The edition of the English poets, now printing, will do honor to the English poets. — Life of Johnson.

The nation had cried out loudly against the crime while it was committing. Bolingbroke.

NOTE. - The form of expression, is being built, is being committed, &c., is almost universally condemned by grammarians; but it is sometimes met with in respectable writers. It occurs most frequently in newspaper paragraphs and in hasty compositions. See on the subject, Worcester's Universal and Critical Dictionary.


Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

REMARKS. 1. Adverbs are generally placed near the words which they modify; as, He conducts foolishly; Very sick; Right onward.

2. Adverbs are sometimes used for adjectives ; as, The then ministry; The above discourse ;* To-morrow morning; The men only.

NOTE. — When only refers to a noun, it should be placed near it, to avoid ambiguity.

3. Adverbs are sometimes used as nouns; as, Until now; Yet a little while.

4. From is sometimes unnecessarily used before whence, thence hence; as, From whence art thou, for whence, &c.

5. The adverb there often stands at the beginning of a sentence without particular reference to any other word; as, There are many who believe, &c.

6. The word modified by the adverb is sometimes omitted; as, I'll hence to London.

7. Two negatives in the same clause are equivalent to an af firmative; as, Nor did they not perceive, i. e., they did perceive.

8. An adverb sometimes modifies the word a, used in the sense of one ; as, Almost a year; Not a dollar.

9. The word but used in the sense of only may be treated as an adverb; as, All are but parts of one stupendous whole; I have but one request to make.

* Such expressions, though not destitute of authority, are exceedingly inelegant and irreconcilable with authority. — Crembice

10. As in the sense of so, is an adverb; as, As well; Ai much.

11. The adverb now frequently stands at the beginning of paragraphs in argumentative and familiar discourse, as a general connective, without modifying any particular word; as, Now, it is eviident, &c.

12. A preposition with its object is sometimes equivalent to an adverb; as, In truth, for truly, &c.

13. Adverbs are not unfrequently absolute; that is, they qualify no particular word, but usually refer to the whole preceding sentence; as, Yes, no, therefore, then, however, &c., and not unfre quently they are expletives, that is, qualify nothing; as, Why, well, there, &c. - Nutting.

14. Adverbs sometimes modify prepositions, adjuncts, phrases, and entire clauses; as, Just below the surface; Nearly round the world; I hear almost in vain; Independently of these considefations.


Prepositions govern the objective case.

REMARKS. 1. But in the sense of except, appears sometimes to be used as a preposition; as, All but one.

NOTE. – Than is sometimes followed by the objectives whom and which; as, Alfred, than whom, &c. Beelzebub, than whom, &c.

2. The article a is in a few instances employed in the sense of a preposition; as, Simon Peter said, I go a [to] fishing.

3. Two or more words combined are sometimes treated as a compound proposition; as, According to, in respect to, in regard to, from above, from below, as as for, over against, instead of, out of, &c.

4. The words allowing, considering, concerning, during, respecting, supposing, notwithstanding, excepting, past, are sometimes termed verbal prepositions ;* and also, save and except.

5. Some of the prepositions are occasionally used as adverbs ; the noun however, may generally be supplied.

* Some grammarians prefer to treat this class of words as participles, under all circumstances, agreeing with the whole sentence, or some word understood; and save and except, as verbs in the imó perative mode.


6. Prepositions sometimes govern a participial clause, or a simple sentence.

7. Prepositions are sometimes followed by an adverb; as, From afar; To where.

RULE XXII. Conjunctions connect single words or sentences; as, He reads and writes; I sought the Lord and he heard






REMARKS. 1. The conjunctions if, though, except, unless, and lest, are signs of the subjunctive mode.

NOTE. — If is often omitted before the subjunctive; Had I the wings of a dove, for If I had; Could I but stand, for 'If I could, &c.; Were there no difference, for If there were. 2. The following are corresponding conjunctions. Though — yet. As-as. Whether

Either -


Both — and. 3. As is sometimes used in the sense of a relative pronoun; as, Such a scheme as I have seen ;--- as may be parsed in the objective after seen. The ellipsis of that which, those which, &c., may however be supplied; then as will be treated as a conjunction.

4. The phrases as if, as though, what though, are elliptical. An intervening clause may be supplied.

5. There are many abridged expressions, which it is convenient to call compound connectives ; such as, As well as, inasmuch as, in order that, but that, &c.; these, however, can generally be analyz ed intelligibly, and each word may be parsed separately, by supplying words as the sense will allow.

6. The word both * is used as a conjunction, adjective and pro


7. That is used as a conjunction, an adjective, and a relative pro


SENTENCES TO BE ANALYZED AND PARSED. We see all this is done, and all this expenditure is incurred.

* By a careful analysis it may be found that both is in all cases an adjective, and that an adjective or relative, but in most grammars there are other offices assigned them.

This is a compound sentence, consisting of two simple sentences; and connects them.

In order to produce it now, we diminish the productiveness of all other labor. And the only effect is to postpone it to a still more distant period.

Two distinct sentences; the general train of thought is connected by and, standing at the beginning of the second, after the period.

A great public as well as private advantage arises from every one's devoting himself to that occupation which he prefers, and for which he is specially fitted. — Wayland.

As well as is a compound connective, and joins public and pricate.

It is also evident that, by each nation's devoting itself to that branch of production for which it has the greatest facilities, either original or acquired, its own happiness will be better promoted, and a greater amount of production created, than in any other manner.

Id. This compound sentence consists of four members or clauses. That connects the clause, it is also evilent, &c., with the clause, its own happiness will be promoted; of which the phrase, by each, &c., is an adjunct ; and connects the clause following it with the one before, than connects will be created, and will be promoted understood, to the same words expressed; for which, &c., is a relative clause, and refers to production. Either - or are correspond ing conjunctions and connect original and acquired.


Interjections have no governing power, and have no dependence on other words in construction.


Interjections often stand before nouns independent, and before whole clauses; as, O virtue! Oh for a lodge in some vast wilder ness! Some words must be supplied before such clauses to coma plete the sentence; as, Oh how I long for a lodge, &c.



SENTENCE. Those who were skillful in anatomy, among the ancients, concluded, from the outward and inward make of a human body, that it was the work of a Being transcendently wise and powerful.


This is a compound sentence, made up of as many simple sen tences or clauses as there are verbs in it which are not in the In finitive mode, viz: three simple clauses.

No. 1. - Those among the ancients concluded, &c., is the leading clause.

No. 2. — Who were skillful in anatomy, is a relative clause, connected with No. 1, by who, referring to those.

No. 3. That it was the work of, &c., is a dependent clause, connected with No. 1, by the conjunction that.

The subject of No. 1, is those, modified 1st, by the adjunct, among he ancients, 2d, by the relative clause, who were, &c.

Concluded is the predicate of No. 1, modified 1st, by the adjunct from the outward, &c.; 2d, by the whole clause, that it was, &c. The subject of No. 2, is the relative who.

The predicate of No. 2, is were skillful; skillful is modified by The adjunct in anatomy, showing in what respect they were skillCul.

The subject of No. 3, is it.
The predicale of No. 3, is was the work.

Of Being is the adjunct of work, and is equivalent to a noun in the possessive case.

Transcendently modifies wise and powerful;wise and powerful modify Being.

« ElőzőTovább »