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stupid, as not to acknowledge that he feels a delight infinitely beneath him in intellect, was ALEXANDER in health! And what is delight but another name BARCLAY, a clergyman of England, but supposed to for pleasure ?

have been a native of Scotland. Besides a curious But of all pleasures, they esteem those to be the work in prose and verse, entitled, The Ship of Fooles, most valuable that lie in the mind ; and the chief of (1509), in which is described a great variety of these are those that arise out of true virtue, and the human absurdities, he translated many Latin and witness of a good conscience. They account health other books, including Sallust's History of the Jugur. the chief pleasure that belongs to the body; for they thine war, which was among the earliest English think that the pleasure of eating and drinking, and versions of classical authors produced in England. all the other delights of the body, are only so far desirable as they give or maintain health. But they are not pleasant in themselves, otherwise than as they resist those impressions that our natural infirmity is FISCHER, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER, (1459–1535), still making upon us; and, as a wise man desires

was chiefly distinguished in his lifetime by pamph. rather to avoid diseases than to take physic, and to lets in Latin against the Lutheran doctrines : these be freed from pain rather than to find ease by reme- have long been in oblivion, but his name still calls dies, so it were a more desirable state not to need this for a place in our literary history, as one of the sort of pleasure, than to be obliged to indulge it. And fathers of English prose. He was a steadfast adif any man imagines that there is a real happiness in herent of the church of Rome, and his name is tarthis pleasure, he must then confess that he would be nished with some severities to the reforming party: the happiest of all men, if he were to lead his life in but we have the testimony of Erasmus, confirmed a perpetual hunger, thirst, and itching, and by conse- by the acts of his life, that he possessed many of the quence in perpetual eating, drinking, and scratching best points of human character. He steadily refused himself, which, any one may easily see, would be not translation to a more valuable bishopric, and he only a base but a miserable state of life. These are, finally laid down his life, along with Sir Thomas indeed, the lowest of pleasures, and the least pure ; More, in a conscientious adherence to the principle for we can never relish them but when they are mixed of the validity of the nuptials of Queen Catherine. with the contrary pains. The pain of hunger must

While in the Tower on account of that assumed give us the pleasure of eating ; and here the pain out-offence, the pope acknowledged his worth and conbalances the pleasure ; and, as the pain is more vehe-sistency by the gift of a cardinal's hat; which drew ment, so it lasts much longer ; for, as it is upon us from Henry the brutal remark, “Well

, let the pope before the pleasure comes, so it does not cease, but send him å hat when he will; mother of God: he with the pleasure that extinguishes it, and that goes shall wear it on his shoulders then, for I will leave off with it ; so that they think none of those pleasures him never a head to set it on! The English writare to be valued, but as they are necessary. Yet they rejoice in them, and with due gratitude acknowledge ings of Bishop Fischer consist of sermons and a the tenderness of the great author of nature, who has few small tracts on pious subjects, printed in one

One of the sermons planted in us appetites, by which those things that volume at Wurzburg in 1595. are necessary for our preservation are likewise made was a funeral one, preached in 1509, in honour of the pleasant to us. For how miserable a thing would life Countess of Richmond (mother of Henry VII.), be, if those daily diseases of hunger and thirst were to whose chaplain he had been. In it he presents a be carried off by such bitter drugs, as we must use for remarkable portraiture of a pious lady of rank of that thosc diseases that return seldomer upon us ! And age, with a curious detail of the habits then thought thus these pleasant, as well as proper gifts of nature, essential to a religious gentlewoman. do maintain the strength and the sprightliness of our bodies

[Character and Habits of the Countess of Richmond.] They do also entertain themselves with the other delights that they let in at their eyes, their ears, and [In allusion to Martha, the subject of the text,] their nostrils, as the pleasant relishes and seasonings First, I say, the comparison of them two may be made of life, which nature secms to have marked out pecu- in four things; in nobleness of person ; in discipline liarly for man; since no other sort of animals con- of their bodies ; in ordering of their souls to God ; in templates the figure and beauty of the universe, nor hospitalities keeping and charitable dealing to their is delighted with smells, but as they distinguish meats neighbours. In which four, the noble woman Martha by them ; nor do they apprehend the concords or dis- (as say the doctors, entreating this gospel and her life) cords of sounds ; yet in all pleasures whatsoever, they was singularly to be commended and praised; where observe this temper, that a lesser joy may not hinder fore let us consider likewise, whether in this noble a greater, and that pleasure may never breed pain, countess may any thing like be found. which they think does always follow dishonest plea- First, the blessed Martha was a woman of noble

But they think it a madness for a man to wear blood, to whom by inheritance belonged the castle of out the beauty of his face, or the force of his natural Bethany; and this nobleness of blood they have which strength, and to corrupt the sprightliness of his body descended of noble lineage. Beside this, there is a by sloth and laziness, or to waste his body by fasting, nobleness of manners, withouten which the nobleness and so to weaken the strength of his constitution, and of blood is much defaced ; for as Boethius saith, If reject the other delights of life ; unless, by renouncing ought be good in the nobleness of blood, it is for that his own satisfaction, he can either serve the public, or thereby the noble men and women should be ashamed promote the happiness of others, for which he expects to go out of kind, from the virtuous manners of their à greater recompense from God; so that they look on ancestry before. Yet also there is another nobleness such a course of life, as a mark of a mind that is both which ariseth in every person, by the goodness of cruel to itself, and ingrateful to the author of nature, nature, whereby full often such as come of right poor as if we would not be beholden to him for his favours, and unnoble father and mother, have great abilities and therefore would reject all his blessings, and should of nature to noble deeds. Above all the same there afflict himself for the empty shadow of virtue ; or for is a four manner of nobleness, which may be called no better end than to render himself capable to bear an encreased nobleness ; as, by marriage and affinity those misfortunes which possibly will never happen. of more noble persons, such as were of less condition

may increase in higher degree of nobleness. Contemporary with Sir Thomas More, though In every of these I suppose this countess was noble


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First, she came of noble blood, lineally descending the morrow after make answer of her mind determiof King Edward III. within the four degree of the nately. A marvellous thing !--the same night, as I same. Her father was John, Duke of Somerset ; her have heard her tell many a time, as she lay in prayer, mother was called Margaret, right noble as well in calling upon St Nicholas, whether sleeping or waking manners as in blood, to whom she was a very daughter she could not assure, but about four of the clock in in all noble manners : for she was bounteous and the morning, one appeared unto her, arrayed like a liberal to every person of her knowledge or acquaint- bishop, and naming unto her Edmund, bade take ance. Avarice and covetyse she most hated, and sor- him unto her husband. And so by this means she rowed it full much in all persons, but specially in any did incline her mind unto Edmund, the king's brother, that belonged unto her. She was also of singular and Earl of Richmond, by whom she was made mother easiness to be spoken unto, and full courteous answer of the king that dead is (whose soul God pardon), she would make to all that came unto her. Of mar- and grand-dame to our sovereign lord King Henry vellous gentleness she was unto all folks, but specially vill., which now, by the grace of God, governeth the unto her own, whom she trusted and loved right ten- realm. So what by lineage, what by afhnity, she had derly. Unkind she would not be unto no creature, ne thirty kings and queens within the four degree of forgetful of any kindness or service done to her before ; marriage unto her, besides carls, marquisses, dukes, which is no little part of very nobleness. She was not and princes. And thus much we have spoken of her vengeable ne cruel, but ready anon to forget and to nobleness. forgive injuries done unto her, at the least desire or Her sober temperance in meats and drinks was motion made unto her for the same. Merciful also known to all them that were conversant with her, and piteous she was unto such as was grieved and wherein she lay in as great weight of herself as any wrongfully troubled, and to them that were in poverty person might, keeping alway her strait measure, and or sickness, or any other misery.

offending as little as any creature might: eschewing To God and to the church full obedient and tract- banquets, rere-suppers, juiceries betwixt meals. As able, searching his honour and pleasure full busily. A for fasting, for age, and feebleness, albeit she were not wareness of herself she had alway to eschew every bound, yet those days that by the church were apthing that might dishonest any noblewoman, or dis- pointed, she kept them diligently and seriously, and tain her honour in any condition. Frivolous things in especial the holy Lent throughout, that she rethat were little to be regarded, she would let pass by, strained her appetite, till one meal of fish on the day; but the other that were of weight and substance, besides her other peculiar fasts of devotion, as St wherein she might profit, she would not let, for any Anthony, St Mary Magdalene, St Catharine, with pain or labour, to take upon hand. These and many other; and theroweout all the year, the Friday and other such noble conditions, left unto her by her an Saturday she full truly observed. As to hard clothes cestors, she kept and increased therein with a great wearing, she had her shirts and girdles of hair, which, diligence.

when she was in health, every week she failed not The third nobleness also she wanted not, which I certain days to wear, sometime the one, sometime said was the nobleness of nature. She had in a man- | the other, that full often her skin, as I heard her say, ner all that was praisable in a woman, either in soul | was pierced therewith. * or body. First, she was of singular wisdom, far pass- In prayer, every day at her uprising, which coming the common rate of women. She was good in re- monly was not long after five of the clock, she began membrance and of holding memory ; a ready wit shc certain devotions, and so after them, with one of her had also to conceive all things, albeit they were right gentlewomen, the matins of our lady, which kept her dark. Right studious she was in books, which she 102—then she came into her closet, where then with had in great number, both in English and in French; her chaplain, she said also matins of the day; and and for her exercise and for the profit of others, she after that daily heard four or five masses upon her did translate divers matters of devotion, out of the knees ; so continuing in her prayers and devotions French into English. Full often she complained that unto the hour of dinner, which of the eating day, was in her youth she had not given her to the under- ten of the clock, and upon the fasting day eleren. standing of Latin, wherein she had a little perceiving, After dinner full truly she would go her stations to specially of the Rubryshe of the Ordinal, for the say- three altars daily; daily her dirges and commendaing of her service, which she did well understand. tions she would say, and her even songs before supper, Hereunto in favour, in words, in gesture, in every both of the day and of our lady, beside many other derneanour of herself, so great nobleness did appear, prayers and psalters of David throughout the year ; that what she spake or did, it marvellously becanic and at night before she went to bed, she failed not to her.

resort unto her chapel, and there a large quarter of an The four nobleness, which we named a nobleness hour to occupy her devotions. No marvel, though all gotten or increased, she had also. For albeit she of this long time her kneeling was to her painful, and her lineage were right noble, yet nevertheless by so painful that many times it caused in her back pain marriage adjoining of other blood, it took some en- and disease. And yet nevertheless, daily when she creasement. For in her tender age, she being endued was in health, she failed not to say the crown of our with so great towardness of nature and likelihood of lady, which after the manner Rome, containeth inheritance, many sued to have had her to marriage. sixty and three aves, and at every ave, to niake a The Duke of Suffolk, which then was a man of great kneeling. As for meditation, she had divers books experience, most diligently procured to have had her in French, wherewith she would occupy herself when for his son and heir. of the contrary part, King she was weary of prayer. Wherefore divers she did Henry VI. did make means for Edmund his brother, translate out of the French into English. Her marthen the Earl of Richmond. She, which as then was vellous weeping they can bear witness of, which here not fully nine years old, doubtful in her mind what before have heard her confession, which be divers and she were best to do, asked counsel of an old gentlemany, and at many seasons in the year, lightly every Fornan, whom she much loved and trusted, which did third day. Can also record the same tho that were advise her to commend herself to St Nicholas, the present at any time when she was houshilde,3 which patron and helper of all true maidens, and to beseech him to put in her mind what she were best to do!

Second suppers. When supper took place at four or five This counsel she followed, and made her prayer so

o'clock, it was not uncommon, on festive occasions, to have a

second served up at a later hour. full often, but specially that night, when she should 1 Refrain 8 Received the sacrament of the Lord's supper.

2 There is an omission here.

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was full nigh a dozen times every year, what floods of harness, and other like. The moderate exercise is tears there issued forth of her eyes !

long walking or going a journey. The parts of the body have sundry exercises appropried unto them ; as running and going is the most proper for the legs;

moving of the arms up and down, or stretching them SIR THOMAS Elyot, an eminent physician of the out and playing with weapons, serveth most for the reign of Henry VIII., by whom he was employed arms and shoulders ; stooping and rising often times, in several embassies, was the author of a popular or lifting great weights, taking up plummets or other professional work, entitled The Castle of Health, in like poises on the ends of staves, and in likewise liftwhich many sound precepts are delivered with re- ing up in every hand a spear or morrispike by the ends, spect to diet and regimen. Of his other productions, specially crossing the hands, and to lay them down it is unnecessary to mention any but that entitled again in their places; these do exercise the back and The Governor, devoted chiefly to the subject of edu- loins. Of the bulk (chest) and lungs, the proper exercation. He recommends, as Montaigne and Locke cise is moving of the breath in singing or crying. The have subsequently done, that children be taught entrails, which be underneath the midriff, be exercised to speak Latin from their infancy; and he depre- by blowing either by constraint or playing on shalms cates 'cruel and yrousl schoolmasters, by whom or sackbuts, or other like instruments which do rethe wits of children be dulled, whereof we need no quire much wind. The muscles are best exercised better author to witness than daily experience.' with holding of the breath in a long time, so that he Mr Hallam observes, in reference to this passage, which doth exercise hath well digested his meat, and that all testimonies concur to this savage ill-treat is not troubled with much wind in his body. Finally, ment of boys in the schools of this period. The loud reading, counterfeit battle, tennis or throwing fierceness of the Tudor government, the religious the ball, running, walking, adde[d] to shooting, intolerance, the polemical brutality, the rigorous which, in mine opinion, exceeds all the other, do ese justice, when justice it was, of our laws, seem to ercise the body commodiously. Alway remember that have engendered a hardness of character, which the end of violent exercise is difficulty in fetching of displayed itself in severity of discipline, when it did the breath ; of moderate exercise alteration of breath not even reach the point of arbitrary or malignant only, or the beginning of sweat. Moreover, in winter, cruelty.'* Sir Thomas Elyot lived on terms of in- running and wrestling is convenient; in summer, timacy with Leland, the antiquary, and Sir Thomas wrestling a little, but not running ; in very cold weaMore. He died in 1546.

ther, much walking ; in hot weather rest is more exThe following passage in The Castle of Health in- pedient. They which seem to have moist bodies, and dicates the great attention which was paid to the live in idleness, they have need of violent exercise. strengthening of the body by exercise, before the They which are lean and choleric must walk softly, use of fire-arms had become universal in war :

and exercise themself very temperately. The plurnmets, called of Galen alteres, which are now much

used with great men, being of equal weight and ac[Different kinds of Exercise.]

cording to the strength of him that exerciseth, are The quality of exercise is the diversity thereof, for very good to be used. as much as therein be many differences in moving, and also some exercise moveth more one part the

DIUGH LATIMER. body, some another. In difference of moving, some is slow or soft, some is swift or fast, some is strong or At this period Hugu LATIMER distinguished himviolent, some be mixed with strength and swiftness. self as a zealous reformer, not less than Sir Thomas Strong or violent exercises be these ; delving (spe- More did on the opposite side. He was educated cially in tough clay and heavy), bearing or sustaining in the Romish faith, but afterwards becoming acof heavy burdens, climbing or walking against a steep quainted with Thomas Bilney, a celebrated defender upright hill, holding a rope and climbing up thereby, of the doctrines of Luther, he saw reason to alter hanging by the hands on any thing above a man's his opinions, and boldly maintained in the pulpit the reach, that his feet touch not the ground, standing views of the Protestant party. His preaching at and holding up or spreading the arms, with the hands Cambridge gave great offence to the Catholic clergy, fast closed, and abiding so a long time. Also to hold at whose instigation Cardinal Wolsey instituted a the arms stedfast, causing another man to essay to court of bishops and deacons to execute the laws pull them out, and notwithstanding he keepeth his against heretics. Before this court Bilney and arm stedfast, enforcing thereunto the sinews and mus- Latimer were summoned, when the recantation of cles. Wrestling also with the arms and legs, the the former, who was considered the principal man, persons be equal in strength, it doth exercise the one caused both to be set at liberty. Bilney afterwards and the other ; if the one be stronger, then is [it] to disclaimed his abjuration, and was burnt. This, the weaker a more violent exercise. All these kinds however, nowise abated the boldness of Latimer, of exercises and other like them do augment strength, who continued to preach openly, and even wrote a and therefore they serve only for young men which letter to Henry VIII., remonstrating against the be inclined or be apt to the wars. Swift exercise prohibition of the use of the Bible in English. This, without violence is running, playing with weapons, although it failed to produce the desired result, tennis or throwing of the ball, trotting a space of seems to have given no offence to Henry, who soon ground forward and backward, going on the tocs and afterwards presented Latimer to a living in Wiltholding up the bands ; also, stirring up and down his shire, and in 1535 appointed him bishop of Worcester. arms without plummets. Vehement exercise is com- After the fall of Anne Boleyn, the passing in parpound of violent exercise and swift, when they are liament of the six articles establishing the doctrines joined together at one time, as dancing or galiards; of popery, induced him to resign his bishopric. throwing of the ball and running after it ; foot-ball During the latter part of Henry's reign, he suffered play may be in the number thereof, throwing of the imprisonment; but being liberated after the accessong dart and continuing it many times, running in sion of Edward VI., he became popular at court as

a preacher, but never could be prevailed on to re* Introduction to the Literature of the Fiftoenth, Sixteenth, sume his episcopal functions. In Mary's reign, and Seventeenth Centuries, i. 554.

when measures were taken for the restoration of

1 Irascible.

popery, Latimer was summoned before the council, and desired me for God's sake to hear his confession ; and, though allowed an opportunity of escape, I did so ; and, to say the very truth, by his confession readily obeyed the citation, exclaiming, as he passed I learned more than before in niany years ; so from through Smithfield, “This place has long groaned that time forward I began to smell the word of God, for me.' After a tedious imprisonment, he persisted and forsook the school-doctors and such fooleries. in refusing to subscribe certain articles which were Now after I had been acquainted with him, I went submitted to him, and suffered at the stake in 1555, with him to visit the prisoners in the tower at Camexclaiming to his fellow-martyr, Bishop Ridley, bridge, for he was ever visiting prisoners and sick folk.

Be of good comfort, Doctor Ridley, and play the So we went together, and exhorted them as well as we man : we shall this day light such a candle, by were able to do; minding them to patience, and to God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be acknowledge their faults. Among other prisoners, put out.' His sermons, a collection of which was there was a woman which was accused that she had published in 1570, are remarkable for a familiarity killed her child, which act she plainly and steadfastly and drollery of style, which, though it would now denied, and could not be brought to confess the act'; be reckoned very singular in the pulpit, was highly which denying gave us occasion to search for the matpopular in his own time, and produced a wonderful ter, and so we did ; and at length we found that her impression on his hearers. Cranmer and he were husband loved her not, and therefore he sought means instrumental in effecting a great improvement in to make her out of the way. The matter was thus :the quality of clerical discourses, by substituting

A child of hers had been sick by the space of a year, topics connected with moral duties for what was then and so decayed, as it were, in a consumption. At the common subject-matter of sermons ; namely, length it died in harvest time ; she went to her neighincredible and often ridiculous legendary tales of bours and other friends to desire their help to prepare saints and martyrs, and accounts of miracles wrought the child for burial; but there was nobody at home, for the confirmation of doctrines of the Catholic every man was in the field. The woman, in a heavichurch. The following extracts from Latimer's ness and trouble of spirit, went, and being herself sermons will give an idea of his style and peculiar alone, prepared the child for burial. Her husband manner:

coming home, not having great love towards her, accused her of the murder, and so she was taken and

brought to Cambridge. But as far forth as I could [4 Yeoman of Henry VII's time.]

learn, through earnest inquisition, I thought in my

conscience the woman was not guilty, all the circumMy father was a yeoman, and had no lands of his stances well considered. own, only he had a farm of £3 or £4 by year at the Immediately after this, I was called to preach before uttermost, and hereupon he tilled so much as kept the king, which was my first sermon that I made behalf a dozen men. He had walk for an hundred sheep, fore his majesty, and it was done at Windsor ; where and my mother milked thirty kine. He was able, his majesty, after the sermon was done, did most famiand did find the king a harness, with himself and his liarly talk with me in a gallery. Now, when I saw horse, while he came to the place that he should my time, I kneeled down before his majesty, opening receive the king's wages. I can remember that I the whole matter, and afterwards most humbly desired buckled bis harness when he went to Blackheath field. his majesty to pardon that woinan. For I thought in He kept me to school, or else I had not been able to my conscience she was not guilty, or else I would not have preached before the king's majesty now. He for all the world sue for a murderer. The king most married my sisters with £5 or 20 nobles a-piece, so graciously heard my humble request, insomuch that that he brought them up in godliness and fear of i had a pardon ready for her at my returning homeGod. He kept hospitality for his poor neighbours. ward. In the mean season, that woman was delivered And some alms he gave to the poor, and all this did of a child in the tower of Cambridge, whose godfather be of the said farm. Where he that now hath it, I was, and Mistress Cheek was godmother. But all payeth £16 by the year, or more, and is not able to that time I hid my pardon, and told her nothing of do any thing for his prince, for himself, nor for his it, only exhorting her to confess the truth. At length children, or give a cup of drink to the poor.

the time came when she looked to suffer ; I came as In my time my poor father was as diligent to teach I was wont to do, to instruct her; she inade great me to shoot, as to leam me any other thing, and so I moan to me. So we travailed with this woman till think other men did their children : he taught me

we brought her to a good opinion ; and at length how to draw, how to lay my body in my bow, and not showed her the king's pardon, and let her go. to draw with strength of arms as divers other nations

This tale I told you by this occasion, that though do, but with strength of the body. I had my bows some women be very unnatural, and forget their chil. bought me according to my age and strength ; as I dren, yet when we hear any body so report, we should increased in them, so my bows were made bigger and not be too hasty in believing the tale, but rather susbigger, for men shall never shoot well, except they be pend our judgments till we know the truth. brought up in it: it is a worthy game, a wholesome kind of exereise, and much commended in physic.

(Cause and Efect.) [Hasty Judgment.)

Here now I remember an argument of Master

More’s, which he bringeth in a book that he made Here I have occasion to tell you a story which hap- against Bilney, and here, by the way, I will tell you pened at Cambridge. Master Bilney, or rather Saint a merry toy. Master More was once sent in comumisBilney, that suffered death for God's word's sake, the sion into Kent, to help to try out, if it might be, same Bilney was the instrument whereby God called what was the cause of Goodwin sands and the shelf me to knowledge, for I may thank him, next to God, that stopped up Sandwich haven. Thither cometh for that knowledge that I have in the word of God. Master More, and calleth the country before him, For I was as obstinate a papist as any was in England, such as were thought to be men of experience, and insomuch that, when I should be made Bachelor of men that could of likelihood best certity him of that Divinity, my whole oration went against Philip Me- matter concerning the stopping of Sandwich haven. lancthon and against his opinions. Bilncy heard me Among others came in before him an old man with a at that time, and perceived that I was zealous without white head, and one that was thought to be little less knowledge ; he canie to me ufterward in my study, than a hundred years old. When Master More saw


this aged man, he thought it expedient to hear him Now these shepherds, I say, they watch the whole say his mind in this matter, for, being so old a man, night, they attend upon their vocation, they do acit was likely that he knew most of any man in that cording to their calling, they keep their sheep, they presence and company. So Master More called this run not bither and thither, spending the time in vain, old aged man unto him, and said, father, tell me, if and neglecting their office and calling. No, they did ye can, what is the cause of this great rising of the not so. Here by these shepherds men may learn to sands and shelves here about this haven, the which attend upon their offices, and callings : I would wish stop it up, so that no ships can arrive here ! Ye are that clergymen, the curates, parsons, and vicars, the the eldest man that I can espy in all this company, bishops and all other spiritual persons, would learn so that if any man can tell any cause of it, ye of like- this lesson by these poor shepherds ; which is this, lihood can say most of it, or, at leastwise, more than to abide by their flocks, and by their sheep, to tarry any man here assembled. Yea, forsooth, good master, amongst them, to be careful over them, not to run quoth this old man, for I am well nigh a hundred hither and thither after their own pleasure, but to years old, and no man here in this company anything tarry by their benefices and feed their sheep with the near unto my age. Well, then, quoth Master More, food of God's word and to keep hospitality, and so to how say you in this matter? What think ye to be feed them both soul and body. For I tell you, these the cause of these shelves and flats that stop up Sand- poor unlearned shepherds shall condemn many a stout wich haven? Forsooth, Sir, quoth he, I am an old and great learned clerk ; for these shepherds had but man ; I think that Tenderden-steeple is the cause of the care and charge over brute beasts, and yet were Goodwin sands ; for I am an old man, Sir, quoth he, diligent to keep them, and to feed them, and the other and I may remember the building of Tenderden- have the cure over God's lambs which he bought with steeple, and I may remember when there was no the death of his son, and yet they are so careless, so steeple at all there. And before that Tenderden- negligent, so slothful over them; yea, and the most steeple was in building, there was no manner of speak part intendeth not to feed the sheep, but they long ing of any fats or sands that stopped the haven, and to be fed of the sheep ; they seek only their own pastherefore I think that Tenderden-steeple is the cause times, they care for no more. But what said Christ of the destroying and decay of Sandwich haven. And to Peter? What said he ? Petre, amas me!_(Peter, so to my purpose, preaching of God's word is the lovest thou me ?) Peter made answer, yes. Then feed cause of rebellion, as Tenderden-steeple was the cause my sheep. And so the third time he commanded Peter that Sandwich haven is decayed.

to feed his sheep. But our clergymen do declare plainly that they love not Christ, because they feed

not his flock. If they had earnest love to Christ, no [The Shepherds of Bethlehem.]

doubt they would show their love, they would feed I pray you to whom was the nativity of Christ first his sheep. opened? To the bishops or great lords which were at • And the shepherds returned lauding and praising that time at Bethlehem? Or to those jolly damsels with God, for all the things that they had heard and seen, their fardingales, with their round-abouts, or with their &c. They were not made religious men, but returned bracelets ! No, no, they had too many lets to trim again to their business and to their occupation. Here and dress themselves, so that they could have no time we learn every man to follow his occupation and roto hear of the nativity of Christ; their minds were so cation, and not to leave the same, except God call occupied otherwise, that they were not allowed to hear him from it to another, for God would have every of him. But his nativity was revealed first to the man to live in that order that he hath ordained for shepherds, and it was revealed unto them in the night- him. And no doubt the man that plieth his occutime, when every body was at rest ; then they heard pation truly, without any fraud or deceit, the same is this joyful tidings of the saviour of the world ; for acceptable to God, and he shall have everlasting these shepherds were keeping their sheep in the night | life. season from the wolf and other beasts, and from the We read a pretty story of St Anthony, which being fux; for the sheep in that country do lamb two times in the wilderness, led there a very hard and strait in the year, and therefore it was needful for the sheep life, in so much as none at that time did the like ; to to have a shepherd to keep them. And here note the whom came a voice from heaven saying : Anthony, diligence of these shepherds ; for whether the sheep thou art not so perfect as is a cobbler that dwelleth at were their own, or whether they were servants, I cannot Alexandria. Anthony, hearing this, rose up forth with, tell, for it is not expressed in the book ; but it is most and took his staff and went till he came to Alexan like they were servants, and their masters had put dria, where he found the cobbler. The cobbler was them in trust to keep their sheep. Now, if these shep- astonished to see so reverend a father come to his herds had been deceitful fellows, that when their house. Then Anthony said unto him, come and tell nasters had put them in trust to keep their sheep, me thy whole conversation, and how thou spendest they had been drinking in the alehouse all night, as thy time ! Sir, said the cobbler, as for me, good works some of our servants do now-a-days, surely the angel have I none ; for my life is but simple and slender. had not appeared unto them to have told them this I am but a poor cobbler; in the morning, when I rise, great joy and good tidings. And here all servants ! pray for the whole city wherein I dwell, specially may learn by these shepherds, to serve truly and dili- for all such neighbours and poor friends as I have. gently unto their masters ; in what business soever After, I set me at my labour, when I spend the whole they are set to do, let them be painful and diligent, day in getting my living, and I keep me from all like as Jacob was unto his master Laban. O what á falsehood, for I hate nothing so much as I do deceitpainful, faithful, and trusty man was he! He was fulness , wherefore, when I make to any man a proday and night at his work, keeping his sheep truly, mise, I keep it, and perform it truly, and thus I spend as he was put in trust to do ; and when any chance my time poorly, with my wife and children, whom I happened that any thing was lost, he made it good teach and instruct, as far as my wit will serve me, to and restored it again of his own. So likewise was fear and dread God. And this is the sum of my Elcazarus a painful man, a faithful and trusty ser simple life. vant. Such a serrant was Joseph in Egypt to his In this story, you see how God loveth those that master Potiphar. So likewise was Daniel unto his follow their vocation and live uprightly, without any master the king. But I pray you where are these ser- falsehood in their dealing: This Anthony was a great rants now-a-days ? Indeed, i fear me there be but holy man, yet this cobbler was as much esteemed very few of such faithful servants.

before God as he.

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