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"The Excretion of Salicylate in Various Clinical Conditions,” by R. W. Scott (by invitation), T. W. Thoburn (by invitation) and P. J. Hanzlik.

“Salicylate Oedema,” by R. W. Scott (by invitation), J. L. Reycraft (by invitation) and P. J. Hanzlik.

“The Favorable, Antagonistic Effect of Magnesium Sulphate against Poisonous Doses of Sodium Oxalate,” by F. L. Gates and S. J. Meltzer.

"Further Observations the Pathological Changes in the Tissues of the Rabbit, as a result of Reduced Oxidation,” by G. H. Martin (by invitation), C. H. Bunting (by invitation) and A. S. Loevenhart.

DECEMBER 29, 2.00-5.00 P.M. Joint Demonstrations by the Pharmacological and

Physiological Societies "A Signal Magnet which writes either upwards or downwards,” by W. Hale.

“Some New Apparatus,” by D. E. Jackson.

“An Improved Lever for Frog's Heart and Muscle Strips,” by A. H. Ryan.

The Inhibitory Effect of Stimulation of the Central End of the Vagus Nerve upon the Contractions of an Active Expiratory Muscle in the Chicken,” by A. L. Meyer (by invitation).

“Demonstration of a Gas-Analysis Apparatus,” by Yandell Henderson.

"The Motion Picture as an Aid in Teaching Physiology,” by J. A. E. Eyster and W. J. Meek.

Pathescope Films used to illustrate Physiological Demonstrations to Students,” by Alexander Forbes.

“ Motor Phenomena of the Stomach and Cap as observed Roentgenographically,” by Gregory Cole (by invitation).

“Photographs representing the Growth of Chickens Fed with Definite Mixtures of Foodstuffs under Laboratory Conditions which have heretofore not led to Success," by Thomas B. Osborne and Lafayette B. Mendel.

“Microscopic Demonstration of Absence of Chromatolytic Change in the Central Nervous System of the Woodchuck (Marmota Monax),” by A. T. Rasmussen (by invitation) and J. A. Myers (by invitation).

“Glycogen in the Blood Vessels of the Liver,by G. Carl Huber and J. J. R. Macleod.

"A Method of Recording Fundamental Heart Sounds Directly from the Heart,” by Carl J. Wiggers and A. Dean, Jr. (by invitation).

“Exhibit of Photographically Recording Apparatus for studying the Dynamics of the Circul tion," by Carl J. Wiggers.

DECEMBER 30, 9.30-12.00 M. “Studies on Tolerance and Cumulation: Experiments with Tartrates, Citrates and Oxalates,' by W. Salant and A. M. Swanson (by invitation).

“The Effect of Morphin and Opium on Psychological Reaction Time,” by D. I. Macht and s. Isaacs (by invitation).

On the Drug-fastness of Spirochætæ against Certain Arsenical, Mercurial and Iodid Compounds in Vitro,” by H. Noguchi and S. Akatsu (by invitation).

On the Relative Toxicity of Salvarsan and Neosalvarsan, by L. Pearce and W. H. Brown.

"The Action of Ethylenediamin,” by H. G. Barbour and A. M. Hjort (by invitation). (Read by title.)

“The Influence of Eserin upon the Partially Excised Sphincter Pupillæ,” by D. R. Joseph.

The Mutually Antagonistic Actions of Adrenin and Eserin upon the Sphincter Pupillæ,” by D. R. Joseph.

“The Effects of Pituitrin and of Adrenin of the Pupil of Gangliectomized Rabbits,” by T. S. Githens and S. J. Meltzer.

"The Prolonged Reaction of the Blood Vessels of the Rabbit's Ear to the Local Injection of Adrenin,” by J. Auer and S. J. Meltzer.

““The Effect of Ergotoxin on the Temperature of Rabbits,” by T. S. Githens.

"A Respiratory Factor in the Production of Adrenin Pulmonary Edema in Rabbits,” by F. L. Gates and J. Auer.

At the second executive session of the society on Friday noon, December 29, a vote of thanks was unanimously tendered the authorities of Cornell Medical School for their hospitality and efficient arrangements and to the local committee for its efforts in behalf of the visiting members and guests.

JOHN AUER,

Secretary
ROCKEFELLER INSTITUTE

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES THE TENNESSEE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE THE seventh meeting (fifth annual meeting) of the Tennessee Academy of Science was held on December 1, 1916, at George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. President Samuel M. Bain presided. The following papers were read and discussed:

“The Development of Transportation on the Great Lakes, by Professor A. E. Parkins, Peabody College, Nashville.

An Apparatus for Moisture Determination,”

by Professor A. S. Eastman, University of the South, Sewanee.

“Chemists' Present Opportunities and Duties,” by Dr. J. I. D. Hinds, Castle Heights School, Leb

anon,

“Some Practical Applications of Bacteriolog. ical Research,” by Dr. Herman Spitz, Nashville.

The Raison d'être of the Tennessee Academy of Science,” by Dr. Samuel M. Barton, University of the South, Sewanee.

"The Origin of Reelfoot Lake,” by Dr. A. H. Purdue, State Geological Survey, Nashville.

Following the Compass across Sahara," by Dr. D. W. Berky, University of the South, Se

wanee.

James M. Safford,” by Dr. J. T. McGill, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.

“West Indian Hurricanes: Their Origin, Movement and Extent,” by Roscoe Nunn, U. S. Weather Bureau, Nashville. (Discussed by R. S. Maddox, State Forester, Nashville.)

Annual address of the president: “ The Interrelation of Plant and Animal Pathology," by Professor Samuel M. Bain, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

The election of officers for the ensuing year resulted as follows:

President, Samuel M. Barton, University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.

Vice-president, Archibald Belcher, Middle Tennessee State Normal School, Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Editor, A. H. Purdue, State Geologist, Nashville, Tenn.

Secretary-Treasurer, Roscoe Nunn, U. S. Weather Bureau, Nashville, Tenn.

The president appointed as members of the executive committee, Dr. Brown Ayres, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn., and Dr. John T. McGill, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

Roscoe NUNN,

Secretary NASHVILLE, TENN.

remains of Florida deer have usually been referred to the existing species, Odocoileus osceola. A comparison of this vertebra with the corresponding one from recent deer, other than the Florida deer, showed that possibly the extinct Florida deer was a different species from the existing deer. Dr. Hay said that there were no examples of cervical vertebræ of Florida deer for making comparisons, and until such examples were seen the identification of the extinct deer must remain doubtful.

Under the same heading Dr. Paul Bartsch called attention to a hybrid duck which he had lately seen exposed for sale in the markets. It was a cross between the black mallard and the domestic duck.

The regular program consisted of two papers:

H. Pittier: “Forests of Panama, » illustrated by lantern slides.

Professor Pittier gave first a condensed review of the results to the present date of the botanical part of the biological survey of Panama, undertaken under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution. Then he showed how the distribution of the main ecological types of vegetation is dependent upon the régime of the winds and of the rainfall. Mixed dicotylous forests cover at least six tenths of the area of the Isthmus, the rest being occupied by savannas and park-like formations. Rain-forests with evergreen foliage extend over the entire northern watershed and part of Darien on the south side. Other forests of the southern slope belong to the type called monsoon-forest and are characterized by the presence of many species with deciduous foliage. The xerophytic character of the vegetation is more marked in the broken forests of the savanna-belt, without, however, assuming an extreme degree. The change in the composition of the vegetation with the increase in altitude has been dwelt upon by several travelers and botanical explorers of the Isthmus; it is very gradual but nevertheless very radical. Several genera of trees observed at high altitudes are gregarious; there are, for instance, oak-forests, subtropical or even temperate in their general appearance. Lantern slides illustrating types of forest, or of individual trees and flowers, were shown at the conclusion of the lecture.

J. H. Paine: “Scientific Photography in the Study of Insects,” illustrated by lantern slides.

During the last half of the meeting Dr. H. H. T. Jackson was acting secretary.

M. W. LYON, Jr.,
Recording Secretary

THE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON

THE 560th meeting of the society was held in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, November 18, 1916, called to order by President Hay at 8 P.M. with 86 persons in attendance.

On recommendation of the council, Irwin Hoffmann was elected to active membership.

Under the heading, brief notes, exhibition of specimens, Dr. O. P. Hay exhibited one of the cervical vertebræ of deer from a deposit in Florida. He called attention to the fact that the

SCIENCE

FRIDAY, JANUARY 26, 1917

BIOLOGY AND WARI

1. BIOLOGY is not the science which can CONTENTS The American Society of Naturalists :

throw any light on the origin of war, since Biology and War: DR. JACQUES LOEB 73 wars are caused by economic, political and The American Association for the Advance

social conditions. Although these condiment of Science :

tions are in the last analysis based upon Asymmetric Syntheses and their Bearing on

human instincts it does not seem profitable the Doctrine of Pitalism : PROFESSOR WILLIAM MOPHERSON

76 for the present to trace the connection.

It is also outside the speaker's problem Scientific Events : Minute on the Life and Services of Hugo

to discuss the effects of war. Compared Münsterberg; Memorial to Susanna Phelps with the misery and anguish, the general Gage; The American Institute of Mining Engineers; Appropriations for the Depart

loss of life and of liberty, and the economic ment of Agriculture

81

waste caused by war, the possible herediScientific Notes and News

84

tary effects on the population, if there are

any, are too trivial to be mentioned. University and Educational News

85

As far as your speaker has been able to Discussion and Correspondence :

see, biology can at present offer a contribuNegative Surface Tension: PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. KIMBALL. The White Pine Blister tion to the problem of war in one direction Rust: W. A. McCUBBIN. Pamphlet Collec

only, namely to test some of the claims of tions : CHAS. B. MORREY. Industrial Laboratories and Scientific Information: Pro

war enthusiasts who insist that from a bioFESSORS A. E. KENNELLY, J. W. RICHARDS, logical viewpoint wars are justifiable or A. SAUVEUR, A. N. TALBOT AND C. C. THOMAS

even desirable.

2. These war enthusiasts maintain that Scientific Books :Macfarlane's Lectures Ten British

unless a nation engages occasionally in war Mathematicians: PROFESSOR FLORIAN CA- it will lose all those virile virtues, especially JORI. Glover M. Allen on the Whalebone Whales of New England: Dr. J. A. ALLEN. 88 courage, which are necessary for its sur

vival. We do not need to argue whether The Proceedings of the National Academy of

Sciences: PROFESSOR EDWIN BIDWELL WIL- the acts committed in a state of homicidal SON

emotion are the real or only manifestations Notes on Meteorology and Climatology: DR. CHARLES F. BROOKS

91

of courage; we may also overlook the mani.

festations of virility left behind by invadSpecial Articles :

ing or retreating armies. The assumption The Root-rot Disease of the Apple in Virginia: F. D. FROMME, H. E. THOMAS

93 that virility or courage (whatever may be The American Mathematical Society: PRO

meant by these terms) will disappear if not FESSOR F. N. COLE

93 practised in the form of war implies an The American Genetic Association: PAUL unproven and apparently false biological POPENOE

assumption, namely, that functions not

practised or organs not used will disappear MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for

1 Read at the meeting of Naturalists, December review should be sent to Professor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrisonon-Hudson, N. Y.

29, 1916.

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90

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in the offspring. Such arguments were

The struggle for existence is in the life of na

ture the basis of all healthy development. All exvery common in biology before the experi

isting things show themselves to be the result of mental method was recognized as necessary

contesting forces. So in the life of man the to test the validity of our assumptions.

struggle is not merely the destructive but the lifeSince experimental tests were made we giving principle. ... The law of the stronger holds have learned that eyes do not degenerate good everywhere. Those forms survive which are when animals are kept in the dark. Thus

able to procure for themselves the most favorable

conditions of life and to assert themselves in the Payne raised sixty-nine successive genera

universal economy of nature.

The weaker Suctions of Drosophila in the dark without

cumb. This struggle is regulated and restrained noticing any trace of degeneracy in the eye by the unconscious sway of biological laws and by or its function. Uhlenhuth found that eyes the interplay of opposite forces. In the plant when transplanted into the back of sala

world and the animal world this process is worked

out in unconscious tragedy. In the human race it manders will after a transitory degenera

is consciously carried out, and regulated by social tion) regenerate completely, and remain

ordinances. The man of strong will and strong normal no matter whether the animals are intellect tries by every means to assert himself, kept in the dark or in the light. Hereditary ... and in this effort the individual is far from blindness (e. g., hereditary glaucoma in being guided merely by the consciousness of right.

. . The nation is made up of individuals. ... man) is apparently due to a mutation

The motive which influences each member is promi(probably a chemical change in one chromo

nent in the whole body. It is a persistent struggle some) which originates, as far as our pres- for possessions . . . and right is respected so far ent facts show, independently of use or dis- only as it is compatible with advantage. use of the eye. We know through Morgan's

The “struggle for existence" and the observations that insects with mutilated or

"survival of the fittest” are no “laws of rudimentary wings may arise suddenly as nature" in the sense in which the term law mutations from parents which used their is used in the exact sciences. We speak of wings. Lack of the practise of flying does a law of nature when we are able to exaccording to our present knowledge no more

press a phenomenon as a mathematical lead to the hereditary disappearance of function of its variables. We thus speak wings than darkness leads to hereditary of a law of gravitation, of Ohm's law, or degeneration of the eyes. The statementin biology of Mendel's law of segregation. that a nation by not going to war will lose As long as biologists did not realize that any of its inherited “virile virtues" is not their statements needed not only a qualisupported by our present biological knowl

tative experimental test but also a quantiedge.

tative verification they talked in a loose 3. The biology of which the war enthu- way, and this did not change until the siasts make use is essentially antiquated methods of physics and physical chemistry and so we need not be surprised to find that began to invade biological research. The they consider war to be based on what they progress made by Mendel lay in this, that call the “biological law of nature," the he introduced the quantitative method of “struggle for existence," or the "survival the physicist into the investigations of of the fittest." Such ideas are expressed hybridization and he was ignored because by war enthusiasts in America as well as

the zoologists and botanists of his time did in Europe and we may be permitted to not grasp the fact that the progress of scimake the following quotation without giv- ence depends upon the invention or appliing the name of its author.

cation of such methods.

The terms “survival of the fittest" or 4. The war enthusiasts also derive from "struggle for existence” were never more what they are pleased to call the law of than poor metaphors to express the fact nature” the statement that "superior that the chemical compounds required for races” have the right of impressing their the growth of organisms are restricted in civilization upon “inferior races." The quantity and that as a consequence un- information concerning the relative value limited reproduction of organisms is im- of races is furnished by a group of writers possible. Aside from the limitation of food, who call themselves "racial biologists." the physical conditions (e. g., too low or This “racial biology” is based on quotatoo high a temperature) existing on the tions from the erudite statements of theodifferent parts of the globe, act as a re- logians, philologists, historians, politicians, stricting influence. The methods by which anthropologists, and also occasionally of the stronger “conquer" weaker nations biologists, especially of the nonexperimenthave nothing in common with the fact that ing type. The method of standardizing salt water fish die when put into fresh the different races is consequently neither water or that microorganisms can not quantitative nor experimental, for, as the multiply unless they have their proper cul- best known "race biologist, ' Houston ture medium. The majority of organisms, Chamberlain, says, “there is something in e. g., plants, bacteria of the soil, and many the world besides compass and yard measothers, can in no way be called predatory ure. Where the learned fails with his artiorganisms. Of course, there are animals ficial construction, one single unbiased which are as brutal and predatory as the glance can illuminate the truth like a sunwar enthusiasts think human beings should beam.” A few quotations from Chamberbe—but this is a different thing from call- lain will show how this method of "suning this brutality a universal law of living beams” is applied in special cases. Thus nature. Fortunately the normal human Chamberlain tries to prove that the Celtic being does not belong to this brutal type. Bretons in France are really Germanic.

There is a wide quantitative difference These Celtic minds of former centuries, teeming in the development of instincts and of the with strength, are not merely free and not merely power of inhibition in different human indi. pious any more than the Breton seamen of to-day, viduals, and these differences may be heredi

but they are both free and pious and it is this very

combination that expresses what is specifically tary. Individuals with a strong homicidal

Germanic, as we observe it from Charlemagne to mania, who just manage to suppress their

Queen Louise. paranoic tendencies, will welcome war

And as a sop to biology, Chamberlain since it removes for them the burden of

states : constant inhibition, and unfortunately such

Let us therefore not be in too great a hurry to poorly balanced individuals have rather too

assert that Germanicism does not lie in blood; it frequently been the leaders of govern- does lie in it; not in the sense that this blood ments. No human society can be expected guarantees Germanic sentiment and capacity but

that it makes these possible. This limitation is to exist unless the necessity of suppressing

therefore a very clear one: as a rule that man is or curbing the harmful and pathological Germanic who is descended from Germanic aninstincts of individuals is recognized, and a cestors. nation is liable to pay a high price for the It will not be necessary at a meeting of privilege of having a semipathological indi- biologists to state that Mendelian characvidual at the head of its government. ters are generally inherited singly and in

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