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those parts. Although this offer was refused, he ac- , complished his wishes after he assumed the papal chair.
17.--SAINT PATRICK. The tutelar saint of Ireland was born in the year 371, in a village called Bonaven Taverniæ, probably Kilpatrick, in Scotland, between Dunbriton and Glasgow. He is, however, claimed as a Cambrian by Mr. Jones, in his “Welsh Bards,' who makes him a native of Caernarvonshire. When sixteen years old he was carried into captivity by certain barbarians, together with many of his father's vassals and slaves, and was taken to Ireland, where he kept cattle on the mountains and in the forests, in hunger and nakedness, amid snows, rain, and ice. After six months, our saint escaped from this slavery, only to” fall into the hands of another master. At length emancipated, he travelled into Gaul and Italy, and spent many years in preparing himself for the holy functions of a priest, studying intensely until his 55th or 60th year. Being successively ordained deacon, priest, and bishop, he received the apostolical bene, diction from Pope Celestine, and was sent by him, about the beginning of the year 432, to preach the gospel in Ireland.
In the first year of his mission he attempted to ex-' plain the Christian doctrines to the general assembly of the kings and states of all Ireland, held yearly at Tarah, or Themoria, in East-Meath, the residence of the chief king, styled the monarch of the whole island, and the principal seat of the Druids or priests, and their pagan rites. The son of Neill, the chief monarch, declared himself against the preacher: however, he converted several, and, on his road to that place, the father of St. Benen or Benignus, his immédiate successor in the see of Armagh. He afterwards converted and baptized the kings of Dublin and Munster, and the seven sons of the king of Connaught, with the greatest part of their subjects, and
before his death almost the whole island. He founded a monastery at Armagh ; another called DomnachPadraig, or Patrick's church; also, a third, named Sabhal-Padraig, and filled the country with churches and schools of piety and learning.
He died at the good old age of 120, and was buried at Down in Ulster; where his body is said to have been found in a church bearing his name, in 1185, and translated to another part of the same church, Many and wonderful are the miracles recorded of Saint Patrick. He restored sight to the blind, gaye health to the sick, and raised the dead to life. He delivered Ireland from all venomous creatures, by virtue of the staff of Jesus ; and “fasted fonty, days without earthly food,' Some other strange marvels recorded of this saint are, that he produced fire from iceg- changed water into honey, -flesh-meat into fish, raised a huge stone, -increased the stature of a man to a sufficient heighto- and performed an abundance of other exploits : of these the reader may find a curious account in Mr. Swift's Translation of Jocelin's Life of Saint Patrick, 8vo, Dublin, 1809.
The shamrock is said to be worn by the Irish, upon the anniversary of this saint, for the following reason.. When he preached the gospel to the pagan Irish, he illustrated the doctrine of the Trinity by showing them a trefoil, or three-leaved grass, with one įstalk; wbich operating to their conviction, the shamrock, which is a bundle of this grass, was ever afterwards worn upon this saint's anniversary, to commemorate the event. (Brand.)
18.-EDWARD, KING OF THE WEST ŞAXONS. He was son of Edgar, who first united the heptarchy into one kingdom ; after whose death, in the year 975, Edward succeeded to the throne at twelve years of age, but didpot enjoy it more than two or three years. Being on a visit to Elfride, his mother-in-law, at Corfe-Castle in Dorsetshire, he was, by her orders, stabbed in the back wbile drinking a cup of wine; that
her son Etheldred, his half brother, might take his place. By the monks this cruel murder has been esteemed a martyrdom, probably on account of this king's attachment to them. The festival was first appointed by Pope Innocent IV, in 1245.
20.-MIDLENT SUNDAY. The middle or fourth Sunday in Lent was formerly called the Sunday of the five Loaves, the Sunday of Bread, and the Sunday of Refreshment, in allusion to the gospel appointed for this day. It was also named Rose Sunday, from the pope's carrying a golden rose in his hand, which he exhibited to the people in the streets as he went to celebrate the Eucharist, and at his return. Mothering Sunday is another name attached to this day, from the practice, in Roman Catholic timés, of people visiting their mother-church on Midlent Sunday. Hence, perhaps, the custom row existing in some parts of England, of children visiting their parents, and presenting them with money, trinkets, or some other trifle. Farmety is commonly á rural repast on this day: it is made of whole grains of wheat first parboiled, and then put into and boiled in milk, sweetened and seasoned with spicés. ;
21.-SAINT BENEDICT. Benedict, or Bennet, was born at Norcia in Italy, about the year 480, and of an honourable family. Being sent by his parents to Rome, to complete his studies, he became disgusted with the licentiousness of the Roman youth, and retired to the mountains of Subiaco, about forty miles from the city. Bennet was now only fifteen, and lived for three years in a cave, Romanus, a monk, giving him provisions ; these were let down by a rope, with a bell affixed, to give notice to the holy recluse. The remembrance of a lady whom he had seen at Rome occurring to his mind, he was induced to leave his desert; but he soon blunted the shafts of Cupid, by rolling himself among briars and nettles, till his body was covered with blood. Bennet founded the monastery of Cassino in 529 :
it was built on the brow of a very high mountain, on the top of which there was an old temple of Apollo surrounded with a grove ; which Bennet demolished, and upon its ruins he erected two oratories. He died in 542. Gregory records an extraordinary miracle wrought on this saint's account: The Goths, when they invaded Italy, came to burn his cell, but, being set on fire, it burnt round him in a circle, not doing him the least hurt. At this the Goths, being enraged, threw him into a hot oven, stopping it up close; but coming next day, they found him safe, neither his flesh scorched, nor his clothes singed. The Benedictine order of monks, first instituted by our saint, was, in the ninth century, at its height of glory. 25. ANNUNCIATION OF THE B. V. M., or Lady Day.
This day celebrates the angel's message to the Virgin Mary, respecting our Blessed Lord. She was, probably, an only.child, and but fifteen years of age when espoused to Joseph, She died A.D. 48, being about sixty years old.
· 27.-FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. Dominica in Passione, or Passion Sunday, was the name given to this day in missals; as the church now began to advert to the sufferings of Christ. In the north, it is called Carling Sunday, and grey peas, first steeped a night in water, and fried with butter, form the usual repast..
Equation of Time. EXCEPTING the rotation of the earth upon its axis, there is, as far as we know, no other body in nature, with which we are acquainted, whose motion is perfectly uniform and regular. The apparent motion of the Sun is very unequal, and therefore equal or true time, which flows on for ever in the same manner, cannot be truly measured by the Sun's apparent motion. Equal and true time is that which is shown by a well regulated time-keeper, as a clock or watch;
and in order that the apparent time, as shown by the sun-dial, may be made to agree with this, it must be corrected by proper equations, such as we have given in each of our astronomical portions, and an account of which we shall now endeavour to explain.
The difference between mean and apparent time depends chiefly on twò causes, viz. (1.) The obliquity of the ecliptic with respect to the equator ; and, (2.) the unequal motion of the earth in its' elliptical orbit. Since the earth's axis is perpendicular to the plane of the equator, any equal portions of the equator will, by means of the earth's rotation upon its axis, pass over the meridian in equal times ; and 80, of course, would any equal portions of the ecliptic, provided it were parallel to or coincident with the equator. But as this is not the case, the daily motion of the earth upon its axis will carry unequal portions of the ecliptic over the meridian in equal times, the difference being always in proportion to the obliquity : and, as some parts of the ecliptic are much more obliquely situated with respect to the equator than others, these differences will, therefore, bè unequal among themselves. If, for instance, two bodies, the Sun and a star, were to set out together from one of the equi. noctial points, and to move through equal spaces in equal times, the Sun in the ecliptic and the star in the sequator, then the star moving in the equator would always return to the meridian exactly at the end of every 24 hours, as measured by a well regulated clock, but the Sun moving in the ecliptic would come to the meridian sometimes sooner than the star, and sometimes not so soon, according to their relative situations, and they would never be found upon that circle exactly together, but on four days in the year, viz, on or about the 20th of March and the 23d of September, when the Sun enters the equinoctial points, and on the 21st of June and the 21st of December, when that body is in the solstitial points. This is easily shown on the globe, by making
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