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displeased, did cause lightning, thunder, and tempests, with excessiue rain, haile, and all ill weather. But, being well pleased, by the adoration, sacrifice, and seruice of his suppliants, he then bestowed upon them most faire and seasonable weather, and caused corne aboundantly to growe, as also all sorts of fruites, &c. and kept away from them the plague and all other evill and infectious diseases. Of the weekly day which was dedicated unto his peculiar seruice, we yet retaine the name of Thursday, the which the Danes and Swedians doe yet call Thors-day. In the Netherlands, it is called Dunders-dagh, which, be. ing written according to our English orthography, is Thunders-duy ; whereby it might appeare that they antiently therein intended the day of the god of Thunder; and, in some of our old Saxon bookes, I find it to have beene written Thunres-deag. So as it seemeth that the name of Thor, or Thur, was abbreviated of Thunre, which we now write Thunder.'-(Verstegan, pp. 73-75.)
•Thor, the eldest and bravest of the sons of Odin and Frea, was, after his parents, the greatest god of the Saxons and Danes while they continued beathens. They believed that Thor reigned over all the aërial regions, which composed his immense palace, consisting of five hundred and forty halls ; that he launched the thunder, pointed the lightning, and directed the meteors, winds, and storms. To him they addressed their prayers for favour. able winds, refreshing rains, and fruitful seasons; and to him the fifth day of the week, which still bears his name,' was consecrated.---(Henry, vol. iii, p. 177.)
: Friday, :' ". * In her right-hand she [Frea, or Frigu] held a drawne sword, and, in her left, a bow; signifying thereby that women, as well as men, should, in time of neede, be ready to fight. Some honoured her for a god, and some for a
frilled Friga, com whence ou. 76-77.) his wife, was
goddesse, but she was ordinarily taken rather for a god. desse than a god; and was reputed the giver of peace and plenty, as also the causer and maker of love and amity; and of the day of her especiall adoration we yet retaine the pame of Friday; and as, in the order of the dayes of the weeke, Thursday competh betweene Wednesday and Friday, so (as Olaus Magnus noteth) in the septentrionall regions, where they made the idoll Thor sitting or lying in a great hall upon a covered bed, they also placed on the one side of hin, the idoll Woden, and, on the other side, the idoll Friga. Some do call her frea and not friga, and say she was the wife of Woden ; but she was called Friga, and her day our Saxon ancestors called Frige-deag, from whence our name now of Friday in deed commeth.'-(Verstegan, pp. 76-77.) ;
• Next to Odin, Frea, or Frigga, his wife, was the most revered dignity among the heathen Saxons, Danes, and other northern nations. As Odin was believed to be the father, Frea was esteemed the mother of all the other gods. In the most ancient times Frea was the same with the goddess Herthus, or Earth, who was so devoutly worshipped by the Angli and other German nations. But when Odin, the conqueror of the north, usurped the ho. nours due only to the true Odin, bis wife Frea usurped those which had been formerly paid to mother Earth. She was worshipped as the goddess of love and pleasure, who bestowed on her votaries a variety of delights.'-(Henry, vol. iii, pp. 176, 177.)
§ Saturday. • The last, to make up here the number of seven, was the idoll Seater, fondly of some supposed to be Saturnus, for he was otherwise called Crodo. First, on a pillar was placed a pearch, on the sharpe prickled backe whereof stood this idoll. He was leane of visage, having long ri
haire and a long beard, and was bare-headed and bare footed. In his hand be held up a wheele, and in his t right he carried à paile of water, wherein were flowers and fruites. His long coate was girded unto him with a towell of white linnen. His standing on the sharpe finnes of this fish, was to signifie that the Saxons, for their serving him, should passe stedfastly, and without harme, in dangerous and difficult places. By the wheele was betokened the knit unity and conjoyned concord of the Şaxons, and their concurring together in the running one course. By the girdle, which with the wind streamed from him, was signified the Saxons freedome. By the paile, with flowers and fruits, was declared, that with kindly raiue he would nourish the earth, to bring foorth such fruites and flowers. And the day into which he yet gives the name of Sater-day, did first receive, by being unto him celebrated, the same appellation!-(Verstegan, pp. 77-79.)
ASTRONOMICAL TERMS EXPLAINED.
untes the name of Kers. And the earth, to bringat with
1. A body is in conjunction with the Sun, when it has the same longitude; and in opposition, when the difference of their longitudes is 180°.
2. The elongation of a body is its angular distance from the Sun, when seen from the earth. .. .
3. If a body in the heavens be referred to the horizon by a vertical circle, by drawing a vertical circle through it, the distance of that point of the horizon from the north or south points is called its azimuth ; and the distance from the east or west points is called its amplitude. These four points are called the cardinal points.
4. The nodes are the points where the orbits of the primary planets cut the ecliptic, and where the orbits of the secondary planets cut the orbits of their primaries. That
node is called ascending, where the planet passes from the south to the north side of the ecliptic, and is njarked thns, 8; the other node is called descending, and is marked thus, U. .
5. The aphelion is that point in the orbit of a planet which is farthest from the Sun; and the perihelion is that point which is nearest to the Sun. . . . .'
6. The apogee is that point of the earth's orbit which is farthest from the Sun, or that point of the Moon's orbit which is farthest from the earth; and the perigee is that point of each orbit which is nearest to the Sun, or earth. : 7. The apsis of an orbit is either its apogee or perigee, aphelion or perihelion.
8. A star is said to rise or set cosmically, when it rises and sets at Sun-rising; and when it rises or sets at Sun. setting, it is said to rise or set achronically. . ;;
9. A star is said to rise heliacally, when, after having been so near to the Sun as not to be visible, it emerges out of the Sun's rays, and just appears in the morning; and it is said to set heliacally, when the Sun approaches so near to it, that it is about to immerge into the Sun's rays, and to become invisible in the evening. . . · 10. A digit is a twelfth part of the diameter of the Sun or Moon... · 11. A constellation is a collection of stars, contained within some assumed figure, as a ram, a dragon, a Her. cules, &c. The whole heaven is thus divided into con. stellations.
Characters used for the Sun, Moon, and Planets.
24 Jupiter 8 Mercury
✓ Saturn 9 Venus
W Georgian. the Earth
January. THIS month was so called by the Romans from Janus, one of their divinities, to whom they gave two faces; because on the one side the first day of this month looked towards the new year, and on the other towards the old one. January is thus described by PEACHAM (Gentleman's Exercise, 4to, 1661, p.421), 6 January would be clad all in white, like the colour of the earth at this time, blowing his nailes; in his left arm a billet; the sign Aquarius by his side. According to VERSTEGAN (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 4to, 1634, p. 59), the Saxons named January .wolf-monat, to wit, wolf-moneth, because people are wont alwaies in that moneth to be in more danger to be devoured of wolves, then in any season else of the yeere; for that through the extremity of cold, and snow, those ravenous creatures could not find of other beasts sufficient to feed upon.'...
Froze January, leader of the year,