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place where you may wish to make observations. It consists of a funnel commumicating with a cylindrical tube at its bottom, into which the rain is conyeyed by the funnel. - The depth of the water in the cylinder is measured by a rule fixed to a float, the rule passing through the centre of the funnel. The divisions on the rule show the number of cubic inches of water that have fallen on a surface equal to the area of the top of the funnel. The funnel is so contrived as to prevent the water from evaporating. To use the rain-gauge, so much water must first be put into the cylinder as will raise the float, so that 0 on the rule may exactly coincide with the aperture of the funnel. The gauge should be firmly fixed in a place, where, whatever winds blow, the fall of the rain may not be intercepted by any obstacles. , By this instrument, the mean annual depths of rain in inches is determined.
. 4. The Hygrometer... The hygrometer is an instrument to measure the moisture and dryness of the air, and is formed of substances which will expand or contract upon any alteration of moisture. Wood expands by moisture, and contracts by dryness; on the contrary, cord, catgut, &c. contract by moistures and expand by dryness. The weather-houses are very good hygrometers for common purposes. The contraction of the string, by moisture in the atmosphere, forces the male figure out of the door at the approach of bad weather; and, as this gradually becomes dry, the string resumes its natural length, and forces the female out of the door at the approach of good weather.
• The only hygrometrical instrument I have used,' says Mr. Dalton, is a piece of whip-cord, about six yards long, fastened to a nail at one end, and thrown over a small pulley ; in this manner it has been kept stretched, by a weight of two or three ounces, since September 1787. It is in a room without a fire, and
where the air has a moderate circulation : the scale is divided into tenths of an inch, and begins at no determined point; the greater the number of the scale, the longer is the string and the drier the air. This string has varied in length above 13 inches, or it of its whole length.',
s v. Miscellaneous Prognostics.
1. Lord Bacon's Prognostics from the Seasons.
1. If the wainscot or walls that used to give out moisture be drier than usual, in the beginning of winter, or the eaves of houses drop more slowly than ordinary, it portends a hard and frosty winter; for it shows an inclination in the air to dry weather, which, in winter, is always joined with frost. .
2. Generally, a moist and cool summer portends a hard winter.
3. A hot and dry summer and autumn, especially if the heat and drought extend far into September, portend an open beginning of winter, and cold to succeed towards the latter part of the winter and beginning of spring. ? 4. Ă warm and open winter portends a hot and dry summer, for the vapours disperse into the winter showers; whereas cold and frost keep them in, and convey them to the late spring and following summer.
5. Birds that change countries at certain seasons, if they come early, show the temper of the weather, according to the country whence they came : as, in the winter, woodcocks, field-fares, snipes, &c. if they come early, show a cold winter; and the cuckoos, if they come early, show a hot summer to follow. · 6. A serene autumn denotes a windy winter; a windy winter, a rainy spring; a rainy spring, a serene summer; a serene suinmer, a windy autumn : so that the air, on a balance, is seldom debtor to itself; nor do the seasons succeed each other in the same tenor for two years together. Upon this Mr. Worlidge remarks, in addition to the above, that if at the begins ning of the winter the south-wind blow, and then the north, it is likely to be a cold winter; but if the north-wind first blow, and then the south, it will be a warm and mild winter. If the oak bear much mast, it foreshows a long and hard winter. The same has been observed of hips and haws. If broom be full of flowers, it usually signifieth plenty.
Mark well the flow'ring almonds in the wood';
VIRGIL. This observation, says Mr. Worlidge, hath proved for the most part true for several years now past, as in 1673 and 1674 there were but few nuts, and cold and wet harvests: in 1675 and 1676, were plenty of nuts, and heavy and dry harvests; but more especie ally in 1676 there was a great show of nuts, and a very hot and dry harvest succeeded.
2. Dr. Herschel's Prognostics from the Moon. .
The following table, ascribed to this illustrious astronomer, is taken from the European Magazine, yol. lx, p. 24. It is constructed upon a philosophical consideration of the attraction of the sun and moon in their several positions respecting the earth, and, confirmed by the experience of many years actual observation, will, without troubles, suggest to the observer what kind of weather will most probably follow the moon's entrance into any of her quarters; and that so near the truth, that in very few instances will it be found to fail.
NEW, UR, FULL MOON.
Changeable ,..,.. Fair and mild. 4... 6....., Fair.
ts Fair and frosty, 6,.. 8 ......
s Fair;if WindN.W:21 if N.or N.F. " Rainy,if S.orS.W. 1 Rainy, if S. or
sw. 8,.. 10 ..... Ditto, .,.,, Ditto, 10 ,, Midnight . Fair .......... Fair and frosty.,
Ir Hard frost, unMidnight.. 2 ...... Ditto .. B less wind Stor
SW. 2 .. 4...... $ Cold,withfrequent Snow and
stormy. 4.. 6 ...... Rain
Rain .......Ditto ,
Çold, with 10 .. Noon... | Frequent showers..
12 high wind.
Hence the nearer the time of the moon's entrance, at full and change or quarters, is to midnight (that is, within two hours before and after midnight), the more fair the weather is in summer, but the nearer to noon the less fair.
The moon's entrance, at full, change, and quarters, during six of the afternoon hours, viz. from four to ten, may be followed by fair weather ; but this is mostly dependent on the wind. The same entrance during all the hours after midnight, except the two first, is unfavourable to fair weather: 'the like, nearly, may be observed in winter.
3. Select Proverbs relative to the Weather. It is an observation of Lord Bacon's, that 'proverbs are the philosophy of the common people,' or, in other words, they are 'trite remarks, generally founded in truth, and admirably adapted for recollection. Our forefathers had an abundance of odd sayings on the subject of the weather, and some proverbs for every month in the year. These, with some others, we copy from Mr. Ray's Collection, and offer them to our readers, not as infallible guides, but as useful helps for judging of the various changes in the weather. A careful comparison of these sayings with the various phenomena which they promise to foretel, is the only method of proving their truth or falsehood. 1. Janiveer freeze the pot by the fire.
If the grass grow in Janiveer,
It grows the worse for't all the year. 2. Who in Janiveer sows oats, gets gold and groats;
Who sows in May, gets little that way. If Janiveer calends be summerly gay, 'Twill be winterly weather till the calends of May. 3. On Candlemas-day thruw candle and candlestick away. When Candlemas-day is come and gone,
The snow lies on a hot stone, 4. February fill dike, be it black or be it white;
But if it be white, it's the better to like. 5. Februeer doth cut and shear. 6. The hind had as lief see his wife on the bier,
As that Candlemas-day should be pleasant and clear. 7. February makes a bridge, and March breaks it. 8. March in Janiveer, Janiveer in March I fear. 9. March hack ham, comes in like a lion, goes out like a lamb. 10. A bushel of March dust is worth a king's ransom. 11. March grass never did good., 1%. A windy March, and a rainy April, make a beautiful May. .. A March wisher is never a good fisher. 13. March wind and May sun, make clothes white and maids dun. 14. So many frosts in March, so many in May. 15. March many weathers. ' 16. March birds are best.