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SEXTILIS was the antient Roman name of this month, being the sixth from March. The Emperor Augustus changed this name, and gave it his own, because in this month Cæsar Augustus took possession of his first consulship, celebrated three triumphs, reduced Egypt under the power of the Roman people, and put an end to all civil wars. 6 August shall bear the form of a young man of a fierce and coleric aspect, in a flame coloured garment; upon his head a garland of wheat and rie; upon his arm a basket of all manner of ripe fruits, as peares, plums, apples, gooseberries : at his belt (as our Spencer describeth him) a sickle, bearing the sign Virgo. (Peacham, 419, 20.) August they called arn-nonat (more rightly barn-monat), intending thereby the then filling of their barnes with corne.' (Verstegan, p. 61.)
1.–LAMMAS DAY. This day, in the Romish church, is generally called St. Peter in the Fetters, in commemoration of this apostle's imprisonment. Some imagine that it was named Lammas Day, from St. Peter's being patron of the lambs, as our Saviour gave him this particular charge, Feed my Lambs. It is most probably derived from an old Saxon term, signifying LoafMass; as it was customary for the Saxons to offer an oblation of loaves, made of new wheat, on this day, as the first-fruits of their new corn.
6.-TRANSFIGURATION. . Though this day was observed in remembrance of our Lord's Transfiguration on the Mount, by the primitive Christians, yet it is but of recent date in the church of Rome, as it was not instituted by Pope Calixtus until the year 1455.
7.-NAME OF JESUS, Before the Reformation, this day was dedicated to Afra, a woman who had been converted to Christianity by Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem, and who afterwards suffered martyrdom; and the Breviary was recognized by Paul V. Afterwards Donatus, who became martyr in the time of Julian for refusing to sacrifice, was substituted in her place. Our reformers devoted it to the NAME OF OUR BLESSED LORD.
10.SAINT LAWRENCE, St. Lawrence was, by birth, a Spaniard, and treasurer of the church of Rome, being deacon to Pope Sextus, about the year 259. Soon afterwards, his bishop was killed by the soldiers of Valerian the emperor, with whom our saint would willingly have died. Lawrence refusing to deliver up the church
this sain but a shaded by Prof the
treasure, which they imagined to be in his custody, he was laid upon a gridiron, and broiled over a fire: this torture he bore with such incredible pa. tience and cheerfulness, that he told his tormentors to turn him round, as he was done enough on one side. His martyrdom was so highly esteemed, that Pulcheria, the empress, erected a temple to his honour, which was afterwards eïther rebuilt or greatly en-larged by Justinian. In this temple, the gridiron on which he died was deposited with great pomp and solemnity; and, if we may believe St. Gregory, it became famous for abundance of miracles. The celebrated palace of the Escurial is dedicated to this saint. This summer residence of the Spanish court is but a short distance from Madrid. It is a monastery founded by Philip II, in consequence of a vow made on the day of the battle of St. Quentin, which also happened on the festival of St. Lawrence. In Spain it is called by the name of this saint (San Lorenzo), and every thing in the Escurial reminds us of the instrument of his martyrdom.' It is not only seen upon the doors, windows, altars, rituals, and sacerdotal habits, but the edifice itself bears its form. It is a quadrangular building, with the principal front to the west, behind which is a mountain; the opposite side which faces Madrid takes the form of the shortened handle of a gridiron reversed ; and the four feet are represented by the spires of four little square towers which rise above the four angles. i svod ",'t! "
! • There is nothing magnificent in the architecture of this building; on the contrary, it has rather the serious simplicity suitable to a convent, than the splendid elegance which should announce the resi. dence of a monarch. The front to the west alone has a fine portal formed by large columns of the Doric order, half sunk in the wall, and on each side two great doors of noble dimensions. By this porta, we pass to an elegant square court, at the bottom of
which is the church. This principal entrance is never open for the kings of Spain and the princes of the blood, except on two solemn occasions ;—when they come for the first time to the Escurial, and when their remains are deposited there in the vault which awaits them; a striking emblem of the gates of life and eternity. ...The front to the south is entirely destitute of ornament; but in its four stories, including the basement, rendered necessary by the inequality of the ground, there are nearly three hundred windows. The two great doors of entrance are on the opposite front. The whole edifice is built of hewn stone of a species of granite, which, by its colour, become brown with time, adds to the austerity of the building. The quarry where it was dug is in the neighbourhood of the Escurial, and it is said that this was one motive for the choice of its site. It furnished blocks of sueh considerable dimensions, that three stones were sufficient to form the chambranle, or case of the greatest door-ways, and each step of the principal staircase is composed but of one.'-(Bourgoanne.)
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12.-PRINCE OF WALES BORN. ; il - George, Prince of Wales, was born on the 12th of August, 1762 ; and married on the 8th of April, 1795, to the Princess Caroline of Brunswick, who was born on the 17th of May, 1768. : He has one daughter, Charlotte. Augusta, born Jan. 7, 1796. His Royal Highness was appointed REGENT on the 6th of February, 1811. '
:. 15.ASSUMPTION. - This is a festival in the Greek and Romish churches in honour of the supposed miraculous ascension of the Virgin Mary into heaven. . .i "in. 24.–SAINT BARTHOLOMEW. . ;.::
The word Bartholomew means the son of Tolmai, or Tolomæus, the name of a family among the Jews, mentioned by Josephus. He preached the Gospel in
Armenia, converted the Lycaonians, and afterwards' visited India. Some authors assert that he was crucified, like St. Peter, with his head downwards; others, however, with more probability, say that he was flayed alive, by order of Astyages, king of Armenia.
In the year 1662, on this day, two thousand ministers were ejected from their livings, because they would not comply with the Act of Uniformity. The anniversary of Bartholomew is also memorable for the cruel massacre of the Protestants in France, begun on this day in the reign of Charles IX. Some calculate the number of miserable 'sufferers at seventy, others at a hundred thousand! In the Memoirs of the Duke of Sully (vol. i, p. 33, 34. ed. 1778) there is an interesting narrative of his own escape from thishorrid carnage.
"I was in bed (says the Duke), and awaked from sleep, three hours after midnight, by the sound of all the bells, and the confused cries of the populace. My governor St. Julian, with my valet de chambre, went hastily out to know the cause; and I never afterwards heard more of these men, who, without doubt, were among the first that were sacrificed to the public fury. I continued alone in my chamber, dressing myself, when, in a few moments, I saw my landlord enter, pale, and in the utmost consternation : he was of the reformed religion, and, having learned what the matter was, had consented to go to mass, to save his life, and preserve his house from being pillaged. He came to persuade me to do the same, and to take me with him. I did not think proper to follow him, but resolved to try if I could gain the college of Burgundy, where I had studied; though the great distance between the house where I then was and the college made the attempt very dangerous. Having disguised myself in a scholar's gown, I put a large prayer-book under my arm, and went into the street. I was seized with horror inexpressible, at the sight of