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JOHN FOX,

[The Invention of Printing.] John Fox, another of the theologians of this time, whose adoption of the reformed opinions brought What man soever was the instrument (whereby this them into trouble, was born at Boston in 1517. He invention was made), without all doubt God himself studied at Oxford, where he applied himself with was the ordainer and disposer thereof, no otherwise extreme industry and ardour to the study of divi- than he was of the gift of tongues, and that for a nity, and in particular to the investigation of those similar purpose. And well may this gift of printing controverted points which were then engaging so be resembled to the gift of tongues : for like as God much of the public attention. So close was his then spake with many tongues, and yet all that would application to his studies, that he entirely withdrew not turn the Jews ; so now, when the Holy Ghost from company, and often sat up during the greater speaketh to the adversaries in innumerable sorts of part of the night. Becoming convinced of the errors books, yet they will not be converted, nor turn to the of popery, he avowed his conversion when examined gospel. on a charge of heresy in 1545, and was, in conse- Now to consider to what end and purpose the Lord quence, expelled from his college. After this, being hath given this gift of printing to the earth, and to deserted by his friends, he was reduced to great what great utility and necessity it serveth, it is not poverty, till a Warwickshire knight engaged him hard to judge, who so wisely perpendeth both the as tutor to his family. Towards the end of the reign time of the sending, and the sequel which thereof of Henry VIII., he went to London, where he might ensueth. have perished for want, had not relief been admi- And first, touching the time of this faculty given nistered to him by some unknown person, who seems to the use of man, this is to be marked : that when to have been struck with his wretched appearance as the bishop of Rome with all and full the consent of when sitting in St Paul's Cathedral. Soon after, the cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, abbots, he was fortunate enough to obtain employment as priors, lawyers, doctors, provoses, deans, archdeacons, tutor in the Duchess of Richmond's family at Rye. assembled together in the Council of Constance, had gate, in Surrey, where he continued till the persecu- condemned poor John Huss and Hierome of Prague to tions of Mary's reign made him flee for safety to death for heresy, notwithstanding they were no herethe continent. Proceeding through Antwerp and tics ; and after they had subdued the Bohemians, and Strasburg to Basle, he there supported himself by all the whole world under the supreme authority of correcting the press for Oporinus, a celebrated printer. the Romish see ; and had made all Christian people At the accession of Queen Elizabeth, he returned obedienciaries and vassals unto the same, having (as to England, and was kindly received and provided one would say) all the world at their will, so that the for by the Duke of Norfolk, who had been his pupil matter now was past not only the power of all men, at Ryegate. Through other powerful friends, he but the

hope also of any man to be recovered : in this might now have obtained considerable preferment; very time so dangerous and desperate, when man's but, entertaining conscientious scruples as to the power could do no

more, there the blessed wisdom and articles which it was necessary to subscribe, and omnipotent power of the Lord began to work for his disapproving of some of the ceremonies of the church, church, not with sword and target to subdue his he declined the offers made to him, except that of exalted adversary, but with printing, writing, and a prebend in the church of Salisbury, which he reading to convince darkness by light, error by truth, accepted with some reluctance. He died in 1587, ignorance by learning. So that by this means of much respected for the piety, modesty, humanity, printing, the secret operation of God hath heaped and conscientiousness of his character, as well as upon that proud kingdom a double confusion. For his extensive acquirements in ecclesiastical anti- whereas the bishop of Rome had burned John Huss quities, and other branches of learning. Fox was his transubstantiation, nor his supremacy, nor yet his

before, and Hierome of Prague, who neither denied the author of a number of Latin treatises, chiefly on theological subjects; but the work on which his popish mass, but said mass, and heard 'mass themfame rests

, is his History of the Acts and Monuments selves ; neither spake against his purgatory, nor any of the Church, popularly denominated Fox's Book exclaimed against his excessive and pompous pride,

other great matter of his popish doctrine, but only of Martyrs. This celebrated production, on which his unchristian or rather antichristian abomination of the author laboured for eleven years, was published life : thus while he could not abide his wickedness in 1563, under the title of Acts and Monuments only of life to be touched, but made it heresy, or at of these latter perillous Days, touching matters of least matter of death, whatsoever was spoken against the Church, wherein are comprehended and de- his detestable conversation and manners, God of his scribed the great Persecutions and horrible Troubles secret judgment, seeing time to help his church, hath that have been wrought and practised by the Romish found a way by this faculty of printing, not only to Prelates, specially in this Realm of England and confound his life and conversation, which before he Scotland, from the year of our Lord a thousand, could not abide to be touched, but also to cast down unto the Time now present,' &c. It was received the foundation of his standing, that is, to examine, with great favour by the Protestants, but, of course, confute, and detect his doctrine, laws, and institutions occasioned much exasperation among the opposite most detestable, in such sort, that though his life were party, who did all in their power to undermine its never so pure, yet his doctrine standing as it doth, no credit. That the author has frequently erred, and, man is so blind but may see, that either the pope is like other controversial writers of the time, some antichrist, or else that antichrist is near cousin to the times lost his temper, and sullied his pages with pope : and all this doth, and will hereafter more and coarse language, cannot be denied; but that mis- more, appear by printing. takes have been wilfully or malignantly committed, The reason whereof is this : for that hereby tongues no one has been able to prove. As to what he are known, knowledge groweth, judgment encreaseth, derived from written documents, Bishop Burnet, in books are dispersed, the scripture is seen, the doctors the preface to his History of the Reformation, be read, stories be opened, times compared, truth bears strong testimony in his favour, by declaring discerned, falsehood detected, and with finger pointed, that, 'having compared those Acts and Monuments and all (as I said) through the benefit of printing. with the records, he had never been able to discover Wherefore I suppose, that either the pope must abolish any errors or prevarications in them, but the utmost printing, or he must seek a new world to reign over : fidelity and exactness.'

for else, as the world standeth, printing doubtless will

abolish him. But the pope, and all his college of car- of poor artificers and occupiers. Again, what a zealous dinals, must this understand, that through the light defender she was of Christ's gospel, all the world doth of printing, the world beginneth now to have eyes to know, and her acts do and will declare to the world's see, and heads to judge. He cannot walk so invisible end. Amongst which other her acts, this is one, that in a net, but he will be spied. And although, through she placed Master Hugh Latimer in the bishopric of might, he stopped the mouth of John Huss before, and Worcester, and also preferred Doctor Sharton to his of Hierome, that they might not preach, thinking to bishopric, being then accounted a good man. Furthermake his kingdom sure; yet, in stead of John Huss and more, what a true faith she bore unto the Lord, this one other, God hath opened the press to preach, whose example may stand for many: for that, when King voice the pope is never able to stop, with all the Henry was with her at Woodstock, and there being puissance of his triple crown. By this printing, as by afraid of an old blind prophecy, for the which, neither the gift of tongues, and as by the singular organ of the he nor other kings before him, durst hunt in the said Holy Ghost, the doctrine of the gospel soundeth to all park of Woodstock, nor enter into the town of Oxford, nations and countries under heaven: and what God at last, through the Christian, and faithful counsel revealeth to one man, is dispersed to many; and what of that queen, he was so armed against all infidelity, is known in one nation, is opened to all.

that both he hunted in the foresaid park, and also

entered into the town of Oxford, and had no harm. [The Death of Queen Anne Boleyn.]

But, because touching the memorable virtues of this

worthy queen, partly we have said something before, In certain records thus we find, that the king being partly because more also is promised to be declared in his justs at Greenwich, suddenly, with a few per- of her virtuous life (the Lord so permitting), by other sons, departed to Westminster, and the next day after who then were about her, I will cease in this matter Queen Anne his wife was had to the Tower, with the further to proceed. Lord Rochford, her brother, and certain other; and the nineteenth day after was beheaded. The words of this A notable History of William Hunter, a young man of worthy and Christian lady at her death were these :

19 years, pursued to death by Justice Brown for the • Good Christian people, I am come hither to die; for,

Gospel's sake, worthy of all young men and parents to according to the law, and by the law, I am judged to

be read. death, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am coine hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing

[In the first year of Queen Mary, William Hunter, apprenof that whereof I am accused and condemned to die ; tice to a silk weaver in London, was discharged from his but I pray God save the king, and send him long to

master's employment, in consequence of his refusing to attend reign over you, for a gentler , or a more merciful prince wood, he attracted the attention of the spiritual authorities by

mass. Having returned to the house of his father at Bruntwas there never ; and to me he was a very good, a

his reading a copy of the Scriptures. He was finally condemned gentle, and a sovereign lord. And if any person will

to die for heresy.) meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world, and of you In the mean time William's father and mother all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. came to him, and desired heartily of God that he The Lord have mercy on me; to God I recommend might continue to the end, in that good way which he my soul.' And so she kneeled down, saying, "to had begun, and his mother said to him, that she was Christ I commend my soul ; Jesus, receive my soul ;' glad that ever she was so happy to bear such a child, repeating the same divers times, till at length the which could find in his heart to lose his life for stroke was given, and her head was stricken oft. Christ's name's sake.

And this was the end of that godly lady and queen. Then William said to his mother, ' For my little Godly I call her, for sundry respects, whatsoever the pain which I shall suffer, which is but a short braid, causé was, or quarrel objected against her. First, her Christ hath promised me, mother (said he), a crown last words spoken at her death declared no less, her sin- of joy : may you not be glad of that, mother?' With cerc faith and trust in Christ, than did her quiet modesty that his mother kneeled down on her knees, saying, utter forth the goodness of the cause and matter, what I pray God strengthen thee, my son, to the end : soever it was. Besides that, to such as wisely can judge yea, I think thee as well-bestowed as any child that upon cases occurrent, this also may seem to give a great ever I bare.' clearing unto her, that the king, the third day after, At the which words, Master Higbed took her in his was married in his whites unto another. Certain this arms, saying, “I rejoice (and so said the others) to see was, that for the rare and singular gifts of her mind, you in this mind, and you have a good cause to reso well instructed, and given toward God, with such joice.' And his father and mother both said, that a ferrent desire unto the truth, and setting forth of they were never of other mind, but prayed for him, sincere religion, joined with like gentleness, modesty, that, as he had begun to confess Christ before men, he and pity toward all men, there have not many such likewise might so continue to the end. William's queens before her borne the crown of England. Prin- father said, 'I was afraid of nothing, but that my cipally, this one commendation she left behind her, son should have been killed in the prison for hunger that during her life, the religion of Christ most hap- and cold, the bishop was so hard to him.' But William pily flourished, and had a right prosperous course. confessed, after a month that his father was charged

Many things might be written more of the mani. with his board, that he lacked nothing, but had meat fold virtues, and the quiet moderation of her mild and clothing enough, yea, even out of the court, both nature ; how lowly she would bear, not only to be money, meat, clothes, wood, and coals, and all things admonished, but also of her own accord, would re- necessary. quire her chaplains, plainly and freely to tell what- Thus they continued in their inn, being the Swan soever they saw in her amiss. Also, how bountiful in Bruntwood, in a parlour, whither resorted many she was to the poor, passing not only the poor example people of the country to see those good men which of other queens, but also the revenues almost of her were there; and many of William's acquaintance estate : insomuch, that the alms which she gave in came to him, and reasoned with him, and he with three quarters of a year, in distribution, is summed them, exhorting them to come away from the abomito the number of fourteen or fifteen thousand pounds ; nation of Popish superstition and idolatry. besides the great piece of money, which her Grace Thus passing away Saturday, Sunday, and Monday, intended to impart into four sundry quarters of the on Monday at night it happened, that William had a reali, as for a stock, there to be employed to the behoof | dream about two of the clock in the morning, which

JOHN LELAND.

was this: how that he was at the place where the Then William took up a faggot of broom and emstake was pight, where he should be burned, which braced it in his arms. (as he thought in his dream) was at the town's end Then this priest which William dreamed of, came where the buttsl stood, which was so indeed ; and also to his brother Robert with a popish book to carry he dreamed that he met with his father, as he went to William, that he might recant, which book his to the stake, and also that there was a priest at the brother would not meddle withal. Then William, stake, which went about to have him recant. To seeing the priest, and perceiving how he would have whom he said (as he thought in his dream), how that showed him the book, said, ' Away, thou false prohe bade him away false prophet, and how that he phet! Beware of them, good people, and come away exhorted the people to beware of him and such as he from their abominations, lest that you be partakers of was, which things came to pass indeed. It happened their plagues.' Then, quoth the priest, 'Look how that William made a noise to himself in his dream, thou burnest here, so shalt thou bum in hell.' which caused M. Higbed and the others to awake him William answered, Thou liest, thou false prophet ! out of his sleep, to know what he lacked. When he Away, thou false prophet ! away! Awaked, he told them his dream in order as is said. Then there was a gentleman which said, 'I pray

Now when it was day, the sheriff, M. Brocket called God have mercy upon his soul.' The people said, on to set forward to the burning of William Hunter. Amen, Amen.' Then came the sheriffs son to William Hunter, and Immediately fire was made. Then William cast embraced him in his right arm, saying, “William, be his psalter right into his brother's hand, who said, not afraid of these men, which are here present with William, think on the holy passion of Christ, and bows, bills, and weapons, ready prepared to bring you be not afraid of death.' And William answered, 'I to the place, where you shall be burned.' To whom am not afraid.' Then lift he up his hands to heaven, William answered, ' I thank God I am not afraid ; and said, ' Lord, Lord, Lord, receive my spirit ! And for I have cast my count, what it will cost me, al- casting down his head again into the smothering ready.' Then the sheriff's son could speak no more to smoke, he yielded up his life for the truth, sealing it him for weeping.

with his blood to the praise of God. Then William Hunter plucked up his gown, and stepped over the parlour grounsel, and went forward cheerfully, the sheriff's servant taking him by one arm, and his brother by another; and thus going in

In this age arose the first English antiquarian the way, he met with his father according to his writer, in the person of John LELAND. He was dream, and he spake to his son, weeping, and saying, born in London, and received his education at St "God be with thee, son William ;' and William said, Paul's school in his native city, at Canıbridge and "God be with you, good father, and be of good comfort, for I hope we shall meet again, when we shall be merry. His father said, 'I hope so, William,' and so departed. So Williain went to the place where the stake stood, even according to his dream, whereas all things were very unready. Then William took a met broom faggot, and kneeled down thereon, and read the 51st psalm, till he canie to these words, The sacrifice of God is a contrite spirit ; a contrite and a broken heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.'

Then said Master Tyrell of the Bratches, called William Tyrell, “Thou liest,' said he ; 'thou readest false, for the words are, "an humble spirit.”' But William said, "The translation saith" "a contrite heart.” 'Yea,' quoth Mr Tyrell, 'the translation is false ; ye translate books as ye list yourselves, like heretics. Well,' quoth William, there is no great difference in those words.' Then said the sheriff, 'Here is a letter from the queen : if thou wilt recant, thou shalt live; if not, thou shalt be burned.!... No,' quoth William, 'I will not recant, God willing.' Then William rose, and went to the stake, and stood upright to it. Then came one Richard Pond, a bailiff, and inade fast the chain about William.

Then said Master Brown, 'Here is not wood enough to burn a leg of him.' Then said William, 'Good people, pray for me, and make speed, and dispatch quickly; and pray for me while ye see me alive, good people, and I will pray for you likewise.' 'How ! quoth Master Brown, 'pray for thee? I will pray no more for thee than I will pray for a dog. To whom Oxford, completing it by a residence of considerWilliam answered, Master Brown, now you have able duration at Paris, where he enjoyed the friendthat which you sought for, and I pray God it be not ship of many learned men. Leland was one of the laid to your charge in the last day; howbeit, I forgive earliest Greek scholars in England, was acquainted you. Then said Master Brown, I ask no forgiveness with French, Italian, and Spanish, and studied, what of thee.' 'Well,' said William, if God forgive you few then gave any attention to the Welsh and Saxon. not, I shall require my blood at your hands.' Henry VIII. made him one of his chaplains, and be

Then said William, "Son of God, shine upon me!' stowed sundry benefices upon him. Having a strong and immediately the sun in the element shone out of natural bent to antiquities, he obtained from the king a dark cloud so full in his face, that he was con- a commission to inspect records, wherever placed, strained to look another way, whereat the people and, armed with this, he proceeded upon a tour of mused, because it was so dark a little time afore. the whole kingdom, at once to visit the remains of 1 Archery butts. ancient buildings, tumuli, and other objects surviv

John Leland.

ing from an early age, and to make researches in the divers times in the year, at which time there wanted libraries of colleges, abbeys, and cathedrals. In six no preparations, or goodly furniture, with riands of years, he collected an immense mass of valuable the finest sort that might be provided for money cr matters, some of which he deposited in the king's friendship ; such pleasures were then devised for the library. The writings which he subsequently com- king's comfort and consolation, as might be invented, posed, with reference to his favourite pursuits, con- or by man's wit imagined. The banquets were set vey a most respectful impression of his diligence, forth with masks and mummeries, in so gorgeous a and of the value of his labours; but they present sort and costly manner, that it was a heaven to behold. little attraction, except to readers of peculiar taste. There wanted no dames or damsels, meet or apt to Some are in Latin :* but the most important is in dance with the maskers, or to garnish the place for English, namely his Itinerary,-an account of his the time with other goodly disports. Then was there travels, and of the ancient remains which he visited, all kind of music and harmony set forth, with excel. together with a catalogue of English writers. Le lent voices both of men and children. I have seen land was for the two last years of his life insane, the king suddenly come in thither in a mask, with a probably from enthusiastic application to his favou- dozen of other maskers, all in garments like shepherds, rite study, and died in London in 1552.

made of fine cloth of gold, and fine crimson satin paned, and caps of the same, with visors of good pro

portion of visnomy; their hairs, and beards, either of GEORGE CAVENDISH.

fine gold wire, or else of silver, and some being of At this time lived GEORGE CAVENDISH, gentle- drums, and other persons attending upon them, with

black silk ; having sixteen torch bearers, besides their man-usher to Cardinal Wolsey, and afterwards em-visors, and clothed all in satin, of the same colours. ployed in the same capacity by Henry VIII. To the And at his coming, and before he came into the hall

, former he was strongly attached, and after the prelate's fall, he continued to serve him faithfully tili ye shall understand that he came by water to the

watergate, without any noise, where, against his comhis death. Cavendish himself died in 1557, leav. ing, were laid charged many chambers, and at his ing, in manuscript, a Life of Cardinal Wolscy, in landing they were all shot off, which made such a which, while he admits the arrogant disposition of rumble in the air, that it was like thunder. It made his old master, he highly extols his general charac- all the noblemen, ladies, and gentlewomen, to muse ter.f Mr S. W. Singer has printed, for the first time, what it should mean coming so suddenly, they sitting Metrical Visions by Cavendish, concerning the for- quietly at a solemn banquet.

Then, immetunes and fall of some of the most eminent per- diately after this great shot of guns, the cardinal desons of his time. Respecting the Life of Wolsey: sired the lord chamberlain and comptroller to look he observes :- There is a sincere and impartial what this sudden shot should mean, as though he adherence to truth, a reality, in Cavendish's narra- knew nothing of the matter. They thereupon looking tive, which bespeaks the confidence of his reader, out of the windows into Thames, returned again, and and very much increases his pleasure. It is a showed him, that it seemed to them there should be work without pretension, but full of natural elo- some noblemen and strangers arrived at his bridge, as quence, devoid of the formality of a set rhetorical ambassadors from some foreign prince. composition, unspoiled by the affectation of that Then quoth the cardinal to my lord chamberlain, 'I classical manner in which all biography and history pray you,' quoth he, show them that it seemeth me of old time was prescribed to be written, and which that there should be among them some noblemen, often divests such records of the attraction to be whom I suppose to be much more worthy of honour to found in the conversational style of Cavendish. * * sit and occupy this room and place than I ; to whom Our great poet has literally followed him in several I would most gladly, if I knew him, surrender my passages of his King Henry VIII., merely putting place according to my duty.' Then spake my lord his language into verse. Add to this the historical chamberlain unto them in French, declaring my lord importance of the work, as the only sure and authen- cardinal's mind; and they rounding? him again in tic source of information upon many of the most the ear, my lord chamberlain said to my lord cardi. interesting events of that reign ; and from which nal, “Sir, they confess,' quoth he, that among them all historians have largely drawn (through the secon- there is such a noble personage, whom, if your Grace dary medium of Holinshed and Stow, who adopted can appoint him from the other, he is contented to Cavendish's narrative), and its intrinsic value need disclose himself, and to accept your place most not be more fully expressed.'

worthily. With that the cardinal, taking a good advisement among them, at the last, quoth he, “Me

seemeth the gentleman with the black beard should (King Henry's Visits to Wolsey's House.]

be even he.' And with that he arose out of his chair, And when it pleased the king's majesty, for his re

and offered the same to the gentleman in the black creation, to repair unto the cardinal's house, as he did beard, with his cap in his hand. The person to whom

he offered then his chair was Sir Edward Neville, a * 1. Assertio Inclytissimi Arturii, Regis Britannia. London: comely knight of a goodly personage, that much more

resembled the king's person in that mask than any 2. Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis. Oxford: 1709. other. The king, hearing and perceiving the cardinal 3. De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea. Oxford: 1715.

so deceived in his estimation and choice, could not + This work did not appear in print till 1641, when it was forbear laughing ; but plucked down his visor, and published under the title of • The Negociations of Thomas Master Neville's also, and dashed out with such a Wolsey ;' but as the chief object of sending it forth was to re- pleasant countenance and cheer, that all noble estateg 3 concile the nation to the death of Archbishop Laud, by draw. There assembled, seeing the king to be there amongst ing a parallel between the two prelates, the manuscript, before them, rejoiced very much. The cardinal eftsoonst deit went to the press, was greatly mutilated by abridgment and sired his highness to take the place of estate, to whom interpolation. A correct copy was, however, published in 1810 the king answered, that he would go first and shift his

Biography;' and it has since been reprinted separately in 1825, apparel ; and so departed, and went straight into my
by Mr Samuel Weller Singer, along with a dissertation by the
Rev. Joseph Hunter, proving the author to have been George 1 Short guns, or cannon, without carriages; chiefly used for
Cavendish, and not his brother Sir William, as stated in the festive occasions.
Biographia Britannica, and later publications.

Whispering.
8 Persons of rank. Immediately,

1543. 4to.

lord's bedchamber, where was a great fire made and the second time made another leap and a fell cry, prepared for him, and there new apparelled him with and stepped forward a little ; and the Englishmen rerich and princely garments. And in the time of the moved not one foot. Thirdly again, they leaped and king's absence, the dishes of the banquet were clean cried, and went forth till they came within shot; then taken up, and the table spread again with new and they shot fiercely with their cross-bows. Then the sweet perfumed cloths ; every man sitting still until English archers stepped forth one pace, and let fly the king and his maskers came in among them again, their arrows so wholly and thick that it seemed snow. every man being newly apparelled. Then the king When the Genoese felt the arr)ws piercing through took his seat under the cloth of estate, commanding heads and arms and breasts, many of them cast down no man to remove, but sit still, as they did before. their cross-bows, and did cut their strings, and reThen in came a new banquet before the king's ma- turned discomfited. When the French king saw them jesty, and to all the rest through the tables, wherein, filee away, he said, “Slay these rascals, for they shall I suppose, were served two hundred dishes, or above, let and trouble us without reason. Then ye should of wondrous costly meats and devices, subtilly de- have seen the men-at-arms dash in among them, rised. Thus passed they forth the whole night with and killed a great number of them, and ever still the banquetting, dancing, and other triumphant devices, Englishmen shot whereas they saw the thickest press ; to the great comfort of the king, and pleasant regard the sharp arrows ran into the men-at-arms and into of the nobility there assembled.

their horses ; and many fell horse and men among

the Genoese ; and when they were down, they could LORD BERNERS.

not relieve again; the press was so thick that one over

threw another. And also, among the Englishmen, LORD BERNERS, another favourite of Henry VIII., there were certain rascals that went on foot with great under whom he was chancellor of the exchequer, and knives, and they went in among the men-at-arms, and governor of Calais, is known chiefly as the author murdered many as they lay on the ground, both earls, of a translation of the French chronicler, Froissart. barons, knights, and squires, whereof the King of Eng. His version of that fascinating narrative of contem- land was after displeased, for he had rather they had porary events in England, France, Flanders, Scot- been taken prisoners. land, and other countries, * was executed by the king's command, and appeared in 1523. It is an

JOHN BELLENDEN. excellent sample of the English language of that period, being remarkable for the purity and nervous

Contemporary with Lord Berners was Joan Belness of its style.f Lord Berners wrote also The LENDEN, archdean of Moray, a favourite of James History of the Most Noble and Valiant Knight, Ar- | V. of Scotland, and one of the lords of session in the thur of Little Britain, and other works, translated reign of Queen Mary. Besides writing a topography from the French and Spanish; he was likewise the of Scotland, epistles to James V., and some poenis, author of a book on The Duties of the Inhabitants he translated by the king's command, Hector Boece's of Calais. From his translation of Froissart (which History of Scotland, and the first five books of Livy. was reprinted in 1812), we extract the following the translation of Boece was published in 1536, and

constitutes the earliest existing specimen of Scotpassages :

tish literary prose. The first original work in that [Battle of Cressy.)

language was one entitled The Complaynt of Scotland,

which was published at St Andrews in 1548, by an When the French king saw the Englishmen, his unknown author, and consists of a meditation on the blood changed, and (he) said to his marshalls, “ Make distracted state of the kingdom. The difference bethe Genoese go on before, and begin the battle in the tween the language of these works and that emname of God and St Denis. There were of the ployed by the English writers of the preceding cenGenoese cross-bows about a fifteen thousand, but they tury is not great. Bellenden's translation of Boece were so weary of going a-foot that day, a six leagues, is rather a free one, and additions are sometimes armed with their cross-bows, that they said to their made by the translator. * Another translation, pubconstables, “We be not well ordered to fight this day, lished by Holinshed, an English Chronicler, in the for we be not in the case to do any great deed of arms; reign of Elizabeth, was the source from which we have more need of rest.' These words came to the Shakspeare derived the historical materials of his Earl of Alençon, who said, 'A man is well at ease to tragedy of Macbeth. Two extracts from Bellenden's be charged with such a sort of rascals, to be faint and version, in the original spelling, are here subjoined: fail now at most need.' Also, the same season, there fell a great rain and an eclipse, with a terrible thunder; and before the rain, there came flying over the

(Part of the Story of Macbeth.) battles a great number of crows for fear of the tempest Nocht lang eftir, hapnit ane uncouth and woundercoming. Then anon the air began to wax clear, and full thing, be quhilk followit, sone, ane gret alterathe sun to shine fair and bright, the which was right tion in the realme. Be aventure, Makbeth and Banin the Frenchmens' eyen, and on the Englishmens' quho wer passand to Fores, quhair King Duncane back. When the Genoese were assembled together, hapnit to be for the time, and met be the gait thre and began to approach, they made a great leap and weinen, clothit in elrage and uncouth weid. Thay ety, to abash the Englishmen; but they stood still, wer jugit, be the pepill, to be weird sisteris. The first and stirred not for all that. Then the Genoese again of thaim said to Makbeth, ‘Hale, Thane of Glammis !

the second said, 'Hale, Thane of Cawder!' and the * Froissart resided in England as secretary to the queen of third said, “Hale, King of Scotland ! Than said Edward IIL, from 1361 to 1366, and again visited that country Banquho, 'Quhat wemen be ye, sa unmercifull to me, in 1995. On the former occasion, he paid a visit to Scotland, and 'sa favorable to my coinpanyeon! For ye gaif where he was entertained by the Earl of Douglas His history, to him nocht onlie landis and gret rentis, bot gret which extends from 1326 to 1400, is valued chiefly for the view which it gives of the manners of the times, and the state of the lordschippis and kingdomes ; and gevis me nocht. To countries and their inhabitants.

this, answerit the first of thir weird sisteris, "We 1 There is a translation of Proissart in modern English--the schaw more felicite apparing to thee than to him ; for work of Mr Johnes of Hafod; but that of Lord Berners is dermed its superior, not only in vigorous characteristic expres- An excellent reprint of it, along with an edition of the sion, but, what is more surprising, in correctness.

translation of Livy, appeared in Edinburgh in 1821.

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