thoucht he happin to be ane king, his empire sall end incontinent thqirefter was drownit in ane fresche rever. unhappelie, and nane of his blude sall eftir him suc- Now I belief nane hes sic eloquence, nor fouth ceid; be contrar, thow sall nevir be king, bot of the of langage, that can sufficientlie declare, how far we, sal cum mony kingis, quhilkis, with lang progressioun, in thir present dayis, ar different fra the virtew and sall rejose the croun of Scotland. Als sone as thir temperance of our eldaris. For quhare our eldaris wourdis wer said, thay suddanlie eranist out of sicht. had sobriete, we have ebriete and dronkines ; quhare This prophecy and divinatioun wes haldin mony dayis thay had plente with sufficence, we have immoderat in derision to Banquho and Makbeth. For sum time, cursis (courses] with superfluite ; as he war maist Banquho wald call Makbeth, King of Scottis, for de noble and honest, that culd devore and swelly maist; risioun ; and he, on the samin maner, wald call Ban- and, be extreme diligence, sercbis sa mony deligat quho the fader of mony kingis. Yit, becaus al thingis coursis, that thay provoke the stomok to ressave mair succedit as thir wemen devinit, the pepill traistit and than it may sufficientlie degest. And nocht allenarliel jugit thaim to be weird sisteris. Not lang eftir, it may surfet dennar and sowper suffice us, above the hapnit that the Thane of Cawder wes disherist and temperance of oure cldaris, bot als to continew our forfaltit of his landis, for certane crimes of lese ma- schamefull aud immoderit voracite with duble denjeste ; and his landis wer gevin be King Duncane to naris and sowparis. Na fishe in the se, nor foul Makbeth. It hapnit in the next nicht, that Banquho in the aire, nor best in the wod, may have rest, and Makbeth wer sportand togiddir at thair supper. but socht heir and thair, to satisfy the hungry apThan said Banquho, Thow hes gottin all that the petit of glutonis. Nocht allenarly ar winis socht first two weird sisteris hecht. Restis nocht bot the in France, bot in Spainye, Italy, and Grece; and, croun, quhilk wes hecht be the thrid sister.' Makbeth, sumtime, baith Aphrik and Asia socht, for new derevolving all thingis as thay wer said be thir weird licius metis and winis, to the samin effect. Thus sisteris, began to covat the croun ; and yit he con is the warld sa utterly socht, that all maner of drogcludit to abide quhil he saw the time ganand thairto, gis and electuaris, that may nuris the lust and insofermelie beleving that the thrid weird suld cum, as lence of pepill, ar brocht in Scotland, with maist the first two did afore.

sumptuus price, to na les dammage than perdition In the mene time, King Duncane maid his son Mal of the pepill thereof : for, throw the immoderat glutcolme Prince of Cumbir, to signify that he sula ony, our wit and reason ar sa blindit within the preregne eftir him. Quhilk wes gret displeseir to Mak- soun of the body, that it may have no knawledge of beth ; for it maid plane derogatioun to the thrid weird, hevinly thingis; for the body is involvit with sic promittit afore to him be thir weird sisteris. Noch- clowdis of fatnes, that, howbeit it be of gud comtheles, he thocht, gif Duncane wer slane, he had maist plexioun be nature, it is sa opprest with superfleu richt to the croun, becaus he wes nerest of blud thair- metis and drinkis, that it may nothir weild, nor yit to, be tennour of the auld lawis maid eftir the deith ouirthe self; bot, confessand the self vincust, gevis of King Fergus, 'Quhen young children wer unabil place to all infirmiteis, quhill it be miserably deto govern the croun, the nerrest of thair blude sall stroyit. regne.' Als, the respons of thir weird sisteris put him in beleif, that the thrid weird suld cum als weill as the first two. Attour, his wife, impacient of lang

[Extract from the Complaynt of Scotland.] tary, as all wemen ar, specially quhare thay ar de- There eftir I heard the rumour of rammasche] sirus of ony purpos, gaif him gret artation to per- foulis and of beystis that made grite beir, quhilk sew the thrid weird, that scho micht be ane quene ; past beside burnis and boggis on green bankis to seek calland him, oft timis, febil cowart, and nocht desirus their sustentation. Their brutal sound did redond to of honouris; sen he durst not assailye the thing with the high skyis, quhil the deep hou; cauernis of cleuchise manheid and curage, quhilk is offerit to him be beni. and rotche craggis ansuert vitht ane high note of that volence of fortoun ; howbeit sindry otherishes assailyeit samyn sound as thay beystis hed blauen. It aperit síc thingis afore, with maist terribil jeopardyis, quhen be presumyng and presuposing, that blaberand eccho thay had not sic sickernes to succeid in the end of had been hid in ane hou hole, cryand hyr half ansueir, thair laubouris as he had.

quhen Narcissus rycht sorry socht for his saruandis, Makbeth, be persuasion of his wife, gaderit his quhen he was in ane forrest, far fra ony folkis, and freindis to ane counsall at Innernes, quhare King there efter for love of eccho he drounit in ane drau Duncane happinit to be for the time. And because vel. Nou to tel treutht of the beystis that maid sic he fand sufficient oportunite, be support of Banquho beir, and of the dyn that the foulis did, ther syndry and otheris his freindis, he slew King Duncane, the soundis hed nothir temperance nor tune. For fyrst vii yeir of his regne. His body was buryit in Elgin, furtht on the fresche fieldis the nolt maid noyis vitht and eftir tane up and brocht to Colmekill, quhare it

mony loud lou. Baytht horse and meyris did fast remanis yit, amang the sepulturis of uthir kingis ; fra nee, and the folis neckyr. The bullis began to bullir, our redemption, mxlvi yeris.

quhen the scheip began to blait, because the calfis

began till mo, quhen the doggis berkit. Than the The New Maneris and the Auld, of Scottis.

suyne began to quhryne quhen thai herd the asse rair,

quhilk gart7 the hennis kekkyl quhen the cokis creu. Our eldaris howbeit thay war richt virtewis baith The chekyns began to peu when the gled quhissillit. in weir and peace, war maist exercit with temperance; The fox follouit the fed geise and gart them cry claik. for it is the fontane of all virtew. Thay disjunit! airly The gayslingis cryit quhilk quhilk, and the dukis in the morning with smal refectioun, and sustenit thair cryit quaik. The ropeen of the rauynis gart the cras liffis thairwith quhil? the time of sowper; throw quhilk crope. The huddit crauis cryit varrok varrok, quhen thair stomok was nevir surfetly chargit, to empesche the suannis murnit, because the gray goul mau prothaim of uthir besines. At the sowpar thay war mair nosticat ane storme. The turtil began for to greit, large; howbeit thay had bot ane cours. Thay eit, for quhen the cuschet zoulit. The titlene followit the common, flesche half raw; for the saup is maist nuri.goilk,8 and gart hyr sing guk guk. The dou 9 croutit sand in that maner. All dronkatis, glutonis, and con- hyr sad sang that soundit lyik sorrou. Robeen and sumers of vittalis, mair nor was necessar to the sustentation of men, war tane, and first commandit to

i Not only.

9 Oversee, rule. swelly thair fowth3 of quhat drink thay plesit, and

3 Singing, (Fr. ramage).

Cloughs, deep valleys 1 Breakfasted. 8 Full quantity, or fill. or ravines in the hills. 7 Forced, caused. 8 Cuckoo. Dova

4 A shrill noise.

5 Hollow.

& Until

the litil oran var hamely in vyntir. The jargolyne of The first part of the Scriptures printed in an English the suallou gart the jay angil, than the meveis: maid form was the New Testament, of which a translation myrtht, for to mok the merle. The laverok maid was published in 1525 by WILLIAM TYNDALE, born in melody up hie in the skyis. The nychtingal al the nycht sang sueit notis. The tuechitis3 cryit theuis nek, quhen the piettis clattrit. The garruling of the stirlene gart the sparrou cheip. The lyntquhit sang counterpoint quhen the oszil zelpit. The grene serene sang sueit, quhen the gold spynk chantit. The rede schank' cryit my fut my fut, and the oxeey cryit tueit. The herrons gaif ane vyild skrech as the kyl hed bene in fyir, quhilk gart the quhapis for flevitnes fle far fra hame.

BALE. BALE, BISHOP OF Ossory in Ireland (1495–1563), must be esteemed as one of the most notable prose writers of this era. He was the author of many severe and intemperate tracts against Popery, both in Latin and English ; but his most celebrated production is a Latin Account of the Lives of EmiRent Writers of Great Britain, extending, as the title expresses it, from Japhet, one of the sons of Noah, to the year 1557. Bale left also many curious metrical productions in the English language, including several dramatic pieces on sacred subjects, which, to a modern taste, appear utterly burlesque. Among these are plays on John the Baptist's preaching ; on the childhood, temptation, passion, and resurrection of Christ; on the Lord's Supper, and

William Tyndale. Washing the disciples' feet, &c. All these pieces were doubtless performed in a grave and devout Gloucestershire, about the year 1477, a clergyman of spirit; for Bale himself mentions that the first of great piety, learning, and gentleness of disposition. them (which may be seen in the Harleian Miscel- | In the course of his labours he endured such persecu. lany), and his tragedy of God's Promises, were acted tion, that, in 1523, he found it necessary to quit Engby young men at the market-cross of Kilkenny upon land, and retire into Germany. He there visited Lua Sunday. In 1544, he published A Brefe Chronycle ther, who encouraged him in his laborious and hazar. concerninge the Examinacyon and Death of the Blessed dous undertaking. Wittemburg was the place where Martyr of Christ, Sir Johan Oldecastell the Lorde Cob-Tyndale's translation of the New Testament was first ham, from which we extract the account of Cob- printed. It was speedily circulated, and eagerly peham's death. He suffered in 1417, for supporting the rused in England, notwithstanding the severe persedoctrines of Wickliffe, and was the first martyr cution to which its possessors were exposed. Sir among the English nobility.

Thomas More distinguished himself as a most viru

lent opponent of Tyndale, against whom he published [Death of Lord Cobham.]

seven volumes of controversy, where such violent language as the following is employed :

-Our Saviour Upon the day appointed, he was brought out of will say to Tyndale, Thou art accursed, Tyndale, the the Tower with his arms bound behind him, hav- son of the devil; for neither flesh nor blood hath ing a very cheerful countenance. Then was he laid taught thee these heresies, but thine own father, the upon an hurdle, as though he had been a most devil, that is in hell.'—* There should have been heinous traitor to the crown, and go drawn forth more burned by a great many than there have been into Saint Giles' Field, where as they had set up a within this seven year last past. The lack whereof, I new pair of gallows. As he was coming to the fear me, will make more [be] burned within this seven place of execution, and was taken from the hurdle, he year next coming, than else should have needed to fell down devoutly upon his knces, desiring Al- have been burned in seven score. Ah, blasphemous mighty God to forgive his enemies. Than stood he beast, to whose roaring and lowing no good Christian up and beheld the multitude, exhorting them in most man can without heaviness of heart give ear!' Tyngodly manner to follow the laws of God written in dale translated also the first five books of the old the scriptures, and in any wise to beware of such Testament, the publication of which was completed in teachers as they see contrary to Christ in their con- 1530. Efforts were made by King Henry, Wolsey, versation and living, with many other special counsels. and More, to allure him back to England, where Then he was hanged up there by the middle in chains they hoped to destroy him ; but he was too cautious of iron, and so consumed alive in the fire, praising the to trust himself there. His friend, John Frith, who name of God, so long as his life lasted. In the end had assisted him in translating, was more credulous he commended his soul into the hand of God, and so of their promises of safety, and returning to London, departed hence most Christenly, his body resolved into was apprehended and burnt. Tyndale remained at ashes.

Antwerp, till entrapped by an agent of Henry, who

procured at Brussels a warrant to apprehend him WILLIAM TYNDALE.

for heresy. After some further proceedings, he was The Reformation caused the publication of several Antwerp, in September 1536, exclaiming at the

strangled and burnt for that crime at Vilvoord, near versions of the Bible, which were perhaps the most stake, Lord, open the king of England's eyes ! in portant literary efforts of the reign of Henry VIII.

Tyndale's translation of the New Testament is, 1 Jangle.

on the whole, admirable both for style and accuracy Fieldfare. .5 Small hedge sparrow. and indeed our present authorised version has throughout, very closely followed it. To use the These translations were speedily followed by words of a profound modern scholar, 'It is astonish- others, so that the desire of the people for scriptural ing how litile obsolete the language of it is, even at knowledge was amply gratified. The dissemination this day; and, in point of perspicuity and noble of so many copies of the sacred volume, where neither simplicity, propriety of idiom, and purity of style, the Bible nor any considerable number of other books no English version has yet surpassed it.'* Ahad formerly been in use, produced very remarkable beautiful edition of it has lately been published.t effects. The versions first used, having been formed The following are Tyndale's translations of the Mag- in some measure from the Latin translation, called nificat and Lord's Prayer, in the spelling of the ori- the Vulgate, contained many words from that langinal edition :


3 Lapwing.

2 Thrush.

guage, which had hardly before been considered as

English ; such as perdition, consolation, reconciliaAnd Mary sayde, My soule magnifieth the Lorde, tion, sanctification, immortality, frustrate, inexcusand my sprete reioyseth in God my Savioure. able, transfigure, and many others requisite for the

For he hath loked on the povre degre off his honde expression of compound and abstract ideas, which mayden. Beholde nowe from hens forthe shall all had never occurred to our Saxon ancestors, and generacions call me blessed.

therefore were not represented by any terms in that For he that is myghty hath done to me greate language. These words, in the course of time, bethinges, and blessed ys his name:

came part of ordinary discourse, and thus the lanAnd hys mercy is always on them that feare him guage was enriched. In the Book of Common Prayer, thorow oute all generacions.

compiled in the subsequent reign of Edward VI., He hath shewed strengthe with his arme; he hath and which affords many beautiful specimens of the scattered them that are proude in the ymaginacion of English of that time, the efforts of the learned to their hertes.

make such words familiar, are perceptible in many He hath putt doune the myghty from their seates, places ; where a Latin term is often given with a and hath exalted them of lowe degre.

Saxon word of the same or nearly the same meanHe hath filled the hongry with goode thinges, and ing following it, as 'humble and lowly,' 'assemble hath sent away the ryche empty.

and meet together.' Another effect proceeded from He hath remembred mercy, and hath holpen his the freedom with which the people were allowed to servaunt Israhel.

judge of the doctrines, and canvass the texts, of the Even as he promised to oure fathers, Abraham and sacred writings. The keen interest with which they to his seed for ever.

now perused the Bible, hitherto a closed book to the

most of them, is allowed to have given the first imOure Father which arte in heven, halowed be thy pulse to the practice of reading in both parts of the name. Let thy kingdom come. Thy wyll be ful-island, and to have been one of the causes of the filled, as well in erth, as hit ys in heven. Geve vs flourishing literary era which followed. this daye oure dayly breade. And forgeve vs oure treaspases, even as we forgeve them which treaspas vs. Leede vs not into temptacion, but delyvre vs

SIR JOHN CHEKE. from yvell. Amen.

Among the great men of this age, a high place is due to Sir John CHEKE, (1514-1557), professor of

Greek at Cambridge, and one of the preceptors of In translating the Pentateuch, Tyndale was assisted by MILES COVERDALE, who, in 1535, published the first English translation of the whole Scriptures, with this title : Biblia, the Bible ; That is, the Holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament, faithfully and newly translated out of the Doutche and Latyn into English. Coverdale was made bishop of Exeter in 1551, but retired to the Continent during the reign of Mary. When Elizabeth ascended the throne, he returned to England, and remained there till his death. His translation of the Bible has lately been reprinted in London. The extent of its variation from that of Tyndale will appear by contrasting the following verse, as rendered by each translator:



[Tyndale's Version.] When the Lorde sawe that Lea was despised, he made her frutefull, but Rahel was baren. And Lea conceaved and bare a sonne and called his name Ruben, for she sayde : the Lorde hath lokeed upon my tribulation. And now my husbonde will love me.

[Coverdale's Version.] But when the Lorde sawe that Lea was nothinge regarded, he made her fruteful and Rachel barren. And Lea conceaved and bare a sonne whom she called

Sir John Cheke. Ruben, and sayde : the Lorde hath loked upon mine the prince, afterwards Edward VI. He is chiefly adversitie. Now wyll my husbande love me.—Gen. distinguished for his exertions in introducing the xxix. 32.

study of the Greek language and literature into * Dr Geddes's Prospectus to a New Translation of the Scrip- England. Having dictated to his pupils an improved tures, p. 89.

mode of pronouncing Greek words, he was violently | Edited by Mr George Offor. London : 1836.

assailed on that account by Bishop Gardiner, then

chancellor of the university ; but, notwithstanding lished, in 1553, a System of Rhetoric and of Logic, in the fulminations of this severe prelate, the system which the principles of eloquence and composition of Cheke prevailed, and still prevails. At his death, are laid down with considerable ability. He strongly which was supposed to be occasioned by remorse for advocates, in this treatise, simplicity of language, recanting Protestantism under the terror of the and condemns those writers who disturb the natural Marian persecution, he left several works in manu- arrangement of their words, and reject familiar and script, amongst which was a translation of Matthew's appropriate phrases for the sake of others more Gospel, intended to exemplify a plan which he had refined and curious. So great and dangerous an conceived of reforming the English language by innovation were his doctrines considered, that, eradicating all words except those derived from happening to visit Rome, he was imprisoned as a Saxon roots. He also contemplated a reform in the heretic. Amongst other false styles censured by spelling of English, an idea which has occurred to Wilson is that of alliteration, of which he gives the several learned men, but seems to be amongst the following caricatured example :-Pitiful poverty most hopeless ever entertained

by the learned. The prayeth for a penny, but puffed presumption passeth only original work of Cheke in English is a pamphlet, not a point, pampering his paunch with pestilent published in 1549, under the title of The Hurt of pleasure, procuring his passport to post it to hell-pit, Sedition, how grievous it is to a Commonwealth, being there to be punished with pains perpetual.' Wilson designed to admonish the people who had risen under died in 1581. There is much good sense in the Ket the tanner. Of this, a specimen is subjoined. following passages of his Art of Rhetoric :

(Remonstrance with Levellers.]

[Simplicity of Style Recommended.] Ye pretend to a commonwealth. How amend ye

Among other lessons, this should first be learned, it by killing of gentlemen, by spoiling of gentlemen, that we never affect any strange inkhorn terms, but by imprisoning of gentlemen! A marvellous tanned to speak as is commonly received ; neither seeking to commonwealth. Why should ye hate them for their be over fine, nor yet living over careless ; using our riches, or for their rule ? Rule, they never took so speech as most men do, and ordering our wits as the much'in hand as ye do now. They never resisted the fewest have doen. Some seek so far for outlandish king, never withstood his council, be faithful at this English, that they forget altogether their mother's day, when ye be faithless, not only to the king, whose language. And I dare swear this, if some of their subjects ye be, but also to your lords, whose tenants mothers were alive, they were not able to tell what ye be. Is this your true duty-in some of homage, they say, and yet these fine English clerks will say in most of fealty, in all of allegiance to leave your they speak in their mother tongue, if a man should duties, go back from your promises, fall from your charge them with counterfeiting the king's English. faith, and contrary to law and truth, to make unlawful Some far journied gentlemen, at their return home, assemblies, ungodly companies, wicked and detestable like as they love to go in foreign apparel, so they will camps, to disobey your betters, and to obey your ponder their talk with over-sea language. He that tanners, to change your obedience from a king to a cometh lately out of France will talk French English, Ket, to submit yourselves to traitors, and break your and never blush at the matter. Another chops in with faith to your true king and lords!

English Italianated, and applieth the Italian phrase If riches offend you, because ye would have the to our English speaking ; the which is, as if an oralike, then think that to be no commonwealth, but tion that professeth to utter his mind in plain Latin, envy to the commonwealth. Envy it is to appair? would needs speak poetry, and far-fetched colours of another man's estate, without the amendment of your strange antiquity. The lawyer will store his stomach own ; and to have no gentlemen, because ye be none with the prating of pedlars. The auditor in making yourselves, is to bring down an estate, and to mend his account and reckoning, cometh in with sise sould, none. Would ye have all alike rich? That is the et cater denere, for 6s. and 4d. The fine courtier will orerthrow of all labour, and utter decay of work in talk nothing but Chaucer. The mystical wise men, this realm. For, who will labour more, if, when he and poetical clerks, will speak nothing but quaint prohath gotten more, the idle shall by lust, without right, verbs and blind allegories ; delighting much in their take what him list from him, under pretence of

own darkness, especially when none can tell what equality with him! This is the bringing in of idle they do say. The unlearned or foolish fantastical, ness, which destroyeth the commonwealth, and not that smells but of learning (such fellows as have seen the amendment of labour, which maintaineth the learned men in their days), will so Latin their commonwealth. If there should be such equality, tongues, that the simple cannot but wonder at their then ye take all hope away from yours, to come to any talk, and think surely they speak by some revelation. better estate than you now leave them. And as I know them, that think rhetoric to stand wholly upon many mean men's children come honestly up, and dark words ; and he that can catch an inkhorn term are great succour to all their stock, so should none by the tail, him they count to be a fine Englishman be hereafter holpen by you. But because you seek and a good rhetorician. equality, whereby all cannot be rich, ye would that belike, whereby every man should be poor. And think beside, that riches and inheritance be God's

[Moral Aim of Poetry.] providence, and given to whom of his wisdom he thinketh good.

The saying of poets, and all their fables, are not to be forgotten. For by them we may talk at large, and win men by persuasion, if we declare beforehand, that

these tales were not feigned of such wise men without Thomas Wilson, originally a fellow of King's cause, neither yet continued until this time and kept College, Cambridge, and who rose to be Dean of in memory, without good consideration ; and thereDurham, and to various high state employments upon declare the true meaning of all such writing. under Elizabeth, may be considered as the first For undoubtedly, there is no one tale among all the critical writer upon the English language.* He pub- poets, but under the same is comprehended something

that pertaineth either to the amendment of manners, Alluding to the profession of the ringleader. 2 Impair. to the knowledge of truth, to the setting forth nature's * Burnett. Specimens of English Prose Writers.

work, or else to the understanding of some notable


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thing doen. For what other is the painful travail of merrily for a mere matter; this I am sure, which Ulysses, described so largely by Homer, but a lively thing this fair wheat (God save it) maketh me repicture of man's misery in this life? And as Plutarch member, that those husbandmen which rise earliest, saith, and likewise Basilius Magnus, in the Iliads are and come latest home, and are content to have their described strength and valiantness of body: in Odyssea dinner and other drinkings brought into the field to is set forth a lively pattern of the mind. The poets are them, for fear of losing of time, have fatter barns wise men, and wished in heart the redress of things ; in the harvest, than they which will either sleep at the which when for fear they durst not openly rebuke, noontime of the day, or else make merry with their they did in colours paint thenı out, and told men by neighbours at the ale. And so a scholar, that purshadows what they should do in good sothe: or else, poseth to be a good husband, and desireth to reap because the wicked were unworthy to hear the truth, and enjoy much fruit of learning, must till and sow they spake so that none might understand but those thereafter. Our best seed time, which be scholars, as unto whom they please to utter their meaning, and it is very timely, and when we be young ; so it enknew them to be of honest conversation.

dureth not over long, and therefore it may not be let slip one hour; our ground is very hard and full of

weeds, our horse wherewith we be drawn very wild, as ROGER ASCHAM.

Plato saith. And infinite other mo lets, which will A still more distinguished instructive writer of time in sport and play. Toxophilus - That Aristotle and

make a thrifty scholar take heed how he spendeth his this age was Roger A SCHAM, university orator at Tully spake earnestly, and as they thought, the earnest Cambridge, at one time preceptor, and ultimately matter which they entreat upon, doth plainly prove, Latin secretary, to Queen Elizabeth. He must be And as for your husbandry, it was more probably told

with apt words, proper to the thing, than thoroughly proved with reasons belonging to our matter. For, contrarywise, I heard myself a good husband at his book once say, that to omit study for some time of the day, and some time of the year, made as much for the increase of learning, as to let the land lie some time fallow, maketh for the better increase of corn. This

we see, if the land be ploughed every year, the corn considered as the first writer on education in our cometh thin up; the ear is short, the grain is small, language, and it is remarkable that many of his and when it is brought into the barn and threshed, views on this subject accord with the most en- giveth very evil faule. So those which never leave lightened of modern times. His writings themselves poring on their books, have oftentimes as thin inven. furnished an improved example of style, and they tion, as other poor men have, and as small wit and abound in sound sense and excellent instructions. weight in it as in other men's. And thus your husWe are the more called on to admire them, when we bandry, methink, is more like the life of a coretous reflect on the tendency of learned men in that age snudge, that oft very evil proves, than the labour of a to waste their talents and acquirements on profitless good husband, that knoweth well what he doth. And controversy-which was so strong a passion, that, surely the best wits to learning must needs have much whenever Sir John Cheke was temporarily absent recreation, and ceasing from their book, or else they from Cambridge, his associates immediately forsook mar themselves ;, when base and dumpish wits can the elegant studies to which he had tempted them, never be hurt with continual study ; as ye see in lutand fell into disputes about predestination, original ing, that a treble minikin string 'must always be let sin, &c. Ascham died in 1568, and Elizabeth did down, but at such time as when a man must needs him the honour to remark, that she would rather play, when the base and dull string needeth never to have given ten thousand pounds than lost him. His be moved out of his place. The same reason I find principal work, The Schoolmaster, printed by his true in two bows that I have, whereof the one is quick widow, contains, besides the good general views of of cast, trig and trim, both for pleasure and profit; education above alluded to, what Johnson has ac- the other is a lugge slow of cast, following the string, knowledged to be . perhaps the best advice that ever more sure for to last than pleasant for to use. Now, was given for the study of languages. It also pre- Sir, it chanced this other night, one in my chamber sents judicious characters of ancient authors. An- would needs bend them to prove their strength, but other work, entitled Torophilus, published in 1544, is (I cannot tell how) they were both left bent till the a dialogue on the art of Archery, designed to promote next day after dinner; and when I came to them, an elegant and useful mode of recreation among purposing to have gone on shooting, I found my good those who, like himself, gave most of their time to bow clean cast on the one side, and as weak as water, study, and also to exemplify a style of composition that surely, if I were a rich man, I had rather have more purely English, than what was generally prac- spent a crown ; and as for my lugge, it was not one tised." Ascham also wrote a discourse on the affairs whit the worse, but shot by and by as well and as far of Germany, where he had spent three years in at

as ever it did. And even so, I am sure that good wits, tendance on the English ambassador during the reign except they be let down like a treble string, and unof Edward VI. The following extracts from Ascham's bent like a good casting bow, they will never last and writings show generally an intellect much in advance be able to continue in study. And I know where I of his age:

speak this, Philologe, for I would not say thus much afore young men, for they will take soon occasion to

study little enough. But I say it, therefore, because [Study should be Relieved by Amusement.]

I know, as little study getteth little learning, or none [The following is from the opening of the Toxophilus. It may at all

, so the most study getteth not the most learning be remarked, that what was good sense and sound philosophy in

of all. For a man's wit, fore-occupied in earnest Ascham's time is so still, and at the present time the lesson is study, must be as well recreated with some honest not less required than it was then.]

pastime, as the body, fore-laboured, must be refreshed

with sleep and quietness, or else it cannot endure very * Philologus.—How much in this matter is to long, as the noble poet saith :be given to the authority of Aristotle or Tully, I • What thing wants quiet and merry rest, endures but a small cannot tell, seeing sad men may well enough speak


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