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THE CALENDAR OF JULIUS CÆSAR.
UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE GODDESS DIANA.
11 Kalen. Banquet of Jupiter. Circ.games. Head
5 Non. Neptunalia. Games lasting 8 days
VI Scorpio rises with a clear light
V 10 IV 11 III Shutting up of the sea. Virgilia set
112 Prid. X 13 Id. A feast commanded. The Lectisternia
14 XVIII The trial of horses
16 XVI The end of seed-time for corn
28] IV (and to the Greeks, in the Foro boario IV 29 III III 30 Prid.
THE CALENDAR OF JULIUS CÆSAR.
UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE GODDESS VESTA.
NundinalLetters. OE¢go 8xbE4Roa
1 Kalen. (To Fortuna Fæmina
VIII The middle of Sagittarius sets
11 III Agonalia. The 14 Halcyonian days
(13) Id. The Equiria, or the race of horses XVIII 14 XIX Brumalia. Ambrosiana VII 15 XVIIT Consualia. All Cancer rises in the 16 XVII
19 XIV Opaliana
[Venus XII Angeronalia. Divalia. To Hercules and XI Compitalia. Feria to the Lares. Games
X Peria of Jupiter. Larentinalia or Quaren24 IX Juvenalia. Sports stinalia. Goat sets 125 VIII End of the Brumalia. Winter solstice. 26 VII 27! VI To Phæbus for 3 days. The Dolphin
[rises in the morning 1291 IV Aquila sets at night
30 III Canicula sets at night XI 31) Prid.)
FRENCH or REPUBLICAN CALENDAR. Soon after the government was changed in France, it was decreed, on the 2d of January, 1792, that this year should be denominated the fourth of Liberty on their coins, and in their acts. After the death of Louis XVI, in 1793, it was determined that this year should be called the first of the Republic; and this suggested the idea of a Republican Calendar. Accordingly, on the 12th of January, 1793, the Deputy Romme, President of the Committee of Public Instruction under the Convention, applied to the Academy of Sciences for a commission to deliberate on this subject; but M. de la Lande protested against the change of the Calendar. He was obliged, however, to acquiesce, and prepare a new Calendar: after the example of the Egyptians, he preferred twelve equal months, with five intercalary days, and he adapted their denominations to the climate of Paris, which Fabre d'Eglantine expressed by the following terms, viz. (1.) Vendemiaire, vintage month, commencing September 23. (2.) Brumaire, foggy month, October 23. (3.) Frimaire, sleety month, November 22. (4.) Nivose, snowy month, December 23. (5.) Pluviose, rainy month, January 21. (6.) Ventose, windy month, February 20. (7.) Germinal, budding month, March 22. (8.) Floreal, flowery month, April 21. (9.) Prairial, meadow month, May 21. (10.) Messidor, harvest month, June 20. (11.) Thermidor, hot month, July 20. (12.) Fructidor, · fruit month, August 19. These names are not entirely new, for in a Swedish Calendar of Flora, kept at Upsal by M. Berger, in the year 1755, the inonths are thus designated: (1.) Reviving winter month, commencing December 22. (2.) Thawing month, March 19. (3.) Budding month, April 12. (4.) Leafing month, May 9. (5.) Flowa ering month, May 25. (6.) Fruiting month, June 20. (7.) Ripening month, July 12. (8.) Reaping month, August 4.
(9.) Sowing month, August 28. (10.) Shedding month, September 22. (11.) Freezing month, October 28. (12.) Dead winter month, November 25.
This new Republican year is composed of 360 days. The remaining five days are called the complementary days; of which the first is the 18th of September; the second, the 19th; the third, the 20th; the fourth, the 21st; and the fifth, the 22d of September, being the last day of the French year. The first decree was issued the 5th of October, 1793, and it was followed by another on the 24th of November, or the 4th of Frimaire, in the second year of the republic, settling the commencement and organization of the year, and the names of the days and months. The decree of the National Convention comprehends four articles, viz. That the French æra should be reckoned from the foundation of the Republic, September 22, 1792, of the vulgar æra, on the day when the Sun arrived at the true autumnal equinox, in bis entrance into the sign Libra, at 9h. 18' 30'' in the morning, according to the observatory at Paris; that the vulgar year should be abolished in all civil concerns: that each year should commence at midnight with the day on which the true autumnal equinox falls according to the observatory at Paris: and that the first year of the French Republic had actually commenced at midnight of the 22d of September, 1792, and terminated at midnight between the 21st and 22d of September, 1793. The decree for adopting a rule of intercalation, in order to preserve the seasons at the same epochas of the year, comprises the following four articles: viz. That the fourth year of the Republican æra should be the first sextile; that it should receive a sixth complementary day; and that it should terminate the first Fran. ciade: that the four following secular years in succession should be excepted from the last article; namely the first, second, and third secular years, 100, 200, 300, which
should be common; and that the fourth should be sextile : and that this should be the case every four centuries until the 40th, which should close with a common year, the year 4000.
In this' new calendar, or almanack, the months consist of 30 days each, and are divided into three decades. The days of each decade are known by the name of Primidi, Duodi, Tridi, Quartidi, Quintidi, Sextidi, Septidi, Octodi, Nonodi, and Decadi. The day which begins at midnight is distributed into twelve parts, and these are decimally di. vided and subdivided. To the five supernumerary days in common years, and six in leap years, was applied the ab. surd appellation of Sans Culottides, borrowed from a term of reproach ( sans culotte) which had been originally bestowed on the republican party, on account of the meanness of their rank and fortune; but which the same party afterwards attempted to render honourable and popular. This appellation also serves to distinguish the leap years.
This new Calendar has been for some time abolished, but the record of it is curious, and worthy of preser. vation.
ALMANACK-CALENDAR-EPHEMERIS. All these words describe date-books for the current year,
According to Golius, al manach signifies the reckoning,' and is the Arabic designation given to a table of time, which the astrologers of the east present to their princes on New-year's day. Calendar is so called from the Latin calenda, a Roman name for the first day of the month. Ephemeris is a Greek word, signifying for the day. Almanack, therefore, is a divider of time by the year; calendar, by the month; and ephemeris, by the day. • Nature's almanack is the orbit of the earth; her calendar, the circuit of the moon; her ephemeris, the circumference of the globe. 'The French name their annual