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Ideational Behavior of Monkeys and Apes: pensive and too bulky, not to mention too Robert M. Yerkes, Psychological Laboratory, technical for light reading. There are three Harvard University. The general conclusions standard American meteorological treatises. which may be deduced are that the ape ex- Professor W. M. Davis's “ Elementary Meteorhibits various forms of ideational behavior, ology” is finely written and illustrated, but whereas the reactive tendencies of monkeys on account of advances in meteorology in the are inferior in type.

past twenty years it needs to be supplemented The Osmotic Pressure and Lowering of the by Professor W. I. Milham's “Meteorology" Freezing-Point of Mixtures of Salts with one or by Dr. W. L. Moore's “ Descriptive Meteoranother and with Non-Electrolytes in Aqueous ology. There is ample room for the small, Solutions: William D. Harkins, R. E. Hall easily read books on instruments, weather and W. A. Roberts, Kent Chemical Laboratory, processes, and forecasting. Two such books University of Chicago. The general result ob- deserve

deserve particular mention:

Own tained with mixtures already investigated is Weather," by Edwin C. Martin,5 and “Readthat the lowering of the freezing-point of the ing the Weather," by T. Morris Longstreth. mixture is very nearly that which would be The first is a carefully written, lucid account calculated on the basis that each salt produces of weather processes. After a discussion of a lowering of the freezing-point proportional the general character and circulation of the to its own concentration and to the mol-num- atmosphere, the author takes as his main ber which it has when present alone in a solu- theme the cyclones and anticyclones of the tion of salt concentration.

United States and their secondary phenomena. Certain General Properties of Functions: At the end is a chapter on weather signs and Henry Blumberg, Department of Mathematics, superstitions. Rarely, there are weak spots. University of Nebraska.

The cause of the deflection of the wind by the Sphenacodon Marsh, A Permocarboniferous rotation of the earth is not "that a body of Theromorph Reptile from New Mexico: Sam- air travelling from the equator toward the uel W. Williston, Walker Museum, University poles carries with it an eastward speed acof Chicago. Reconstruction of a fossil reptile quired at the equator and exceeding always found in a bone bed from which some collec- that which it finds in the parts to which it tions were made as early as thirty-eight years goes” (p. 23). When any body on the earth's ago, but which seems to have been almost for- surface is set in motion it is deflected by the gotten until recently.

disturbance of the equilibrium between gravity On Volume in Biology: Lawrence J. Hen- and the centrifugal tendency. Elsewhere derson, Chemical Laboratory of Harvard Col- (p. 33) the author says that the stop in temlege. When equilibrium has been established perature fall with increase in altitude, and the in a heterogeneous system (capillary and gravi- reduction in wind velocity “above the seventational phenomena being absent) the volume

1 Boston, 1894, 4to, 355 pp., 106 figs., 6 charts. of the phases is not relevant to the state of the

2 New York, 1912, 4to, 549 pp., 157 illustrations, system, but in nearly all physiological changes

50 charts. the regulation of volume is of great impor

8 New York, 1910, 4to, 344 pp., 81 figs., 45 tance.

EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON charts. MASS. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,

4 Cf. "Weather and Weather Instruments." CAMBRIDGE, MASS.

Taylor Instrument Companies, Rochester, 1908,

8vo, 175 pp. NOTES ON METEOROLOGY AND

5 New York, 1913, 8vo, 281 pp., 8 cloud plates, CLIMATOLOGY

8 maps.

6 Outing Series 43, 1915, 12mo, 8 cloud plates. TWO POPULAR WEATHER BOOKS

7 See Wm. Ferrel, “A Popular Treatise on the The scientific book on meteorology, with its Winds," New York, 1889, pp. 42-88; or Davis, numerous tables, plates and figures is too ex- op. cit., pp. 101 et seq.

mile level are thought to be due to as sudden a The anticyclone (cyclone) is an accumulation of change in the constitution of the air itself, to air that has become colder (warmer) than the air especially a large loss in nitrogen and oxygen

surrounding it (pp. 20 and 44). and an accession of hydrogen." So far as is The author, himself, shows the limitations known there is no sudden change in the air

of these definitions when speaking of summer composition at this or any other level. On temperatures : the other hand, the author is to be credited The clear skies of the preceding anticyclone had with keeping constantly before the reader such permitted the land to warm up very fast under important points as that warm air does not rise the midsummer sun, and the clouds of the cyclone, of itself, but, as he states concerning thunder

by cutting off the supply, had made a relative

chill (p. 89). storm formation (p. 242): It is mainly under the atmospheric movements

Although the book was written largely on set up by cyclones that the bodies of cold air de

the northeastern United States, its value is scend and begin to root out the bodies of hot air not by any means limited to this section of with the abruptness that makes thunderstorms. the country. Also, the precipitation of atmospheric mois

DR. JULIUS VON HANN ture by cooling due to internal expansion of With the passing of 1915, fifty years have rising air is well emphasized. On both these elapsed during which Julius von Hann has points, Mr. Longstreth gives false impressions. edited the Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Dr. “Reading the Weather," is for those who

Hann edited the Zeitschrift der Oesterreichwant to know simply how to forecast the ischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie with C. weather either with or without instruments.

Jelinek from its establishment in 1866 until It is a lively account of keen personal obser- 1876; and, after his death, alone to the year vations of weather signs, set in a brief and

1885. On merging it with the German Memainly accurate explanation of weather proc- teorological Society's Meteorologischen Zeitesses. The central theme is "sky signs for schrift under the title of the latter, he purcampers." These the author expounds under

sued the editorship in common with Köppen the heads clouds, temperatures, rain and snow, from 1886 to 1891, with Hellman, 1892 to 1907 dew and frost, thunderstorm, tornado, hurri- and since then with Süring. cane, cloudburst and halo. For the particular This 50-year editorial jubilee in connection benefit of the commuter, a chapter on fore- with a scientific magazine is unique. Furthercasting with a barometer follows. At the end

more, never has there been an editor who even of the book is a good account of the seasons, made so many contributions to his scientific the Weather Bureau, and weather proverbs. magazine as he. No fewer than 134 extensive Finally, a summary of all the prognostics pre- articles, 1123 smaller contributions, 166 reviously described adds greatly to the value of

views and numerous unsigned articles, have the book for reference. On account of limited

come from him. In addition he has written scope some of the physical explanations are

many monographs, and he has published what made too brief for accuracy. Thus the defini- are now the most exhaustive and authoritative tions of anticyclone and cyclone are hardly treatises on climatology and meteorology.10 scientific:

CHARLES F. BROOKS 8 See table and diagram pp. 46–47 in A. Weg

YALE COLLEGE ener: "Thermodynamik der Atmosphäre,” Leip- 9 Taken mostly from the frontispiece by Hellzig, 1911. The results of analyses of air samples mann, Köppen, and Süring, Meteorologische Zeittaken at 9 km. altitude, 1910 to 1912, as com- schrift, January, 1916, Vol. 33. pared with the earth's surface, indicate a reduc- 10 Hann's "Handbuch der Klimatologie,' third tion of about 6 per cent, in the volume of carbon ed., 1908–1911, 3 vols., 8vo, 1,533 pp., 41 figs. dioxide, and an increase of perhaps 50 per cent. “Lehrbuch der Meteorologie,” third ed., 1914 in the lightest gases: see Scientific American 1915, with Dr. Süring in collaboration, 4to, 847 Supp., December 23, 1916, p. 414.

pp., 28 pl., 4 tables, 108 illustrations.

SPECIAL ARTICLES

healthy trees, and by surface washing of spores THE ROOT-ROT DISEASE OF THE APPLE

or other infective material. IN VIRGINIA

F. D. FROMME, An unusually destructive rotting of the roots

H. E. THOMAS of apple trees is prevalent in the chief orchard

VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE sections of Virginia. The infectiousness of this condition is shown in the death of adjoin

THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL ing trees in groups of considerable numbers

SOCIETY irrespective of soil conditions or topography

The twenty-third annual meeting of the Ameriand the death of replants set in holes from

can Mathematical Society, which was held at Cowhich rotted trees were removed.

lumbia University on Wednesday and Thursday, The symptoms of this disease have been

December 27–28, 1916, was in several respects an known for some time, but the causative organ- exceptional occasion. It took place in the midst ism has not been determined.

of the convocation week series of meetings of the Isolations from liseased roots by the writers American Association for the Advancement of Sci. from a number of orchards in the “ Valley” ence and its long train of affiliated societies, and and “Piedmontsections of the state have

was immediately followed by the second annual yielded cultures of an imperfect fungus which

meeting of the newly organized Mathematical As

sociation of America, with which the society has appears to be the conidial stage of a species of

not only a large common membership, but also a Xylaria. Inoculations made from pure cul

general community of interest highly beneficial to ture of these isolations into bark wounds of both. The annual meeting is always one of the living apple roots in both damp chambers and largest of the year, being the season of the elecin the field have produced typical rotting of

tion of officers and other members of the council the bark and wood, and the introduced fungus

and the transaction of important business. This has been obtained in pure culture from the

year it was especially marked by the delivery of the

retiring address of President E. W. Brown, of margins of these infected portions.

Yale University, who chose as his subject “The Recently perithecial stromata of Xylaria relations of mathematics to the natural sciences." polymorpha (Pers.) Grev. have been found on

This was presented before a joint session of the roots of apple trees in various stages of typical American Mathematical Society, the Mathematical root-rot attack and on the stumps of several Association of America, the American Astronomdeciduous trees in a small patch of woodland

ical Society, and Section A of the American As

sociation, and was followed by the retiring address immediately adjoining the orchard in ques

of Vice-president A. O. Leuschner, of Section tion. Cultures obtained from germinated

A, on “Derivation of orbits——theory and pracascospores of this fungus are being used for

tise." A joint dinner of four organizations was additional inoculations into apple roots. held on Thursday evening at the Park Avenue

Pending the results of these inoculations, it Hotel, with an attendance of 143 members and seems reasonably certain that a species of friends. Much of the credit for the great success Xylaria is responsible for the root-rot disease of the meetings is due to the joint committee on of the apple in Virginia. It is possible that

arrangements and to the program committees of

the Mathematical Association. more than one species of Xylaria is involved,

Under all these favorable circumstances the atsince certain constant cultural distinctions

tendance at the four sessions of the society exexist between some of the isolations; these,

ceeded all previous records, the number of memhowever, may be varietal rather than specific.

bers present being 131. President Brown occupied Apparently all varieties of the apple are

the chair, being relieved by Vice-presidents Hedsusceptible and probably equally so. Obser

rick and Snyder and Professor G. D. Olds. The vations indicate that the disease may be spread council announced the election of the following in cultivation or in the removal of borers, in persons to membership in the society: Professor contact between roots systems of diseased and H. H. Conwell, University of Idaho; Mr. Robert

Dysart, Boston, Mass.; Dr. Mary G. Haseman, Johns Hopkins University; Mr. J. B. Scarborough, North Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College; Mr. J. J. Tanzola, U. S. Naval Academy. Ten applications for membership in the society were received.

In response to an invitation received from the department of mathematics of the University of Chicago, it was decided to hold the summer meeting and colloquium of the society at that university in 1919. Committees were appointed to arrange for the summer meeting of 1917 and to publish the Cambridge Colloquium Lectures, which will probably appear in the early summer.

The total membership of the society is now 732, including 75 life members; the annual published list will be issued in January. The total attendance of members at all meetings, including sectional meetings, during the past year was 490; the number of papers read was 205. The number of members attending at least one meeting during the year was 278. At the annual meeting 235 votes were cast. The treasurer's report shows a balance of $10,198.38, including the life membership fund of $6,039.87. Sales of the society's publications during the year amounted to $1,434.28. The library now contains about 5,377 volumes, excluding unbound dissertations.

At the annual election, which closed on Thursday morning, the following officers and other members of the council were chosen:

President: L. E. Dickson.
Vice-presidents: A. B. Coble, E. B. Wilson.
Secretary: F. N. Cole.
Treasurer: J. H. Tanner.
Librarian: D. E. Smith.

Committee of Publication: F. N. Cole, Virgil Snyder, J. W. Young.

Members of the Council to serve until December 1919: G. C. Evans, L. A. Howland, G. H. Ling, R. L. Moore.

The following papers were read at this meeting:

J. E. Rowe: “The relation of singularities of the rational quintic in space to loci of the rational plane quintic.

C. A. Fischer: "Linear functionals of nspreads."

H. B. Mitchell: “Geometrical limits for the imaginary roots of a polynomial with real coefficients."

Arnold Emch: “A theorem on the curves described by a spherical pendulum.'

J. K. Whittemore: “Spiral minimal surfaces."

J. R. Kline: “Concerning the complements of countable infinities of point sets of certain types."

L. L. Dines: “On projective transformations in function space.

C. C. Grove: “Foundation of the correlation coefficient."

0. E. Glenn: “Preliminary report on invariant systems belonging to domains."

Norbert Wiener: "Certain formal invariances in Boolean algebras."

L. P. Eisenhart: “ Theory of transformations T of conjugate systems.'

E. V. Huntington: “Complete existential theory of the postulates for serial order."

E. V. Huntington: “Complete existential theory of postulates for well-ordered sets."

Daniel Buchanan: “Orbits asymptotic to an isosceles-triangle solution of the problem of three bodies."

Daniel Buchanan: Asymptotic satellites about the straight-line equilibrium points.”

Daniel Buchanan: “Asymptotic satellites about the equilateral-triangle equilibrium points.”

G. M. Green: “Isothermal nets on a curved surface."

A. L. Miller: Systems of pencils of lines in ordinary space.

W. L. Hart: “On an infinite system of ordinary differential equations.''

W. L. Hart: “Linear differential equations in infinitely many variables.

E. V. Huntington: “A set of independent postulates for cyclic order.”

E. V. Huntington: “Sets of independent postulates for order on a closed line.'

Frank Morley: “The cubic seven-point and the Lüroth quartic.”

J. L. Coolidge: “The intersections of a straight line and hyperquadric.''

A. D. Pitcher: “Biextremal connected sets.'

H. H. Mitchell: "Proof that certain ideals in a cyclotomic realm are principal ideals.”

H. H. Mitchell: “On the asymptotic value of sums of power residues."

Edward Kasner: “Certain systems of curves connected with the theory of heat.”

Teresa Cohen: "On a concomitant curve of the planar quartic.”

P. F. Smith: “A theorem for space analogous to Cesaro's theorem for plane isogonal systems.

W. E. Story: "Some variable three-term scales of relation."

E. W. Brown, Presidential address : “ The relations of mathematics to the natural sciences.'

A. 0. Leuschner, Vice-presidential address, Section A: “Derivation of orbits—theory and practise.''

tions."

tinuous groups.

G. D. Birkhoff: "A class of series allied to ity of the older forms would produce a congestion Fourier 's series.

of the earth which would seriously interfere with G. D. Birkhoff: “Note on linear difference equa- the development of the newer. Death is therefore

to be regarded as an adaptation, as Weismann G. A. Miller: “Groups generated by two opera- supposed, which furthers evolution. tors of the same prime order such that the con- “The Constructive Aspect of Birth-Controljugates of the one under the other are commuta- was discussed by Professor Robert J. Sprague, of tive."

Massachusetts Agricultural College. He observed H. S. Vandiver: “On the power characters of that birth-control is only a part of the larger units in a cyclotomic field.”

problem of population; that the poorer classes Henry Taber: “On the structure of finite con- need to practise more birth-control but the more

efficient classes need to practise distinctly less The San Francisco Section of the society held its than they do at present, if the race is to evolve twenty-eighth regular meeting at the University progressively. A constructive program of ecoof California on November 25. The Southwestern nomic and social changes, which would help to Section held its tenth regular meeting at the Uni- make fecundity correlated with eugenic value, was versity of Kansas on December 2. The seventh outlined. regular meeting of the society at Chicago was Professor W. S. Anderson, of the University of held on December 22–23. The next meeting of the Kentucky, spoke on “Some Difficulties in Breedsociety will be held at Columbia University on ing Blooded Stock." The production of blooded February 24.

F. N. COLE, horses is particularly hindered by the infertility
Secretary of brood mares, which in different parts of Ken-

tucky runs from 35 per cent. to 65 per cent. InTHE AMERICAN GENETIC ASSOCIA

vestigation has proved that the difficulty usually

is to be found in the mare, rarely in the stallion, TION

and by hygienic measures the fertility of mares on The thirteenth annual meeting of the associa

the Patchen Wilkes stock farm has been doubled. tion was held at Columbia University, December

Selection of fecund strains is believed, however, 26-28, with an attendance of about 200. In the presidential address "The Importance of

to be necessary for complete removal of the diffi

culty of infertility. Photographs in Presenting Genetic Discoveries,'

As chairman of the committee on research in Dr. David Fairchild insisted that men of science

eugenics, Dr. Frederick Adams Woods, of the should take more pains properly to record the

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, presided results of their investigations by photographs;

at the second meeting and read a paper on “Sigthat such photographs as are commonly published

nificant Evidence for Mental Heredity.Much of are too small and also fail to make the desired im

the evidence commonly cited he believes to be pression because too little allowance is made for

worthless, but by measurements of differences it is the reader's point of view. He showed lantern

possible to get acceptable proof. Studies of twins slides to illustrate his remarks.

by Galton and Thorndike, and those of the royal Professor E. E. Barker, of Cornell University,

families of Europe by the speaker himself, were presented the results of a questionnaire sent to

cited. Princes who inherited thrones were not American colleges, which showed great diversity

found to be more conspicuous mentally than their in the amount of attention given to genetics, and

younger brothers, despite the greater chance which the side from which it is approached.

a monarch has for displaying any valuable traits In discussing “The Biological Significance of

he may possess. Moreover, eminent men are found Death” Professor F. H. Pike, of the College of

to be as much interrelated in America as in EuPhysicians and Surgeons, Columbia University,

rope, although it is popularly supposed that sureferred to the independence of the environment

perior opportunities and free competition in a which higher forms of life have attained, mainly

newer country make family connections of less through the property of regulation. This inde

value. The fact that eminent men are found, dependence has made differentiation possible, but spite this, to be much interrelated indicates that the individual has also become incapable of any their mental differences are germinal and not solely great change. If evolution is to take place, it the result of educational and social influences. must then depend on the variations accompanying Mary L. Read, director of the School of Motherthe production of new individuals. The immortal- craft, New York City, had the topic “Eugenics

on

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