« ElőzőTovább »
DR WILLIAM LOWTH.
DR BENJAMIN HOADLY.
necessary and eternal differences of things, and cer- took up Hoadly's works with warmth, and passed a tain fitnesses or unfitnesses of the application of dif- censure upon them, as calculated to subvert the ferent things, or different relations one to another, not government and discipline of the church, and to depending on any positive constitutions, but founded impugn and impeach the regal supremacy in matunchangeably in the nature and reason of things, and ters ecclesiastical. The controversy was conducted unavoidably arising from the differences of the things with unbecoming violence, and several bishops and themselves.
other grave divines (the excellent Sherlock among the number) forgot the dignity of their station and the spirit of Christian charity in the heat of party
warfare. Pope alludes sarcastically to Hoadly's DR WILLIAM LOWTH (1661-1732) was distin
sermon in the 'Dunciad'guished for his classical and theological attainments, and the liberality with which he communicated his Toland and Tindal, prompt at priests to jeer, stores to others. He published a Vindication of the
Yet silent bowed to Christ's no kingdom here. Divine Authority and Inspiration of the Old and New The truth, however, is, that there was nothing
Testaments (1692), Directions for the Profitable Read- whatever in Hoadly's sermon injurious to the estaing of the Holy Scriptures, Commentaries on the Pro- blished endowments and privileges, nor to the disphets
, &c. He furnished notes on Clemens Alex- cipline and government of the English church, even andrinus for Potter's edition of that ancient author, in theory. If this had been the case, he might have remarks on Josephus for Hudson's edition, and annotations on the ecclesiastical historians for Read been reproached with some inconsistency in becoming's Cambridge edition of those authors. He also ing so large a partaker of her honours and emoluassisted Dr Chandler in his Defence of Christianity for open immoralities, though denying all church
ments. He even admitted the usefulness of censures from the Prophecies. His learning is said to have authority to oblige any one to external communion, been equally extensive and profound, and he accompanied all his reading with critical and philological condition of men with respect to the favour or dis
or to pass any sentence which should determine the remarks.
Born in London, Dr Lowth took his de- pleasure of God. Another great question in this grees at Oxford, and experiencing the countenance and support of the bishop of Winchester, became controversy was that of religious liberty as a civil the chaplain of that prelate, a prebend of the right, which the convocation explicitly denied. And cathedral of Winchester, and rector of Buriton.
another related to the much debated exercise of private judgment in religion, which, as one party meant virtually to take away, so the other perhaps
unreasonably exaggerated.'* The style of Hoadly's Dr BENJAMIN HOAdly, successively bishop of controversial treatises is strong and logical, but Bangor, Hereford, Salisbury, and Winchester, was a
without any of the graces of composition, and hence prelate Phi of sceat controversial ability, who threw the they have fallen into comparative oblivion. He was
his talents and learning into the scale of author of several other works,, as Terms of Accep
politics, at that time fiercely attacked by tance, Reasonableness of Conformity, Treatise on the the Tory and Jacobite parties. Hoadly was born Sacrament, &c. A complete edition of his works
1676. In 1706,* while rector of St Peter's-le-Poor, was published by his son in three folio volumes ; London, he attacked a sermon by Atterbury, and his sermons are now considered the most valuable thus incurred the enmity and ridicule of Swift portion of his writings. There can be no doubt and Pope. He defended the revolution of 1688, that the independent and liberal mind of Hoadly, and attacked the doctrines of divine right and aided by his station in the church, tended materially
to stem the torrent of slavish submission which then passive obedience with such vigour and perseverance, that, in 1709, the House of Commons re- prevailed in the church of England. commended him to the favour of the queen. Her
The first extract is from Hoadly's sermon on The majesty does not appear to have complied with this Nature of the Kingdom or Church of Christ, preached request ; but her successor, George I., elevated him before the king on 31st March, 1717, and which, to the see of Bangor. Shortly after his elevation to
as already mentioned, gave rise to the celebrated the bench, Hoadly published a work against the Bangorian controversy. nonjurors, and a sermon preached before the king at St James's, on the Nature of the Kingdom or [The Kingdom of Christ not of this world.] Church of Christ. The latter excited a long and vehement dispute, known by the name of the Ban
If, therefore, the church of Christ be the kingdom gorian Controversy, in which forty or fifty tracts
of Christ, it is essential to it that Christ himself be were published. The Lower House of Convocation the sole lawgiver and sole judge of his subjects, in all
points relating to the favour or displeasure of Almighty * Hoadly printed, in 1702, ' A Letter to the Rev. Mr Fleet. God; and that all his subjects, in what station soever wood, occasioned by his Essay on Miracles. In the preface to they may be, are equally subjects to him; and that a voluine of tracts published in 1715, in which that letter was no one of them, any more than another, hath authoreprinted, the eminent author speaks of Fleetwood in the fol- rity either to make new laws for Christ's subjects, or lowing terms :-- This contains some points, relating to the to impose a sense upon the old ones, which is the subject of miracles, in which I differed long ago from an ex- same thing; or to judge, censure, or punish the sercellent person, now advanced, by his merits, to one of the vants of another master, in matters relating purely to highest stations in the church. When it first appeared in the conscience or salvation. If any person hath any other world, he had too great a soul to make the common return of notion, either through a long use of words with inconresentnient or contempt, or to esteem a difference of opinion; sistent meanings, or through a negligence of thought, expressed with civility, to be an unpardonable affront. So far from it, that he not only was pleased to express some good let him but ask himself whether the church of Christ liking of the manner of it, but laid hold on an opportunity, be the kingdom of Christ or not; and if it be, whether which then immediately offered itself, of doing the writer a
this notion of it doth not absolutely exclude all other very considerable piece of service. I think myself obliged, legislators and judges in matters relating to conscience upon this occasion, to acknowledge this in a public manner,
the favour of God, or whether it can be his king. wishing that such a procedure may at length cease to be uncommon and singular.'
* Hallam's Constitutional History of England.
dom if any mortal men have such a power of legisla- contrary to the interests of true religion, as it is tion and judgment in it. This inquiry will bring us plainly opposite to the maxims upon which Christ back to the first, which is the only true account of the founded his kingdom; who chose the motives which church of Christ, or the kingdom of Christ, in the are not of this world, to support a kingdom which is mouth of a Christian ; that it is the number of men, not of this world. And indeed it is too visible to be whether small or great, whether dispersed or united, hid, that wherever the rewards and punishinents are who truly and sincerely are subjects to Jesus Christ changed from future to present, from the world to alone as their lawgiver and judge in matters relating come to the world now in possession, there the kingto the favour of God and their eternal salvation. dom founded by our Saviour is, in the nature of it,
The next principal point is, that, if the church be so far changed, that it is become, in such a degree, the kingdom of Christ, and this kingdom be not of what he professed his kingdom was not-that is, of this world,' this must appear from the nature and end this world; of the same sort with other common of the laws of Christ, and of those rewards and punish- earthly kingdoms, in which the rewards are worldly ments which are the sanctions of his laws. Now, his honours, posts, offices, pomp, attendance, dominion; laws are declarations relating to the favour of God in and the punishments are prisons, fines, banishments, another state after this. They are declarations of galleys and racks, or something less of the same sorta those conditions to be performed in this world on our part, without which God will not make us happy in (Ironical View of Protestant Infallibility.] that to come. And they are almost all general ap
(From the Dedication to Pope Clement XL., prefixed to Sir peals to the will of that God; to his nature, known by the common reason of mankind, and to the imita- R. Steele's Account of the State of the Roman Catholic Re
ligion throughout the World.') tion of that nature, which must be our perfection. The keeping his commandments is declared the way Your holiness is not perhaps aware how near the to life, and the doing his will the entrance into the churches of us Protestants hare at length come to kingdom of heaven. The being subjects to Christ, is those privileges and perfections which you boast of as to this very end, that we may the better and more peculiar to your own : so near, that many of the effectually perform the will of God. The laws of this most quick-sighted and sagacious persons hare not kingdom, therefore, as Christ left them, have nothing been able to discover any other difference between us, of this world in their view; no tendency either to the as to the main principle of all doctrine, government, exaltation of some in worldly pomp and dignity, or worship, and discipline, but this one, nainely, that to their absolute dominion over the faith and religious you cannot err in anything you determine, and we conduct of others of his subjects, or to the erecting of never do: that is, in other words, that you are infalany sort of temporal kingdom under the covert and lible, and we always in the right. We cannot but name of a spiritual one.
esteem the advantage to be exceedingly on our side The sanctions of Christ's law are rewards and punish- in this case ; because we have all the benefits of inments. But of what sort ! Not the rewards of this fallibility without the absurdity of pretending to it, world ; not the offices or glories of this state ; not the and without the uneasy task of maintaining a point pains of prisons, banishments, fines, or any lesser and so shocking to the understanding of mankind. And more moderate penalties; nay, not the much lesser you must pardon us if we cannot help thinking it to negative discouragements that belong to human so- be as great and as glorious a privilege in us to be ciety. He was far from thinking that these could be always in the right, without the pretence to infalli. the instruments of such a persuasion as he thought bility, as it can be in you to be always in the wrong, acceptable to God. But, as the great end of his king- with it. dom was to guide men to happiness after the short Thus, the synod of Dort (for whose unerring deciimages of it were over here below, so he took his sions public thanks to Almighty God are every three motives from that place where his kingdom first be- years offered up with the greatest solemnity by the gan, and where it was at last to end; from those re- magistrates in that country), the councils of the rewards and punishments in a future state, which had formed in France, the assembly of the kirk of Scotno relation to this world ; and to show that his “king- land, and (if I may presume to name it) the convocadom was not of this world,' all the sanctions which he tion of England, have been all found to hare the rery thought fit to give to his laws were not of this world same unquestionable authority which your church at all.
claims, solely upon the infallibility which resides in St Paul understood this so well, that he gires an it; and the people to be under the very same strict account of his own conduct, and that of others in the obligation of obedience to their determinations, which same station, in these words : * Knowing the terrors of with you is the consequence only of an absolute inthe Lord, we persuade men :' whereas, in too many fallibility. The reason, therefore, why we do not Christian countries since his days, if some who profess openly set up an infallibility is, because we can do to succeed him were to give an account of their own without it. Authority results as well from power as conduct, it must be in a quite contrary strain: ‘Know- from right, and a majority of votes is as strong a ing the terrors of this world, and having them in our foundation for it as infallibility itself. Councils that power, we do not persuade men, but force their out- may err, never do: and besides, being composed of ward profession against their inward persuasion.' men whose peculiar business it is to be in the right,
Now, wherever this is practised, whether in a great it is very immodest for any private person to think degree or a small, in that place there is so far a change them not so; because this is to set up a private from a kingdom which is not of this world, to a king- corrupted understanding above a public uncorrupted dom which is of this world. As soon as ever you hear judgment. of any of the engines of this world, whether of the Thus it is in the north, as well as the south; greater or the lesser sort, you must immediately think abroad, as well as at home. All maintain the exercise that then, and so far, the kingdom of this world takes of the same authority in themselves, which yet they place. For, if the very essence of God's worship be know not how so much as to speak of without ridicule spirit and truth, if religion be virtue and charity, in others. under the belief of a Supreme Governor and Judge, if In England it stands thus : The synod of Dort is true real faith cannot be the effect of force, and if of no weight; it determined many doctrines wrong. there can be no reward where there is no willing The assembly of Scotland hath nothing of a true choice-then, in all or any of these cases, to apply authority ; and is very much out in its scheme of force or flattery, worldly pleasure or pain, is to act doctrines, worship, and government. But the churcba
of England is vested with all authority, and justly which, above all others, a difference of opinion is most challengeth all obedience.
allowable ; such as are acknowledged to be very abIf one crosses a river in the north, there it stands struse and unintelligible, and to have been in all ages thus : The church of England is not enough reform- thought of and judged of with the same difference and ed ; its doctrines, worship, and government, have too variety. much of antichristian Rome in them. But the kirk of Scotland hath a divine right from its only head, Jesus Christ, to meet and to enact what to it shall seem fit, for the good of his church.
CHARLES LESLIE (1650–1722), author of a work Thus, we left you for your enormous unjustifiable still popular, A Short and Easy Method with the claim to an unerring spirit, and have found out a Deists, was a son of a bishop of Clogher, who is said way, unknown to your holiness and your predecessors, to have been of a Scottish family. Educated at of claiming all the rights that belong to infallibility, Trinity college, Dublin, Charles Leslie studied the even whilst we disclaim and abjure the thing itself.
As for us of the church of England, if we will believe many of its greatest advocates, we have bishops in a succession as certainly uninterrupted from the apostles, as your church could communicate it to us. And upon this bottom, which makes us a true church, we have a right to separate from you; but no persons living have a right to differ or separate from us. And they, again, who differ from us, value themselves upon something or other in which we are supposed defective, or upon being free from some superfluities which we enjoy ; and think it hard, that any will be still going further, and refine upon their scheme of worship and discipline.
Thus we have indeed left you ; but we have fixed ourselves in your seat, and make no scruple to resemble you in our defences of ourselves and censures of others whenever we think it proper.
We have all sufficiently felt the load of the two topics of heresy and schism. We have been persecuted, hanged, burned, massacred (as your holiness well knows) for heretics and schismatics. But all this hath not made us sick of those two words. We can still throw them about us, and play them off upon others, as plentifully and as fiercely as they are dispensed to us from your quarter. It often puts me in mind (your holiness must allow me to be a little ludicrous, if you admit me to your conversation), it often, I say, puts me in mind of a play which I have seen amongst
Charles Leslie. some merry people : à man strikes his next neighbour with all his force, and he, instead of returning it law in London, but afterwards turned his attention to to the man who gave it, communicates it, with equal divinity, and in 1680 took orders. As chancellor of zeal and strength, to another; and this to another; the cathedral of Connor, he distinguished himself by and so it circulates, till it returns perhaps to him who several disputations with Catholic divines, and by set the sport agoing. Thus your holiness begins the the boldness with which he opposed the pro-popish attack. You call us heretics and schismatics, and designs of King James. Nevertheless, at the revoburn and destroy us as such ; though, God knows, lution, he adopted a decisive tone of Jacobitism, there is no more right anywhere to use heretics or from which he never swerved through life. Removschismatics barbarously, than those who think and ing to London, he was chiefly engaged for several speak as their superiors bid ther. But so it is. You years in writing controversial works against quakers, thunder out the sentence against us. We think it ill Socinians, and deists, of which, however, none are manners to give it you back again ; but we throw it now remembered, besides the little treatise of which out upon the next brethren that come in our way; the title has been given, and which appeared in 1699. and they upon others : and so it goes round, till some He also wrote many occasional and periodical tracts perhaps have sense and courage enough to throw it in behalf of the house of Stuart, to whose cause his back upon those who first began the disturbance by talents and celebrity certainly lend no small lustre. pretending to authority where there can be none. Being for one of these publications obliged to leave
We have not indeed now the power of burning the country, he repaired in 1713 to the court of the heretics, as our forefathers of the Reformation had. Chevalier at Bar le Duc, and was well received. The civil power hath taken away the act which con- James allowed him to have a chapel fitted up for tinued that glorious privilege to them, upon the re- the English service, and was even expected to lend monstrance of several persons that they could not
a favourable ear to his arguments against popery, sleep whilst that act was awake. But then, every- but this expectation proved vain. It was not posthing on this side death still remains untouched to sible for an earnest and bitter controversialist like us: we can molest, harass, imprison, and ruin any Leslie to remain long at rest in such a situation, man who pretends to be wiser than his betters. And and we are not therefore surprised to find him rethe niore unspotted the man's character is, the more turn in disgust to England in 1721. He soon after necessary we think it to take such crushing methods. died at his house of Glaslough, in the county of Since the toleration hath been authorised in these Monaghan. The works of this remarkable man nations, the legal zeal of men hath fallen the heavier have been collected in seven volumes (Oxford, 1832), upon heretics (for it must always, it seems, be exer- and it must be allowed that they place their author cised upon some sort of persons or other); and amongst very bigh in the list of controversial writers, the inthese, chiefly upon such as differ from us in points in genuity of the arguments being only equalled by the keenness and pertinacity with which they are on fall downward, and which we call gravity! taking all occasions followed out; but a modern reader sighs this postulatum, which had been thought of before. to think of vivid talents spent, with life-long perse that such power might decrease in a duplicate propor: verance, on discussions which have tended so little tion of the distances from the earth's centre. Upon to benefit mankind.
Sir Isaac's first trial, when he took a degree of a
great circle on the earth's surface, whence a degree at WILLIAM WHISTON.
the distance of the moon was to be determined also,
to be sixty measured miles only, according to the WILLIAM WHISTON (1667-1752) was an able but gross measures then in use, he was in some degree eccentric scholar, and so distinguished as a mathe- disappointed ; and the power that restrained the moon matician, that he was made deputy professor of in her orbit, measured by the versed sines of that mathematics in the university of Cambridge, and orbit, appeared not to be quite the same that was to afterwards successor to Sir Isaac Newton, of whose be expected had it been the power of gravity alone principles he was one of the most successful ex- by which the moon was there influenced. Upon this pounders. Entering into holy orders, he became disappointment, which made Sir Isaac suspect that chaplain to the bishop of Norwich, rector of Lowe- this power was partly that of gravity and partly that stoffe, &c. He was also appointed Boyle lecturer of Cartesius's vortices, he threw aside the paper of in the university, but was at length expelled for his calculation, and went to other studies. However, promulgating Arian opinions. He then went to some time afterward, when Monsieur Picart bad London, where a subscription was made for him, much more exactly measured the earth, and found and he delivered a series of lectures on astronomy, that a degree of a great circle was sixty-nine and awhich were patronised by Addison and Steele. half such miles, Sir Isaac, in turning over some of his Towards the close of his life, Whiston became a former papers, lighted upon this old imperfect calculaBaptist, and believed that the millennium was ap- tion, and, correcting his former error, discovered that proaching, when the Jews would all be restored. this power, at the true correct distance of the moon İlad he confined himself to mathematical studies, from the earth, not only tended to the earth's centre, he would have earned a high name in science; but as did the common power of gravity with us, but was his time and attention were dissipated by his theo- exactly of the right quantity; and that if a stone logical pursuits, in which he evinced more zeal than was carried up to the moon, or to sixty semi-diameters judgment. His works are numerous. Besides a
of the earth, and let fall downward by its gravity, Theory of the Earth, in defence of the Mosaic ac- and the moon's own menstrual motion was stopped, count of the creation, published in 1696, and some and she was let fall by that power which before retracts on the Newtonian system, he wrote an Essay tained her in her orbit, they would exactly fall toon the Revelation of St John (1706), Sermons on the wards the same point, and with the same velocity;
Scripture Prophecies (1708), Primitive Christianity which was therefore no other power than that of Revived, five volumes, (1712), Memoirs of his own gravity. And since that power appeared to extend as Life, (1749-50), &c. An extract from the last men
far as the moon, at the distance of 240,000 miles, tioned book is subjoined :
it was but natural, or rather necessary, to suppose
it might reach twice, thrice, four times, &c., the same [Anecdote of the Discorery of the Newtonian distance, with the same din inution, according to the Philosophy.)
squares of such distances perpetually: which poble
discovery proved the happy occasion of the invention After I had taken holy orders, I returned to the of the wonderful Newtonian philosophy. college, and went on with my own studies there, particularly the mathematics and the Cartesian philosophy, which was alone in vogue with us at that time. But it was not long before I, with immense pains, but no assistance, set myself with the utmost zeal to the
DR PHILIP DODDRIDGE, a distinguished nonconstudy of Sir Isaac Newton's wonderful discoveries in formist divine and author, was born in London, June his · Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica,' 26, 1702. His grandfather had been ejected from one or two of which lectures I had heard him read the living of Shepperton, in Middlesex, by the act the public schools, though I understood them not at
of uniformity in 1662; and his father, a man engaged all at that time--being indeed greatly excited thereto in mercantile pursuits in London, married the only by a paper of Dr Gregory's, when he was professor in daughter of a German, who had fled from Prague to Scotland, wherein he had given the most prodigious escape the persecution which raged in Bohemia, commendations to that work, as not only right in all after the expulsion of Frederick, the Elector Palathings, but in a manner the effect of a plainly divine tine, when to abjure or emigrate were the only alter genius, and had already caused several of his scholars natives. The pious parents of Doddridge early into keep acts, as we call them, upon several branches structed him in religious knowledge. I have heard of the Newtonian philosophy; while we at Cambridge, him relate,' says his biographer, Mr Job Orton, poor wretches, were ignominiously studying the fic- ' that his mother taught him the history of the Old titious hypotheses of the Cartesian, which Sir Isaac and New Testaments, before he could read, by the Newton had also himself done formerly, as I have assistance of some Dutch tiles in the chimney in the heard him say. What the occasion of Sir Isaac New-room where they commonly sat; and her wise and ton's leaving the Cartesian philosophy, and of dis- pious reflections upon the stories there represented covering his amazing theory of gravity was, I have were the means of making some good impressions heard him long ago, soon after my first acquaintance upon his heart, which never wore out; and therewith him, which was 1694, thus relate, and of which fore this method of instruction he frequently recomDr Pemberton gives the like account, and somewhat mended to parents.' In 1712, Doddridge was sent more fully, in the preface to his explication of his phi- to school at Kingston-upon-Thames; but both his losophy. It was this: an inclination came into Sir parents dying within three years afterwards, he was Isaac's mind to try whether the same power did not removed to St Albans, and whilst there, was solemnly keep the moon in her orbit, notwithstanding her pro- admitted, in his sixteenth year, a member of the jectile velocity, which he knew always tended to nonconforming congregation. His religious imgo along a straight line the tangent of that orbit, pressions were ardent and sincere; and when, in which makes stones and all heavy bodies with us 1718, the Duchess of Bedford made him an offer to
DR PHILIP DODDRIDGE.
educate him for the ministry in the church of and have none but the birds of the air, and the beasts England, Doddridge declined, from conscientious of the field, for my companions.' scruples, to avail himself of this advantage. A To another lady, whom he styles 'aunt,' he adgenerous friend, Dr Clarke of St Albans, now stepped dressed the following complimentary effusion, more forward to patronise the studious youth, and in 1719 like the epistle of a cavalier poet than of a nonconhe was placed at an academy established at Kib- formist preacher :worth, Leicestershire, for the education of dissenters. * You see, madam, I treat you with rustic simpliHere he resided three years, pursuing his studies for city, and perhaps talk more like an uncle than a the ministry, and cultivating a taste for elegant litera- nephew. But I think it is a necessary truth, that ture. To one of his fellow-pupils who had condoled ought not to be concealed because it may possibly with him on being buried alive, Doddridge writes disoblige. In short, madam, I will tell you roundly, in the following happy strain - Here I stick close that if a lady of your character cannot bear to hear to those delightful studies which a favourable pro- a word in her own commendation, she must rather vidence has made the business of my life. One day resolve to go out of the world, or not attend to any. passeth away after another, and I only know that it thing that is said in it. And if you are determined passeth pleasantly with me. As for the world about to indulge this unaccountable humour, depend upon me, I have very little concern with it. I live almost it, that with a thousand excellent qualities and like a tortoise shut up in its shell, almost always in agreeable accomplishments, you will be one of the the same town, the same house, the same chamber; most unhappy creatures in the world. I assure you, yet I live like a prince-not, indeed, in the pomp of madam, you will meet with affliction every day of greatness, but the pride of liberty; master of my your life. You frown when a home-bred unthinkbooks, master of my time, and, I hope I may add, ing boy tells you that he is extremely entertained master of myself. I can willingly give up the with your letters. Surely you are in a downright charms of London, the luxury, the company, the rage whenever you converse with gentlemen of repopularity of it, for the secret pleasures of rational tined taste and solid judgment; for I am sure, let employment and self-approbation; retired from ap- them be ever so much upon their guard, they cannot plause and reproach, from envy and contempt, and forbear tormenting you about an agreeable person, a the destructive baits of avarice and ambition. So fine air, a sparkling wit, steady prudence, and unafthat, instead of lamenting it as my misfortune, fected piety, and a thousand other things that I am you should congratulate me upon it as my happi- afraid to name, although even I can dimly perceive ness, that I am confined in an obscure village, see-them; or, if they have so much humility as not to ing it gives me so many valuable advantages to the talk of them to your face, you will be sure to hear most important purposes of devotion and philo- of them at second hand. Poor aunt! I profess I sophy, and, I hope I may add, usefulness too.' The pity you; and if I did but know any one circumobscure village had also further attractions. It stance of your character that was a little defective, appears from the correspondence of Doddridge (pub- I would be sure to expatiate upon it out of pure lished by his great-grandson in 1829), that the young good nature.' divine was of a susceptible temperament, and was From his first sermon, delivered at the age of generally in love with some fair one of the neigh- twenty, Doddridge became a marked preacher among bourhood, with whom he kept up a constant and the dissenters, and had calls to various congregalively interchange of letters. The levity or gaiety tions. In 1729 he settled at Northampton, and beof some of these epistles is remarkable in one of so came celebrated for his abilities, diligence, and zeal. staid and devout a public character. His style is Here he undertook to receive pupils, and was 80 always excellent-correct and playful like that of successful, that in a few years he engaged an assisCowper, and interesting from the very egotism and tant, to whom he assigned the care of the junior carelessness of the writer. To one of his female pupils, and the direction of the academy during his correspondents he thus describes his situation :- absence. He first appeared as an author in 1730,
*You know I love a country life, and here we when he published a pamphlet on the Means of Rehave it in perfection. I am roused in the morning viving the Dissenting Interest. He afterwards applied with the chirping of sparrows, the cooing of pigeons, himself to the composition of practical religious the lowing of kine, the bleating of sheep, and, to works. His Sermons on the Education of Children complete the concert, the grunting of swine and (1732), Sermons to Young People (1735), and Ten neighing of horses. We have a mighty pleasant Sermons on the Power and Grace of Christ, and the garden and orchard, and a fine arbour under some Evidences of his Glorious Gospel (1736), were all well tall shady limes, that form a kind of lofty dome, of received by the public. In 1741 appeared his Pracwhich, as a native of the great city, you may per- tical Discourses on Regeneration, and in 1745 The haps catch a glimmering idea, if I name the cupola Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul. The latter of St Paul's. And then, on the other side of the forms a body of practical divinity and Christian house, there is a large space which we call a wilder- experience which has never been surpassed by any ness, and which, I fancy, would please you ex- work of the same nature. In 1747 appeared his still tremely. The ground is a dainty green sward; a popular work, Some Remarkable Passages in the Life brook runs sparkling through the middle, and there of Colonel James Gardiner, who was slain by the Rebels are two large fish-ponds at one end; both the ponds at the Battle of Prestonpans, Sept. 21, 1745. Gardiner and the brook are surrounded with willows; and was a brave Scottish officer, who had served with there are several shady walks under the trees, be- distinction under Marlborough, and was aid-desides little knots of young willows interspersed at camp to the Earl of Stair on his embassy to Paris. convenient distances. This is the nursery of our From a gay libertine life he was suddenly converted lambs and calves, with whom I have the honour to to one of the strictest piety, by what he conceived to be intimately acquainted. Here I generally spend be a supernatural interference, namely, a visible rethe evening, and pay my respects to the setting sun, presentation of Christ upon the cross, suspended in when the variety and the beauty of the prospect in the air, amidst an unusual blaze of light, and accomspire a pleasure that I know not how to express. I panied by a declaration of the words, 'Oh, sinner! am sometimes so transported with these inanimate did I suffer this for thee, and are these the returns?' beauties, that I fancy I am like Adam in Paradise ; From the period of this vision till his death, twentyand it is my only misfortune that I want an Eve, six years afterwards, Colonel Gardiner maintained