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their distances are greater, and in such a manner, that the squares of the periodic times are in proportion to the cubes of their mean distances. According to this remarkable law, which will perpetuate the name of Kepler, who first discovered it, the length of a revolution of the earth, supposing it in motion round the Sun, should be exactly what it is, viz. a sidereal year. Is not this an incontestible proof that the earth moves like the other planets, and is subject to the same laws ? Besides, would it not be strange to suppose the terrestrial globe, which hardly subtends a visible angle at the Sun, to be immoveable amidst the other planets which are revolving round it, and that the Sun should be carried with them about the earth?
Once more, the force, which serves to retain the planets in their respective orbits round the Sun, balances the centrifugal force, by which they have a tendency to fly off. Ought it not likewise to act upon the carth? and must not the earth oppose to this action the same centrifugal force? Thus the consideration of the celestial motions, as observed from the Sun, leaves no doubt of the real motion of the earth. We shall conclude this subject with the beautiful reasoning of the immortal Milton:
When I behold this goodly frame, this world
The Naturalist's Diary.
Copious dispenser of delight, bright JUNE,
AMID the variety of objects with which the face of the earth is clothed, there are many which seem to exist solely for the gratification of the senses of man, and to administer delight', but which are, in reality, designed to accomplish other and more important purposes. The innumerable beautiful herbs and flowers which, at this season of the year, meet our eye in every direction, appear designed only to ornament our earth, or to gratify our sense of smelling ; but, upon a more intimate acquaintance with their peculiar properties and operations, we find, that, while they contribute to embellish our gardens, they also promote the purification and renovation of the atmosphere, which becomes contaminated from various causes. The sceptic might doubtless reply, that all this might have been accomplished by the simple transpiration of vegetables and flowers, without that variety of odours with which they abound; these may contribute to our pleasure, but where is their utility? To this a satisfactory answer can be given : these various odours are designed to point out to the brute creation those herbs or flowers to which they are peculiarly attached, to lead them to those which contribute to their nourishment, and, at the same time, to shun those which are in their nature poisono'us. In this instance, then, irrational animals may
1 For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r,
become the instructors of man, and the sceptic might be sent to the brutes to learn wisdom, as well as the sluggard to the ant to be taught a lesson of industry. Brutes, in general, possess the most exquite sense of smelling, and are led by it, principally, in their choice of food; had there not, then, been some method devised, by their beneficent Creator, to enable them to distinguish those different species of plants, which so nearly resemble each other, that they cannot be distinguished by the sight, they would have been in continual danger of perishing, by seeking their repast among those which, to their particular species, would prove inevitably fatal.
Warm weather is, generally, established in June, yet the heat is rarely excessive:-showers of rain are very acceptable at the commencement of the month, as they tend to promote the growth of the young herbage.
The fields of clover (trifolium pratense), which are now in blossom, produce a delightful fragrance. Of this plant there are two varieties, the white and the purple; from the latter, the bees extract much honey. The bean blossoms also shed a still more exquisite odour.
Among the insect tribe, one of the most interesting is, in its perfect state, the angler's may-fly (ephemera vulgata), which appears about the 4th, and continues nearly a fortnight. It emerges from the water, where it passes its aurelia state, about six in the evening, and dies about eleven at night. Innumerable species of insects are called into life by the heat in this month. Among the most remarkable may be named the grasshopper (gryllus), the golden-green beetle (scarabeus auratus), various kinds of flies; the cuckoo-spit insect (cicada spumaria), and the stagbeetle (lucanus cervus).
The several species of the gad-fly (oestrus bovisequi—and ovis), the ox, horse, and sheep gad-fty, make their appearance in this month. The female of this genus is remarkable for the manner in which she deposits her eggs : having fastened on the back of a heifer or cow, by means of a tube she pierces its skin in several places, inserting an egg at each puncture. This operation is not performed without severe pain to the animal on which it is practised, and it is for this reason that cattle are observed to be seized with such violent horror when apprehensive of the approaches of the female estrus; flying with uncontrollable rapidity, and endeavouring to escape their tormentor by taking refuge on the nearest pond; it being observed that this insect rarely attacks cattle when standing in the water. The practice of docking horses, or depriving them of their tails, is, in many cases, both cruel and unnecessary, and takes away the only weapon with which they can combat the approaches of their insidious enemy.
About the beginning of the month, the pimpernel (anagallis arvensis), thyme (thymus serpyllum), the bitter sweet nightshade (solanum dulcamara), white bryony, the dog rose (rosa canina), and the poppy (papaver somniferum), have their flowers full blown; and the fern owl may be seen, in the evening, among the branches of oaks, in pursuit of its favourite repast, the fern-chaffer (scarabeus solstitialis). ..
Towards the middle of the month, wheat is in ear, and the flowers of the valerian (valeriana officinalis) begin to open. Mullein, viper's bugloss (echium vulgare), borage, dog-wood, vervain, the vine (vitis vinifera), water hemlock (phellandrium aquaticum), and that singular plant the bee orchis', have their flowers full blown.
· This flower has a spot in its breast resembling a bee, sipping. its honey.
See on that floweret's velvet breast
The summer solstice happens on the 21st of June, which is the longest day. In the most northern parts of the island, there is scarcely any night at this time, so that a person may read with ease at twelve o'clock at night; the twilight continuing almost from sunrise to sun-set:
The light with kind delay prolongs his reign:
Lend only milder beauties. The following plants are generally seen in flower about the end of June; goats-beard (tragopogon pratense), deadly nightshade (atropa belladonna), meadow-sweet (spiræa ulmaria), the day-lily (hemerocallis flava), the jasmine (jasminum officinale), and the holy-oak (alcea rosea).
The several kinds of corn come into ear and flower during this month, as well as most of the numerous species of grasses; gooseberries, currants, and straw- berries, also begin to ripen. The hay harvest commences about the end of the month, in the southern and midland parts of the kingdom. About this time, also, birds cease their notes :-[ heard no birds after the end of June (says Mr. Stillingfleet), except the stone curlew (charadrius ædicnemus) whistling late at night; the yellow hammer, goldfinch, and goldencrested wren, now and then chirping. The cuckoo's note also ceases. The rural employment of sheep-shearing commences sometimes early in June, but at others not till the middle of the month; the time being regulated by the warmth and settled state of the weather. In many parts of the country, the depriving sheep of their wool is conducted with much ceremony and rural dignity. There is a beautiful description of . this festivity in ‘Dyer's Fleece,' at the end of the first
Perhaps his fragrant load may bind