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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

VOL. IV.

NEW EDITION.

Philadelphia:
THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT, & co.

1838.

KF 545

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY

June 13, 1941

Anonymous Gift

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

CRANTARA

(Gaelic, crean tarigh); the crape brought from China is of a more cross of shame, because, says sir Walter substantial fabric. Scott, in his note on the passage of the CRAPELET; father and son; two printers. Lady of the Lake (canto 3), in which he The father, Charles, born at Bourmont, has made such a fine use of it, disobedi- Nov. 13, 1762, established his printingence to what the symbol implied, infer- office in 1789, and died Oct. 19, 1809. He red infamy. The Highlanders of Scot- might be ralled the French Baskerville. land appear to have borrowed it from the Like this printer, he endeavored to unite ancient Scandinavians, of the use of it the greatest simplicity with elegance, to & nong whom, for rousing the people to deliver the art of printing from the heteroampu's, Olaus Magnus gives a particular geneous ornaments with which it was so wwcount. As late as the insurrection in overloaded, particularly in France, and 1745, the crantara, or fiery cross, was cir- from which even Didot could not entirely crylated in Scotland, and, on one occasion, free bimself; but he strpassed liis model it passed through the district of Breadal- in the form of his types and the regularity bane, a tract of 32 miles, in three hours. of his work. His editions are no less corAfier Charles Edward had marched into rect than neat and beautiful. He has also England, two of the king's frigates threat- been successful in printing on parchment, ened the coast with a descent. The cran- and has shown his skill by producing an tara was sent through the district of Ap- impression in gold (13 copies of Andepine by Alexander Stuart of Invernahyle bert's Oiseaur dorés, Paris, 1862, 2 vols., (who related the circumstauce to sir Wal- folio).-A. G. Crapelet has extended his ter Scott), and, in a few hours, a sufficient father's business, and has even excelled force was collected to render the attempt him in elegance. Flis Lafontaine (1814), of the English hopeless.

Montesquieu (1816), Rousseau and VolCRAPE; a light, transparent stuff, like taire (both 1819), are monuments of his gauze, inade of raw silk, gummed and taste; and the large vellum-paper copies twisted on the inill, woven without cross- are truly splendid works. The words ing, and much used in mourning. Crapes De l'imprimerie de Crapelet” are a great are either craped (i. e., crisped) or smooth. recommendation. Renouard has had all The silk destined for the first is more the editions published at his expense twisted than that for the second, it being printed by Crapelet, who, in 1800, emthe greater or less degree of twisting, ployed 22 presses. especially of the warp, which produces

CRASSUS. Two Romans of this name the crisping given to it, when taken out of are here to be mentioned. 1. Lucius Lithe loom, steeped in clear water, and rub- cinius Crassus, who was made cousul bed with a piece of wax for the purpose. A.U.C. 658 (B. C. 96), and passed for the Crapes are all dyed raw. This stuff came greatest orator of his time. He was disoriginally from Bologna; but, till of late tinguished for talent, presence of inind years, Lyons is said to have had the chief and integrity. 2. M. Licinius Crassus, surmanufacture of it. It is now manufactur- named Dives (the rich), so called, like maed in various parts of Great Britain. The ny of his family, on account of his vast

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riches. He possessed a fortune equal to ed his hair to grow: then standing collars, $5,000,000. 'He once gave an entertain- embroidered and pinked, the plaited colinent to the whole people, in which 10,000 larettes, the neck-band, plain or laced and tables were set, and, besides this, distrib- pointed, encompassed the neck chin-deep; uted corn enough to last each family three and, when Louis XIV adopted those enormonths. In the years of Rome 683 and mous periwigs, which hardly left the throat 698, he was a colleague of Pompey, in the visible, all these splendid envelopes gave consulship, and, in 688, censor. As he way to ribands, tied in brilliant bov,s. was one of the most influential men in Next came the epoch of the dangerous Rome, and very ambitious, his friendship subjection of the neck to constriction and was sought by Cæsar, who formed, with compression, from which it had bitherto him and Pompey, the famous triumvirate. been exempt. In 1660, a foreign regiment He perished, with a great part of his army, arrived in France, composed of Croats, in in an expedition against the Parthians, whose singular costume one thing was undertaken from motives of avarice and generally admired and imitated. It was a ambition, B. C. 53.

bandage about the neck, consisting of CRATER. (See Volcano.)

common stuff for the soldiers, and of CRAVAT; an unhealthy, uncomfortable, muslin or silk for the officers. The ends unbecoming article of European and were disposed in a bow, or garnished American dress. The ancients were un- with a tuft or a tassel, and hung not unacquainted with this ridiculous and injuri- gracefully over the breast.

This new ous style of bundling up the neck. They article of dress was at first called a croate, left unconfined that important region of and afterwards, by corruption, a crarat. the body, through which so many vessels The military and the rich, at that time, pass, and in which are situated so many wore very fine cravats, with the border organs, which will endure no constraint embroidered, or edged with broad lace. with impunity. In some cases, indeed, Those of the soldiers consisted of a scrap they defended themselves from the cold by of cloth, of cotton, or, at the best, of black, a woollen, cotton or silk band, called, in plaited taffeta, bound round the neck by Latin, focale, from fauces, throat. But no two small cords. Afterwards, the place one could venture to use this contrivance of these cords was supplied by clasps or a publicly, unless he was sick; in which buckle, and then cravats took the name of case he might cover his head, and the stocks. Under Louis XVI, the stocks upper part of the shoulders, and even yielded to the cravats à la chancelière. wear breeches (q. v.), without disgrace. The last flourished but for a moment: the Palliolum, sicut fascias et focalia,” says revolution came, and with it disappeared Quinctilian, “solu excusare potest valetudo.” cravats, and even tight breeches. Soon It was allowable, indeed, to cover the afier this epoch (1796), the cravat recovneck with the toga in bad weather, or to ered its popularity, and increased to an hold the hand over it, for the preservation incredible degree of extravagance. Some or restoration of the natural temperature. persons enveloped the neck with whole The Poles never wear any thing round pieces of muslin ; others, with a padded the neck, notwithstanding the severity of cushion, on which were wrapped numertheir winters. The same custom prevails ous folds. In this way, the neck was among the Orientals, by whom a white, puffed out so as to be larger than the head, round neck is compared to the beauty of with which it was imperceptibly conan ivory tower. The bare neck gradually founded. The shirt-collar arose above became unfashionable in Europe. It was the ears, and the upper edge of the craat first surrounded, but not constrained, by vat buried up the chin and the mouth a starched band of fine linen, on the upper nose-deep; so that the visage, bristling on eilge of the shirt, falling back natural- either side with a grove of bushy whis. ly upon the bust, where it was fastened kers, and its upper regions ensconced to the by a small cord. This was the origin of eyes by the hair flattened down over the all the different species of collars since brows, absolutely showed nothing except used—the innocent parent of those thick, the nose, projecting in all its plenitude. hot folds, in which the neck was destined The exquisites thus cravatted res publed to be afterwards muffled. Ruffs, stiffened any thing rather than men, and afforded or plaited, single or in many rows,-an excellent subjects for car.catures. If they inconvenient, indeed, but not a dangerous wished to look any way except straight omament,-had their turn, and lasted as forward, they were obliged to turn the long as short hair was in fashion. They whole trunk, with which the neck and were abandoned, when Louis XIII allow- head formed but one piece. It was im

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