was set at his liberty. Then the Lord Saye, being as Then upon the 5th day of July, the Captain being before is said, at Guildhall, desired that he might be in Southwark, caused a man to be beheaded, for cause judged by his peers. Whereof hearing, the Captain of displeasure to him done, as the fame went ; and so sent a company of his unto the hall, the which per he kept him in Southwark all that day ; how be it he force took him from his officers, and so brought him might have entered the city if he had wold. unto the standard in Cheap, where, orl he were half And when night was coming, the mayor and citizens, shriven, they strake off his head ; and that done, with Matthew Gowth, like to their former appointpight it upon a long pole, and so bare it about with ment, kept the passage of the bridge, being Sunday, them.

and defended the Kentishmen, which made great In this time and season had the Captain caused a force to re-enter the city. Then the Captain, seeing gentleman to be taken, named William Crowiner, this bickering begun, yode to harness, and called which before had been sheriff of Kent, and used, as his people about him, and set so fiercely upon the they said, some extortions. For which cause, or for citizens, that he drare them back from the stulpes he had favoured the Lord Saye, by reason that he had in Southwark, or bridge foot, unto the drawbridge. married his daughter, he was hurried to Miles End, Then the Kentishmen set fire upon the drawbridge. In and there, in the Captain's presence, beheaded. And defending whereof many a man was drowned and the same time was there also beheaded another man, slain, among the which, of men of name was John called Baillie, the cause of whose death was this, as I Sutton, alderman, Matthew Gowth, gentleman, and have heard some men report. This Baillie was of the Roger Heyrand, citizen. And thus continued this familiar and old acquaintance of Jack Cade, where- skirmish all night, till 9 of the clock upon the morn; fore, so soon as he espied him coming to him-ward, he so that sometime the citizens had the better, and thus cast in his mind that he would discover his living and soon the Kentishmen were upon the better side ; but old manners, and show off his vile kin and lineage. ever they kept them upon the bridge, so that the Wherefore, knowing that the said Baillie used to bear citizens passed never much the bulwark at the bridge scrows, and prophesy about him, showing to his com- foot, nor the Kentishmen much farther than the drawpany that he was an enchanter and of ill disposition, bridge. Thus continuing this cruel fight, to the de and that they should well know by such books as he struction of much people on both sides ; lastly, after bare upon him, and bade them search, and if they the Kentishmen were put to the worse, a trewl was found not as he said, that then they should put him agreed for certain hours ; during the which trew, the to death, which all was done according to his com- Archbishop of Canterbury, then chancellor of England, mandinent.

sent a general pardon to the Captain for himself, and When they had thus beheaded these two men, they another for his people : by reason whereof he and his took the head of Crowmer and pight it upon a pole, company departed the same night out of Southwark, and so entered again the city with the heads of the and so returned every man to his own. Lords Save and of Crowmer; and as they passed the But it was not long after that the Captain with his streets, joined the poles together, and caused either company was thus departed, that proclamations were dead mouth to kiss other diverse and many times. malle in divers places of Kent, of Sussex, and Sow

And the Captain the self-same day went unto the therey, that who might take the foresaid Jack Cade, honse of Philip Malpas, draper and alderman, and either alive or dead, should have a thousand mark for robbed and spoiled his house, and took thence a great his travail. After which proclamation thus published, substance ; but he was before warned, and thereby a gentleman of Kent, named Alexander Iden, awaited conveyed much of his money and plate, or else he had so his time, that he took him in a garden in Sussex, been undone. At which spoiling were present many where in the taking of him the said Jack was slain : poor men of the city, which at such times been ever and so being dead, was brought into Southwark the ready in all places to do harm, when such riots been day of the month of September, and then left in the done.

King's Bench for that night. And upon the morrow Then toward night he returned into Southwark, and the dead corpse was drawn through the high streets of upon the morn re-entered the city, and dined that day the city unto Newgate, and there headed and quarat a place in St Margaret Patyn parish, called Gherstis tered, whose head was then sent to London Bridge, House ; and when he had dined, like an uncurteous and his four quarters were sent to four sundry towns guest, robbed him, as the day before he had Malpas. of Kent. For which two robberies, albeit that the porailand needy And this done, the king sent his commissions into people drew unto him, and were partners of that ill, Kent, and rode after himself, and caused enquiry to the honest and thrifty commoners cast in their minds be made of this riot in Canterbury ; wherefore the the sequel of this matter, and feared lest they should same eight men were judged and put to death ; and in be dealt with in like manner, by means whereof he other good towns of Kent and Sussex, divers other lost the people's favour and hearts. For it was to be were put in execution for the same riot. thought, if he had not executed that robbery, he might have gone fair and brought his purpose to good effect,

Hall, who was a lawyer and a judge in the sheriff's if he had intended well; but it is to deem and pre-court of London, and died at an advanced age in suppose that the intent of him was not good, where- 1547, compiled a copious chronicle of English his. fore it might not come to any good conclusion. Then tory during the reigns of the houses of Lancaster the mayor and aldermen, with assistance of the wor- and York, and those of Henry VII. and Henry VIII., shipful commoners, sceing this misdemeanour of the which was first printed by Grafton in 1548, under Captain, in safeguarding of themself and of the city, the title of The Union of the two Noble and Illustre took their counsels, how they might drive the Captain Families of Lancastre and Yorke, with all the Actes done and his adherents from the city, wherein their fear in both the tymes of the Princes both of the one linage and was the more, for so much as the king and his lords the other, &c. Hall is very minute in his notices of with their powers were far from them. But yet in the fashions of the time : altogether, his work is of a avoiding of apparent peril, they condescended that superior character to that of Fabian, as might perthey would withstand his any more entry into the haps be expected from his better education and condicity. For the performance whereof, the mayor sent tion in life. Considered as the only compilations of anto the Lord Scales and Matthew Gowth, then having English history at the command of the wits of Elizathe Tower in guiding, and had of them assent to per- beth's reign, and as furnishing the foundations of form the same.

many scenes and even whole plays by one of the • Scrolls of paper.

1 Ere

1 Truce.

most illustrious of these, the Chronicles have a value theless, the Lord Hastings, which from the death of in our eyes beyond that which properly belongs to King Edward kept Shore's wife, his heart somewhat them. In the following extract, the matter of a re- grudged to have her whom he loved so highly acmarkable scene in Richard III. is found, and it is cused, and that as he knew well untruly; thereworthy of notice, how well the prose narration reads fore he answered and said, 'Certainly, my Lord, beside the poetical one.

if they have so done, they be worthy of heinous

punishment. What !' quoth the Protector, 'thou [Scene in the Council-Room of the Protector Gloucester.) thee, they have done it, and that will I make good

servest me, I ween, with if and with and; I tell The Lord Protector caused a council to be set at on thy body, traitor !' And therewith, as in a great the Tower, on Friday the thirteen day of June, anger, he clapped his fist on the board a great rap, where there was much communing for the honourable at which token given, one cried treason without the solemnity of the coronation, of the which the time chamber, and therewith a door clapped, and in came appointed approached so near, that the pageants were rushing men in harness, as many as the chamber could a making day and night at Westminster, and victual hold. And anon the Protector said to the Lord killed, which afterward was cast away.

Hastings, 'I arrest thee, traitor!'What ! me! my These lords thus sitting, communing of this matter, Lord,' quoth he. * Yea, the traitor,' quoth the Prothe Protector came in among them, about nine of the tector. And one let fly at the Lord Stanley, which clock, saluting them courteously, excusing himself that shrunk at the stroke, and fell under the table, or else he had been from them so long, saying merrily that his head had been cleft to the teeth ; for as shortly he had been a sleeper that day. And after a little as he shrunk, yet ran the blood about his ears. Then talking with him, he said to the Bishop of Ely, “My was the Archbishop of York, and Doctor Morton, Lord, you have very good strawberries in your garden Bishop of Ely, and the Lord Stanley taken, and divers at Holborn ; I require you let us have a mess of them.' others which were bestowed in divers chambers, safe

Gladly, my Lord,' quoth he ; ‘I would I had some the Lord Hastings, whom the Protector commanded better thing, as ready to your pleasure as that ;' and to speed and shrive him apace. • For, by Saint Poule, with that in all haste he sent his servant for a dish quoth he, ‘I will not dine till I see thy head off.' of strawberries. The Protector set the lords fast in It booted him not to ask why, but heavily he took a communing, and thereupon prayed them to spare him priest at a venture, and made a short shrift, for a a little ; and so he departed, and came again between longer would not be suffered, the Protector made so ten and eleven of the clock in to the chamber, all much haste to his dinner, which might not go to it changed, with a sour angry countenance, knitting the till this murder were done, for saving of his ungrabrows, frowning and fretting, and gnawing on his cious oath. So was he brought forth into the green, lips ; and so set him down in his place. All the lords beside the chapel within the Tower, and his head laid were dismayed, and sore marvelled of this manner down on a log of timber, that lay there for building and sudden change, and what thing should him ail. of the chapel, and there tyrannously stricken off, and When he had sitten a while, thus he began : “What after his body and head were interred at Windsor, by were they worthy to have, that compass and imagine his master, King Edward the Fourth ; whose souls the destruction of me, being so near of blood to the Jesu pardon. Amen. king, and protector of this his royal realm ! At which question, all the lords sat sore astonished, musing much by whom the question should be meant, of which every man knew himself clear. Then the Lord Hastings, as he that, for the fami

Passing over Fortescue, the first prose-writer who liarity that was between them, thought he might be mingled just and striking thought with his language, boldest with him, answered and said, that they were

and was entitled to the appellation of a man of worthy to be punished as heinous traitors, whatsoever genius, was unquestionably the celebrated chancellor they were ; and all the other affirmed the same. That of Henry VIII., Sir Thomas MORE (1480-1535). is,' quoth' he, yonder sorceress, my brother's wife, Born the son of a judge of the King's Bench, and and other with her ;' meaning the queen. Many of educated at Oxford, More entered life with all ex. the lords were sore abashed which favoured her ; but ternal advantages, and soon reached a distinguished the Lord Hastings was better content in his mind, situation in the law and in state employments. that it was moved by her than by any other that he He was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1529, being loved better ; albeit his heart grudged that he was

the first layman who ever held the office. At all not afore made of counsel of this matter, as well as periods of his life, he was a zealous professor of the he was of the taking of her kindred, and of their put- Catholic faith, insomuch that he was at one time ting to death, which were by his assent before devised with difficulty restrained from becoming a monk. to be beheaded at Pomfret, this self same day; in the When Henry wished to divorce Catherine, he was which he was not ware, that it was by other devised opposed by the conscientious More, who accordingly that he himself should the same day be beheaded at incurred his displeasure, and perished on the scaffold. London. “Then,' said the Protector, ‘in what wise The cheerful, or rather mirthful, disposition of the that sorceress and other of her counsel, as Shore's wife, learned chancellor forsook him not at the last, and with her affinity, have by their sorcery and witchcraft he jested even when about to lay his head upon the thus wasted my body! and therewith plucked up block. The character of More was most benignant, his doublet sleeve to his elbow, on his left arm, where as the letter to his wife, who was ill-tempered, he showed a very withered arm, and small, as it was written after the burning of some of his property, never other.' And thereupon every man's mind mis- expressively shows, at the same time that it is a gave them, well perceiving that this matter was but good specimen of his English prose. The domestic à quarrel ; for well they wist that the queen was circle at his house in Chelsea, where the profoundly both too wise to go about any such folly, and also, if learned statesman at once paid reverence to his she would, yet would she of all folk make Shore's wife parents and sported with his children, has been least of her counsel, whom of all women she most made the subject of an interesting picture by the hated, as that concubine whom the king, her husband, great artist of that age, Holbein. most loved.

The literary productions of More are partly in Also, there was no man there, but knew that his Latin and partly in English : he adopted the former arm was ever such, sith the day of his birth. Never-| language probably from taste, the latter for the pur


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hatred report above the truth, or else that nature (Letter to Lady More.]

changed her course in his beginning, which, in the (Returning from the negotiations at Cambray, Sir Thomas course of his life, many things unnaturally comMore heard that his barns and some of those of his neighbours mitted.) had been burnt down; he consequently wrote the following None evil captain was he in the war, as to which letter to his wife. Its gentleness to a sour-tempered woman, his disposition was more meetly than for peace. and the benevolent feelings expressed about the property of his Sundry victories had he, and sometime overthrows, neighbours, have been much admired.)

but never in default for his own person, either of Mistress Alice, in my most heartywise I recommend hardiness or politic order. Free was he called of disme to you. And whereas I am informed by my son pense, and somewhat above his power liberal. With Heron of the loss of our barns and our neighbours' large gifts he get him unsteadfast friendship, for also, with all the corn that was therein ; albeit (sav- which he was fain to pil and spoil in other places, and ing God's pleasure) it is great pity of só much good get him stedfast hatred. He was close and secret ; corn lost ; yet since it has liked him to send us such a deep dissimuler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of a chance, we must and are bounden, not only to be heart; outwardly coumpinable where he inwardly content, but also to be glad of his visitation. He sent hated, not letting to kiss whom he thought to kill"; us all that we have lost ; and since he hath by such a dispitious and cruel, not for evil will alway, but chance taken it away again, his pleasure be fulfilled ! oftener for ambition, and either for the surety and Let us never grudge thereat, but take it in good increase of his estate. Friend and foe was indifferworth, and heartily thank him, as well for adversity ent, where his advantage grew; he spared no man's as for prosperity. And peradventure we have more death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with cause to thank him for our loss than for our winning, his own hands king Henry VI., being prisoner in the for his wisdom better seeth what is good for us than Tower. we do ourselves. Therefore, I pray you be of good cheer, and take all the household with you to church,

[The Utopian Idea of Pleasure.] and there thank God, both for that he has given us, and for that he has taken from us, and for that he (From Bishop Burnet's translation of the Utopia.) hath left us ; which, if it please him, he can increase when he will, and if it please him to leave us yet less, They think it is an evidence of true wisdom for a at his pleasure be it!

man to pursue his own advantages as far as the laws I pray you to make some good onsearch what my allow it. They account it piety to prefer the public poor neighbours have lost, and bid them take no good to one's private concerng. But they think it thought therefore ; for, if I should not leave myself a unjust for a man to seek for his own pleasure, by spoon, there shall no poor ncighbour of mine bear no snatching another man's pleasures from him. And, loss by my chance, happened in my house. I pray on the contrary, they think it a sign of a gentle and you be, with my children and your household, merry good soul, for a man to dispense with his own advanin God; and devise somewhat with your friends what tage for the good of others; and that, by so doing, a way were best to take, for provision to be made for good man finds as much pleasure one way as he parts corn for our household, and for seed this year coming, with another ; for, as he may expect the like from if we think it good that we keep the ground still in others when he may come to need it, so, if that should our hands. And whether we think it good that we fail him, yet the sense of a good action, and the re80 shall do or not, yet I think it were not best sud- flections that one makes on the love and gratitude of denly thus to leave it all up, and to put away our those whom he has so obliged, gives the mind more folk from our farm, till we have somewhat advised us pleasure than the body could have found in that from thereon. Howbeit, if we have more now than ye shall which it had restrained itself. They are also per. need, and which can get them other masters, ye may suaded that God will make up the loss of those small then discharge us of them. But I would not that any pleasures with a vast and endless joy, of which reliman were suddenly sent away, he wot not whither. gion does easily convince a good soul. Thus, upon an

At my coming hither, I perceived none other but inquiry into the whole matter, they reckon that all that I should tarry still with the king's grace. But our actions, and even all our virtues, terminate in now I shall, I think, because of this chance, get leave pleasure, as in our chief end and greatest happiness ; this next week to come home and see you, and then and they call every motion or state, either of body or shall we farther devise together upon all things, what mind, in which nature teaches us to delight, a pleaorder shall be best to take.

And thus they cautiously limit pleasure only And thus as heartily fare you well, with all our

to those appetites to which nature leads us ; for they children, as ye can wish. At Woodstock, the third reckon that nature leads us only to those delights to day of September, by the hand of THOMAS MORE. which reason as well as sense carries us, and by which

we neither injure any other person, nor let go greater [Character of Richard III.]

pleasures for it, and which do not draw troubles on us

after them ; but they look upon those delights which [Bir Thomas's account of Richard III. has been followed by men, by a foolish though common mistake, call pleaShakspeare.]

sure, as if they could change the nature of things, as Richard, the third son, of whom we now, entreat, not advance our happiness, but do rather obstruct it

well as the use of words, as things that not only do was in wit and courage egall with either of them; in very much, because they do so entirely possess the body and prowess, far under them both ; little of minds of those that once go into them with a false stature, ill-featured of limbs, crook-backed, his left notion of pleasure, that there is no room left for truer shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favoured of visage. He was malicious, wrathful, en vious, and

and purer pleasures. from afore his birth ever froward. It is for truth nothing that is truly delighting : on the contrary,

There are many things that in themselves have reported, that the duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail, that she could not be delivered of they have a good deal of bitterness in them; and yet him uncut; and that he came into the world with the not only ranked among the pleasures, but are made

by our perverse appetites after forbidden objects, are feet forward, as men be borne outward ; and (as the fame runneth) also not untoothed (whether men of even the greatest designs of life. Among those who


pursue these sophisticated pleasures, they reckon those whom I mentioned before, who think themselves

1 Equal.

really the better for having fine clothes, in which they from a depraved custom, which may so vitiate a man's think they are doubly mistaken, both in the opinion taste, that bitter things may pass for sweet ; as pregthat they have of their clothes, and in the opinion nant women think pitch or tallow tastes sweeter than that they have of themselves ; for if you consider the honey ; but as a man's sense when corrupted, either use of clothes, why should a fine thread be thought by a disease or some ill habit, does not change the better than a coarse one! And yet that sort of men, nature of other things, so neither can it change the es if they had some real advantages beyond others, nature of pleasure. and did not owe it wholly to their mistakes, look big, They reckon up several sorts of these pleasures, and seem to fancy themselves to be the more valuable which they call true ones ; some belong to the body, on that account, and imagine that a respect is due to and others to the mind. The pleasures of the mind them for the sake of a rich garment, to which they lie in knowledge, and in that delight which the conwould not have pretended if they had been more templation of truth carries with it ; to which they meanly clothed ; and they resent it as an affront, if add the joyful reflections on a well-spent life, and the that respect is not paid them. It is also a great folly assured hopes of a future happiness. They divide the to be taken with these outward marks of respect, pleasures of the body into two sorts; the one is that which signify nothing ; for what true or real pleasure which gives our senses some real delight, and is percan one find in this, that another man stands bare, or formed, cither by the recruiting of nature, and supmakes legs to him? Will the bending another man's plying those parts on which the internal heat of life thighs give you any ease? And will his head's being feeds; and that is done by eating or drinking: Or bare cure the madness of yours? And yet it is won- when nature is eased of any surcharge that oppresses derful to see how this false notion of pleasure bewitches it. There is another kind of this sort of pleasure, that many, who delight themselves with the fancy of their neither gives us anything that our bodies require, nobility, and are pleased with this conceit, that they nor frees us from anything with which we are overare descended from ancestors who have been held for charged ; and yet it excites our senses by a secret some successions rich, and that they have had great unseen virtue, and by a generous impression, it so possessions ; for this is all that makes nobility at tickles and affects them, that it turns them inwardly present ; yet they do not think themselves a whit the upon themselves ; and this is the pleasure begot by less noble, though their immediate parents have left music. none of this wealth to them ; or though they them- Another sort of bodily pleasure is, that which conselves have squandered it all away. The Utopians sists in a quiet and good constitution of body, by have no better opinion of those who are much taken which there is an entire healthiness spread over all with gems and precious stones, and who account it a the parts of the body not allayed with any disease. degree of happiness next to a divine one, if they can This, when it is free from all mixture of pain, gives purchase one that is very extraordinary, especially if an inward pleasure of itself, even though it should not it be of that sort of stones that is then in greatest re- be excited by any external and delighting object; and quest ; for the same sort is not at all times of the although this pleasure does not so vigorously affect same value with all sorts of people; nor will men buy the sense, nor act so strongly upon it, yet, as it is the it, unless it be dismounted and taken out of the gold. greatest of all pleasures, so almost all the Utopians And then the jeweller is made to give good security, reckon it the foundation and basis of all the other and required solemnly to swear that the stone is true, joys of life ; since this alone makes one's state of life that by such an exact caution, a false one may not be to be easy and desirable ; and when this is wanting, bought instead of a true ; whereas if you were to a man is really capable of no other pleasure. They examine it, your eye could find no difference between look upon indolence and freedom from pain, if it does that which is counterfeit and that which is true ; so not rise from a perfect health, to be a state of stupithat they are all one to you, as much as if you were dity rather than of pleasure. There has been a conblind. And can it be thought that they who heap up troversy in this matter very narrowly canvassed among an useless mass of wealth, not for any use that it is them; whether a firm and entire health could be to bring them, but merely to please themselves with called a pleasure or not? Some have thought that the contemplation of it, enjoy any true pleasure in it? there was no pleasure but that which was excited by The delight they find is only a false shadow of joy. some sensible motion in the body. But this opinion Those are no better whose error is somewhat different has been long ago run down among them, so that now from the former, and who hide it, out of the fear of they do almost all agree in this, That health is the losing it ; for what other name can fit the hiding it in greatest of all bodily pleasures ; and that, as there is the earth, or rather the restoring it to it again, it a pain in sickness, which is as opposite in its nature to being thus cut off from being useful, either to its pleasure, as sickness itself is to health, so they hold owner or to the rest of mankind? And yet the owner that health carries a pleasure along with it. And if having hid it carefully, is glad, because he thinks he any should say that sickness is not really a pain, but is now sure of it. And in case one should come to that it only carries a pain along with, they look upon steal it, the owner, though he might live perhaps ten that as a fetch of subtility that does not much alter years after the would all that while after the theft, the matter. So they think it is all one, whether it be of which he knew nothing, find no difference between said, that health is in itself a pleasure, or that it behis baring it or losing it, for both ways it was equally gets a pleasure, as fire gives heat ; so it be granted, useless to him.

that all those whose health is entire have a true pleaAmong those foolish pursuers of pleasure, they sure in it: and they reason thus. What is the pleareckon all those that delight in hunting, or birding sure of eating, but that a man's health which had been or gaming : of whose madness they have only heard, weakened, does, with the assistance of food, drive away for they have no such things among them.

hunger, and so recruiting itself, recovers its former Thus though the rabble of mankind looks upon vigour! And being thus refreshed, it finds a pleasure these, and all other things of this kind which are in- in that conflict. And if the conflict is pleasure, the deed innumerable, as pleasures ; the Utopians, on the victory must yet breed a greater pleasure, except we contrary, observing that there is nothing in the nature will fancy that it becomes stupid as soon as it has of them that is truly pleasant, conclude that they are obtained that which it pursued, and so does neither not to be reckoned among pleasures. For though these know nor rejoice in its own welfare. If it is said that things may create some tickling in the senses (which health cannot be felt, they absolutely deny that ; for seems to be a true notion of pleasure), yet they reckon what man is in health that does not perceive it when that this dues not arise from the thing itself, but he is awake? Is there any man that is so dull and

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