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RULES OF SYNTAX, AND MODELS
ANALYZING AND TRANSPOSING.
SELECTIONS OF PROSE AND POETRY
FROM WRITERS OF STANDARD AUTHORITY.
BY ALLEN H. WELD, A. M.,
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by ALLEN H. WELD, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of Maine.
SYNOPSIS OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS.
See Gram. $$ 35, 36, 37, 28, 34, or Parsing Book, pages 5, 6.
PREDICATE. MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE.
plete an assertion. 3 and rarely an adjective. The Subject, whose meaning is modified by one or more words, The Predicate, whose meaning is modified by one or more words is called the MODIFIED (or logical) SUBJECT.
is called the MODIFIED (or logical) TREDICATE.
LIBRARY UNIVERSITY HARVARD
MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT.
the marquis of Cadiz,
only, among the trees,
called an article,
so fair and beautiful to-day, Those,
who are obliging
MODIFIERS OF THE PRED.
a council at Cordova beheld
from a distance, the peril of
the king is the privilege
of the good. is evident
from your own admission.
verdant, in the winter.
from a Saxon word.
to-morrow. may expect
to be accommodated.
MODIFICATION OF WORDS
NOUN OR PRONOUN. VERB OR PARTICIPLE.
ADVEPB. A noun or pronoun may be modified A verb or participle may be mod An adjective may be An adverb may be modified 1. By a nonn in apposition; as, George,
mi. By another adverb; as, Most the king.
1. By a noun in the objective case, 1. By an adverb; as, Very assuredly. 2. By an adjective; as, A tall mast. if the verb is transitive; as, The
2. By a preposition with its ob 3. By a preposition with its object (ad sun gives light.
2. By a verb in the infini ject (adjunct); as, Agreeajunct); as, A life of toil.
12. By a verb in the infinitive; as, tive; as, Pleasant to bly to nature, most of all. 4. By a participle; as, The sun rising. He hopes to return.
PREPOSITION. 5. By a verb in the infinitive; as, A time 3. By a preposition with its object; ||3. By a preposition with its to die.
as, I walk in the grove. object; as, True tonature. A preposition may be modified 6. By a relative clause; as, I, who speak 4. By a clause; as, I hope that you | 4. By another adjective; 1. By an adverb; as, Far be
as, Deep blue; Liver yond. 7. Rarely by an adverb; as, Not my feet|5. By an adjective; as, The wind pool deep blue earthen 2. By a noun in the objective only.
case; as, Over the hills.
ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.
CLASSIFICATION OF SEN
2. Interrogative; as, Do you
viz: the Subject or Modified Subject, the Predicate
truth. NOUNS INDEPENDENT. or Modified Predicate.
4. Subjunctive; as, Ifitrains. Nouns which have no grammatical connection with 2. Explain the mutual relations, and point out 5. Exclamatory; as, How the subject or predicate or a sentence, are said to be the office of every word which has any modifying much he resembles his independent; as, O virtue! influence.
The selections which compose the body of the following work are so arranged as to constitute a gradual course of Exercises in Analyzing and Parsing.
The Rules of Syntax are taken from WELD'S ENGLISH GRAM MAR by permission of the Publishers, and to these rules, and also to the Grammar from which they are taken, references are occasionally made, to assist the learner in explaining idiomatic or difficult passages.
As the extracts are from some of the most accomplished and approved writers, the Ornaments of Style, Figures of Rhetoric, and Scanning, may be profitably attended to by advanced classes.
The book may be used by learners in almost any stage of at. tainment, after the elementary principles of Grammar are under stood. The work is designed to take the place of Pope's Essay, Thomson's Seasons, Young's Night Thoughts, and other entire poems, which are used as parsing books in Schools. A variety in the selections, it is believed, will be more profitable and interest ing to the learner, than any single work can be, which exhibits no gradation in style, and the peculiarities of one writer only.
A. H. W.
RULES OF SYNTAX.
1. SYNTAX treats of sentences, and teaches the proper construction of words in forming them.
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. Sentences are of four kinds, declaratory, imperative, interrogative, and conditional.
A declaratory sentence is one in which any thing is simply affirmed or denied of a subject; as, Time flies; He will not understand.
An imperative sentence is one in which a command is expressed; as, Buy the truth, and sell it not.
An interrogative sentence is one in which a question is asked; as, Who hath believed our report?
A conditional sentence is one in which something contingent or hypothetical is expressed; as, If it rains; Though he slay me.
Sentences are either simple or compound. A simple sentence consists of but one proposition; a compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.
The simple propositions which make up a compound sentence, are called clauses or members.
The leading clause is one on which the other members depend.
A dependent clause is one which makes complete sense only in connection with another clause.
SIMPLE SENTENCES. A simple sentence contains only one subject or nomina tive, and one predicate.