglake) thought, on the finish. The corrections and interpolations field of a fair fight, made a deep and last were endless. The writer was evidently ing impression on him; in truth it must be a severe critic of his own work. The allowed to be the key-riote of his detesta- balance of a sentence was very often tion of the “ brethren of the Elysée.” rearranged, and other words and phrases

Whether the time and manner of King- substituted for those that stood in the first lake's unsparing attack on the emperor of reading. The corrections were done with the French was well chosen or in good such consummate skill that you came to taste under the circumstances, may be see it would not be possible to find lanquestioned. Louis Napoleon is reported guage more terse, more lucid, or more to have said on reading the volumes, in appropriate than that of the final form reference to the attack on himself, “ c'est adopted by Kinglake to express what he ignoble.History has had her final word had to say. It is the old remark exemplisince then — and scored for Kinglake. fied — easy reading is hard writing.

The quid nuncs who are always sus- But with all its elaboration, perhaps pecting the “eternal feminine,” declared over-elaboration of style there is nothing that the historian had a grievance against in the “ History” which can at all compete Prince Louis that made his hatred a very with the charm of that single volume of personal matter indeed. Kinglake liked travel which made Kinglake's reputation. the society of clever women; the illogical “ Eöthen”in a chapter of autobiography vivacity of the female mind amused and written in the happiest vein of humorous excited him. He was capable of very self-portraiture. Who can forget the inci



dent, as Kinglake describes it, of his came a duel of silence between us.

The conmeeting in the desert an Englishman with test was so equally maintained, that neither his cavalcade ?

of us spoke during the ten minutes that

elapsed before the lady of the house appeared As we approached each other she says] it and introduced us. became a question whether we should speak; I thought it likely that the stranger would

Kinglake was rather amusing on the accost me, and in the event of his doing so, I subject of Miss Martineau's deafness; he was quite ready to be as sociable and chatty remarked that it was no drawback in her as I could be according to my nature; but case, for she talked so unceasingly that still I could not think of anything particular she never had any occasion to hear what that I had to say to him. Of course among others said. The following is an instance civilized people the not having anything to of the humorous turn he could give to a say is no excuse at all for not speaking; but

very prosaic incident.

It chanced that a I was shy and indolent, and felt no great wish few Somersetshire friends were talking to stop and talk like a morning visitor in the midst of these broad solitudes. The traveller over the Ĉase of a clergyman in the west perhaps felt as I did, for except that we lifted who was under the grave suspicion of conour hands to our caps and waved our arms in ducting himself improperly towards a fecourtesy, we passed each other as if we had male member of his congregation. Parties passed in Bond Street.

were divided, and some of his parishioners, Some one (it was an enemy who said wishing to show that they believed he had this thing) wished no better sport than to been cruelly maligned, made a subscripsee Kinglake interviewed by a Yankee tion and presented him with a silver inkjournalist ; however, like the Duke of stand. “Yes, I see,” said Kinglake dryly;

"the parish has presented their rector Wellington, when asked if he was surprised at Waterloo, he would doubtless with a piece of plate for not seducing his

clerk's daughter." have been equal to the occasion. It is true Kinglake hated being put to the question.

Among the thousand and one am

amusing He gave up visiting at a very pleasant things in " Eöthen” is his account of the

disillusion that would overtake the man house solely because, as he said, he no sooner made his appearance than father,

who sought to adopt the life of an Arab mother, and daughters bombarded him for the sake of seclusion; as a fact, the

inmates of the tents are crammed together. with questions. It was like being put into a witness-box; and he added, “ that he felt You would find yourself [he says] in persure, when he left the house, that he had petual contact with a mass of hot fellow

He in some way perjured himself.”

It is true that all who are inmates gave

of the same tent are related to each other, up some other acquaintances in consequence of their having a manservant who adds much to the charm of such a life. At

but I am not quite sure that that circumstance invariably announced the guests in a sten- all events, before you finally determine to betorian voice. No one heeded the entrance

come an Arab, try a gentle experiment: take of Mr. John Jones or Lady Brown, nor did one of those small shabby houses in May Fair the herald himself take much account of and shut yourself up in it with forty or fifty them, but he knew his master's lions, and shrill cousins for a couple of weeks in July. their names resounded through the apart.

One is irresistibly reminded of Sydney ment. It was the dislike that Kinglake Smith's humorous complaint when, writhad to hearing his name given out before ing to a friend, he says: " Our house is a crowd that led him to go early to parties; full of cousins; I wish they were all first he was generally the first guest to arrive

cousins - once removed." at a dinner. He told the following story of himself very amusingly. He had been could be more free from any sentimental

Speaking of Somersetshire, no invited to dine with Mrs. Sartoris soon partiality for the county of his birth than after her marriage, and before he had made Kinglake. His friends and his interests the acquaintance of his friend's husband.

were elsewhere. His distaste for local When he entered the drawing room

associations in the west was increased by riving early as usual — he found only his the fact of his being unseated for the bor, host, who, by the way, had the reputation ough of Bridgwater in 1868, for alleged of being a very silent man. Mr. Sartoris

bribery on the part of his agents. It was a bowed courteously, and by a wave of the hand indicated that his guest should be he spoke of himself

afterwards as "a po.

great and an abiding mortification to him ; seated. Then the two sat on either side litical corpsé." His ambition certainly of the fireplace without speaking.

was for political rather than literary disAfter a few moments (said Kinglake) it be- tinction. Of science he had little or no




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