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SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES
A. R. Schweitzer: “Functional equations based THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY on iterative compositions." The one hundred and eighty-ninth regular meet
D. F. Barrow: “An application of Fourier 's ing of the society was held at Columbia University
series to probability.” on Saturday, February 24. The morning session
Edward Kasner: "Degenerate cases in the sufficed for the presentation of the brief list of theory of the conduction of heat.” papers. The attendance included twenty-six mem- J. E. Rowe: “The equation of a rational plane bers. Professor H. S. White occupied the chair,
cubic derived from its parametric equations (secbeing relieved by Professor Kasner. The council
ond paper).” announced the election of the following persons to
R. L. Moore and J. R. Kline: "The most gen. membership in the society: Professor H. P. Kean, eral closed plane point set through which it is McHenry College; Mr. Ralph Keffer, Harvard Uni- possible to pass a simple continuous plane arc.” versity; Mr. H. C. M. Morse, Harvard University;
H. S. White: “New proof of a theorem of von Dr. F. D. Murnaghan, Rice Institute; Mr. G. E.
Staudt and Hurwitz.” Raynor, University of Washington; Dr. S. P.
Henry Taber: “On the structure of finite conShugert, University of Pennsylvania; Mr. G. W.
tinuous groups.” Smith, University of Illinois; Mr. J. S. Taylor,
The next meeting of the society will be held at University of California; Dr. L. E. Wear, Univer- the University of Chicago on April 6–7. The San sity of Washington; Dr. H. N. Wright, University
Francisco Section will meet at Stanford Univerof California. Four applications for admission to
sity on April 7.
F. N. COLE, membership were received.
Secretary It was decided to hold the next summer meeting
OKLAHOMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE of the society at Cleveland, Ohio, on September
THE Oklahoma Academy of Science held its 4-5. The Mathematical Association of America
eighth annual meeting in Oklahoma City, Decemwill meet at Cleveland on September 6–7.
ber first and second, with President C. N. Gould By the will of the late Professor L. L. Conant,
in the chair. The following papers were preof the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, who was a
sented: member of the society from 1892 to his death in
AGRICULTURE 1916, the sum of $10,000 is left to the society,
"Effects of Soil Types on the Root Developsubject to Mrs. Conant's life interest. The will
ment of Cotton and Kaffir,' by Wallace MacFarprovides that the income of this bequest “shall be
lane. offered once in five years as a prize for original
ARCHEOLOGY work in pure mathematics.” This generous gift,
"Types of Stone Implements,” by J. B. Thoa noble monument to the donor, should do much
burn. for the promotion of higher mathematical aims in this country. For many years the society has con
"Errors in the Determination of the Coefficient sistently pursued these aims, with a success far
of Viscosity Gases by the Capillary Method,” by outrunning what might have been expected from
I. M. Rapp. its modest financial resources. With greater means in the way of general or special funds, it could ac
“Sulfur in Petroleum,” by Chas. K. Francis.
“Effect of Para Substituents in the Acylation of complish still more. To anyone who is able to give
Aromatic Amines,” by L. Chas. Raiford and A. F. for science, the society presents itself as an ex
Whipple. perienced and beneficent administrator.
"Oxidation of Ethyl Alcohol to Acetaldehyde,” At the annual meeting, the council placed itself
by Wm. J. Becker. on record as desiring to cooperate with the National Research Council in forwarding the inter
“Infra-red Absorption of Naphthalene," by
A. H. Stang. ests of research. At the February meeting a com
“Visibility Curves of the Green Mercury Line mittee was appointed to confer with the chairman
and Its Satellites,” by A. F. Reiter. of the Mathematics Committee of the Research Council, Professor E. H. Moore, in regard to the
ECONOMICS selection of the members of that committee.
“Setting the Clock Ahead,” by Joseph M. The following papers were read at this meeting: Perkins. A. R. Schweitzer: “The iterative compositions of “The Lumber Industry of Oklahoma,” a function of n +1 variables (n=1, 2, 3 ...)." John Cullen.
EDUCATION “The Educational Survey,” by T. Earl Sullinger.
“Seeing Oklahoma,” by C. W. Shannon.
“The Teaching of Physiography and Geography in Our Common Schools,” by C. W. Shan
ENGINEERING “Oklahoma City's New Water Plant,” by W. L. Benham.
“ Appraisal of Public Utilities" (by title), by A. L. Mullergren.
GEOLOGY "The Practicality of Using the Diamond Drill in Exploring for Oil and Gas Structures,' by Geo. E. Burton.
“New Anticlines,” by Chas. N. Gould.
Concretions in Caddo County,” by Chas. N. Gould.
“Origin of the Ferruginous Sandstones of Southeastern Oklahoma,” by Chas. W. Honess.
“The Occurrence of Coal in Cimarron County,” by Fritz Aurin.
“Progress of Work in the Cretaceous Area of Oklahoma,” by C. W. Shannon.
“New Volcanic Ash Theory,” by Chas. N. Gould.
“Manganese Deposits Near Bromide, Oklahoma,” by Geo. E. Burton.
"The Distribution of the Sand Dunes of Oklahoma,” by Bryan Hendon.
“Oil Seeps,” by Elbert E. Boylan.
“The Elephants of Oklahoma" (by title), by E. B. Wilson.
“The Early Vertebrates of Oklahoma” (by title), by M. G. Mehl.
“Granite Situation in North-Central Kansas' (by title), by Everett Carpenter.
Shells Found in the Caves of Eastern Oklahoma,' by H. H. Lane.
“Further Observations on the Effect of Acohol on White Mice,” by L. B. Nice.
"Speech Development of a Child from Eighteen Months to Six Years,” by Mrs. Margaret Morse Nice.
“The Murine Opossum, an Accidental Immigrant in Oklahoma,” by H. H. Lane.
"On a Collection of Moths and Butterflies from Costa Rica,” by H. H. Lane.
"Some Personal Observations on the Habits of the Butcher's Shrike,” by C. W. Shannon.
“Observations on Demoder folliculorum” (by title), by G. K. Stanton.
“ The Relation of Vegetation to Stratigraphy" (by title), by Floyd Absher.
“The Hawks of Oklahoma” (by title), by Joe Matthews.
The Committee on Publications reported that arrangements had been made whereby the University of Oklahoma would assume responsibility for publishing the proceedings, the academy pay. ing what it can and the state assuming the bal
The report was accepted. The committee appointed on publication for the coming year consists of the president, treasurer, secretary and curator.
The committee on membership presented the names of forty new members which were accepted.
Professor C. W. Shannon, director of the Oklahoma Geological Survey reported that the Biolog. ical Survey working in connection with the acad. emy had established many nature study clubs in the public schools of the state during the past year. Report accepted.
A committee was appointed to work to get better laws passed in Oklahoma for the protection of wild life. Mr. Frank Rush, United States forester, in charge of the buffalo herd, in the Washita Mountain Reservation, was made chairman of this committee.
The treasurer's report was read and accepted.
The following officers were elected for the coming year:
President, L. Chas Raiford, A. & M. College; First Vice-president, M. M. Wickham, Southeast
State Normal School; Second Vice-presi. dent, A. F. Reiter, Phillips University; Treasurer, H. H. Lane, University of Oklahoma; Secretary, L. B. Nice, University of Oklahoma; Curator, Fritz Aurin, Oklahoma Geological Survey.
L. B. NICE,
“English Experiences in Teaching Calculus to Trades-school Students,” by A. Press.
"A Shorter Proof of a Theorem on Fourier's Series" (by title), by W. H. Cramblet.
"A Flock of Hawks, " by Chas. N. Gould.
“Past and Future of the Buffalo,” by Frank Rush.
“Reproductive Organs of Birds and Their Activities” (by title), by T. C. Carter.
“Biological Significance of Bones, Teeth and
FRIDAY, MARCH 23, 1917
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN ENGI
NEERING AND SCIENCE1
We may well approach our subject of The American Association for the Advance
the relation between engineering and sciment of Science :
ence by defining these two. The Relations between Engineering and Science: PROFESSOR H. M. HOWE
Engineering is the application to man's
use of special knowledge of mechanics and Our Psychological Association and Research: of the properties of matter. PROFESSOR J. MOKEEN CATTELL
Natural science is the correlation of natAn Institute for the History of Science and
ural phenomena, often combined with their Civilization: DR. GEORGE SARTON ... 284 discovery. Emerson says:
Science is nothing but the finding of analogy, Scientific Events:
identity in the most remote parts. Technical and Medical Education in Russia; Dinner in Manila to Visiting Scientific Men;
This finding of analogy is correlation. The Kansas City Meeting of the American But though science has correlation for its Chemical Society
essence it also includes discovery. Science Scientific Notes and News
thus has two aspects, it correlates the un
correlated and hence empirically known University and Educational News
290 phenomena, and it discovers new phenom
ena and correlates them simultaneously. Discussion and Correspondence :
Their correlation is of origin, congenital. A Relief Map of the United States : DR. JOHN M. CLARKE. An Ancient Reference to
Or, if you will not go so far with me, let us the Emerald: DR. HOMER P. LITTLE. agree that engineering is essentially appli. Methyl and Ethyl Alcohol: J. L. HAMAKER. 291 cation and science essentially correlation
with or without discovery. In this view Scientific Books :
engineering is not a science but an art with L'Institut de France: G. F. K.
a scientific basis. A man who is an engiThe Pink Boll Worm: W. D. HUNTER
293 neer may correlate his own or others' dis
coveries, as he may walk a mile or pledge Special Articles :
a health, but he does it not as an engineer The Effect of Retardation of Growth upon
but as simultaneously a natural philosopher. the Breeding Period and Duration of Life of Rats: PROFESSOR THOMAS B. OSBORNE,
From this point of view pure science in LAFAYETTE B. MENDEL AND EDNA L. FERRY. 294
1 Introductory address of the chairman of the The Mathematical Association of America:
Section of Engineering of the American AssociaPROFESSOR W. D. CAIRNS
295 tion for the Advancement of Science given at the
meeting held by invitation of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of Min
ing En neers, the American Society of Mechanical MSS. Intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to Professor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison
Engineers and the American Institute of Electrical on-Hudson, N. Y.
Engineers, New York, December 29, 1916.
its relation to engineering seems to-day to so far up out of the imperative need of be in an intermediate stage of its asymptotic ceaseless viligance lest they be slain by evolution from the state of a follower to their fellows or by nature as to give them that of an absolute dictator. The first rea- the opportunity to consider their environson why this evolution has to follow this ment, and note the analogies between phegeneral course is that application must nomena which at first seem irrelated. needs precede correlation.
These are the first men of science. Before Man like the other animals from the very them the ratio of observed to correlated first can survive only as he applies na- phenomena was that of a small body to zero, ture's laws to his needs, as he conforms to and hence was infinity. With them that them, so that he begins applying them in- ratio fell from infinity to finiteness, but it conceivably earlier than he begins to for- was still extremely small. mulate them or even to be capable of for- As the accumulation of observed phemulating them.
nomena goes on and with it the organizaThe second reason lies in the unfathom- tion and elaboration of society, certain men able complexity of the laws on which engi- come to excel their fellows sufficiently in neering must needs be based.
their mastery of this knowledge, and in The engineering of the savage is military. their ingenuity in applying it, to become His existence depends on his power to kill recognized as a special class, engineers. his enemies and incidentally his game by More slowly the accumulation of observed means of weapons made from the materials analogies becomes so great that those who at hand. Of these materials he knows only master it become recognized in their turn certain prominent properties irrelated to as a class, the natural philosophers or each other and to the rest of nature. If men of science. this knowledge can be said to consist of These philosophers address themselves at laws they are only the most minute frag- first to correlating phenomena, which, howments when compared even with the frag- ever familiar, are known as yet only emments of laws which we have joined up. pirically, and thus to explaining that which They are fragments comminuted to the engineering has long known how to do, has second degree. The explanation of these known in part since the days of Assyria, fragments the savage has never sought. of Homer, and of Kephren. But this is to Yet the laws themselves were as complex trail after engineering, to explain its exwhen our forefathers were naked as they ploits as the minstrel glorifies those of the are to-day. The Bornean or Fiji knows warrior. By and by science becomes able, that wood is strong, stone stronger, and through its accumulation of correlations, to iron stronger still, though corruptible by point out to the engineer how he may better rust. Armed with this and all other knowl. his service to man. But this is to snatch a edge which he has he destroys those who share in the leadership, and add it to the else would destroy him. The survival is continuing labor of correlation. not of those who formulate knowledge but From this time on science increases conof those who best apply it, and so there tinuously the share which it has in the dievolves a race which applies successfully rection of engineering. It is engaged ever the laws which it may never even think of more and more in discovering and simulthinking of.
taneously correlating new knowledge, and By and by evolution lifts certain men less and less in the gradually vanishing work of the correlation of the old empirical that little throb in the pulse of the universe knowledge with which alone engineering which we call the habitable period of this formerly worked. With the completion of earth. Will man survive long enough to this latter task science might come to be complete the discovery of all laws, so that the sole guide of engineering, but for two no uncorrelated phenomena will remain for considerations.
the engineer to unearth? First, as engineering adopts the knowl- The second of the two considerations edge which science has correlated it simul- which tend to postpone the completion of taneously unearths new uncorrelated knowl- science's leadership is that the beautiful as edge. Science indeed correlates this in turn, distinguished from the useful and the but not instantaneously, so that engineer- good will increase without limit its deing has always at its hand both that which mands upon the work of the engineer. science has correlated and its own empirical Though the beautiful itself should in time discoveries which science has not yet had be capable of complete mathematical analtime to arrange. As optimists we may well ysis, who shall say that that time, now seemexpect that this uncorrelated knowledge ingly so inconceivably remote, can arrive will form a gradually decreasing fraction during man's earthly stay? of the whole, but can we expect it ever to
HENRY M. HOWE vanish completely! Must not science's approach to exclusive leadership be asymp
OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION totic?
AND RESEARCH 1 We begin to get a glimmering of the
THE American Psychological Association, vastness of the scheme of creation when we
like the infants who are among the objects remember that every lengthening of man's
of our study, celebrated its first birthday artificial vision by means of telescope and
some months after it was born. We are camera, every new strengthening of tele
thus able to hold at the same time our scope, sensitizing of plate, and lengthening
twenty-fifth meeting and mark the compleof exposure brings a proportional increase in the number of visible suns, telling us
tion of nearly twenty-five years of activity.
This period covers the working life of most that even at that inconceivable distance we
of us and about half the adult life of the have not begun to approach the limit of
science in which we work. Wundt's the discoverable universe. When we turn from telescope to microscope and thence to
“Physiologische Psychologie," published in
1874, may be taken to mark the coming of the inferred constitution of matter, we find
age of the experimental work of Weber, with every new refinement of observation
Helmholtz and Fechner. But if psychology and inference a proportional addition of
as a science was made in Germany, the raw new wonders, a proportional increment in
materials were contributed from many nathe complexity of natural phenomena. tions, many centuries, many sciences; and Hence while we may speculate that, as there the leading strings attaching us to Germany must be a place where the stars end, so
were severed at about the time when this there must be a degree beyond which the
association was organized. subdivision of matter can not go, and a limit to the number of nature's laws, we
1 Address given on the occasion of the celebra
tion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Amerimay well ask whether either that limit or
can Psychological Association, New York, Decemthe limit of stellar space will be reached in ber 28, 1916.