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SCIENTIFIC BOOKS

the importance in the diet of small amounts of Lectures on Nutrition-delivered under the the so-called accessory food substances essen

Auspices of the Washington Academy of tial for the maintenance of health. The topics Sciences. Published at Washington, D. C., considered are the deficiency disease, beri1916.

beri; the chemical isolation and chemical propThis is a reprint, in collected form, of a

erties of vitamins and their physiological series of four published lectures given under action; and the distribution of vitamins in the auspices of the Washington Academy of foods. The factors which tend to reduce the Sciences, during April, 1916, with which is in- vitamin content of the diet are also discussed cluded, as an introduction, the address of the at length. retiring president of the Chemical Society of This compilation of lectures brings together Washington, Dr. C. L. Alsberg, which a great deal of useful information and congiven before a joint meeting of the Chemical stitutes a handy reference book for investiSociety and the academy.

gators and students in nutrition. The address of Dr. Alsberg, entitled “The

C. F. LANGWORTHY Biochemical Analysis of Nutrition," reviews recent contribution to the knowledge of the

Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalænæ in the component parts of the food elements and

British Museum. Supplement. Vol. 1. their fate in metabolism, especial attention

Catalogue of the Amatidæ and Arctiadæ being given to the investigations of the rôle

(Nolince and Lithosianæ) in the collection of amino acids in nutrition.

of the British Museum. By Sir GEORGE F. “ The Basal Food Requirement of Man,” by

HAMPSON, Bart. London. 1914. Pp. xxviii E. F. DuBois, considers the basal energy re

+858. quirements of man, the manner in which

In this large volume all the new species are metabolism is studied, and the factors by which

treated that have been made known since the it is influenced under conditions of health and publication of Vol. I. (1898) and Vol. II. disease.

(1900) of this series of catalogues or, more “Nutrition and Food Economics," by Gra

properly, monographs. The family name ham Lusk, gives statistical data regarding the

Amatidæ is a change from Syntomidæ, foramount of protein and the fuel value of food

merly used, on the ground that the generic consumed by people living under extremely

name Amata Fab. has priority over Syntomis varied conditions. This lecture also refers to a

Ochs. There are many synonymic references dietary study, carried out by F. C. Gephart, in

and corrections of generic locations all of a private boarding school for boys. The author

which will be extremely useful as aids to also emphasizes the need of including on the

identification of species. 330 genera and 2,002 label of package foods the number of calories

species are referred to, of which 10 genera and furnished by their contents.

43 species represent new forms described from “Investigations on the Mineral Metabolism

America. A separate volume of 41 colored of Animals,” by E. B. Forbes, presents some

plates accompanies the work. of the conclusions, with reference to the rôle of mineral elements of foods, which were

HARRISON G. DYAR drawn from extensive studies of the chemistry of foods and metabolism experiments with

SPECIAL ARTICLES swine and milch cows, data being included re- THE REARING OF DROSOPHILA AMPELOPHILA garding the iodin content of foods.

LOEW ON SOLID MEDIA In “ The Relation of the Vitamins to Nutri- During the course of some experiments on tion in Health and Disease," by C. Voegtlin, Drosophila which one of us was performing, the author outlines recent advances in the it became necessary to observe the beginning science of nutrition, with special reference to of oviposition. It is impossible to see the

The eggs

eggs and difficult to see the larvæ in the mass smaller than those reared on banana agar. of fermenting banana ordinarily used in rear- Clearly, the amount of available food in the ing Drosophila. For this reason and for many potato must be very small. others one can clearly see what the advantages Of course, bacteria always develop on the of a transparent solid medium might be. medium and sometimes we are troubled by

Banana agar was made as follows: Five or molds. The bacterial growth does not seem six bananas were mashed up in 500 c.c. of to harm the larvæ and the molds are usually water. This was allowed to infuse on ice over destroyed by the larvæ just as soon as they night, after which the liquid was passed hatch. Sometimes the fungus growth becomes through cheesecloth. Powdered agar-agar was

too luxuriant between egg deposition and then added in the proportion of 14 grams to

hatching. At such times the larvæ are killed 100 c.c. of the banana infusion. This was then by the growth, but this is exceptional. It is heated until the agar had dissolved.

The

well to take all bacteriological precautions in liquid was next filtered through a thin layer handling the tubes. of absorbent cotton into test tubes. The tubes

The agar method for rearing Drosophila

has the following advantages. were then plugged, sterilized and slanted in

“stand out” clearly and hence the time of the customary manner.

Media so prepared are quite transparent. deposition and hatching can be noted. The Greater transparency may be obtained, of

larvæ can also be clearly seen and their habits

observed. By using various synthetic solid course, by repeated filtration, but this removes

media, Drosophila may become the subject for too much from the food value. The slanted

interesting nutritional experiments. Our tubes give about 6–7 c.c. of food with a feed

solid medium has the slight disadvantage that ing surface of about 15 sq. cm.

the concentration of the food is too low. This Adult Drosophila are inserted into the tubes.

difficulty can probably be remedied by the The tubes are then incubated at 35° C. or

addition of some concentrated form of food kept in some other warm place. In a day or

like banana flour. two the small white eggs may be seen deposited

J. P. BAUMBERGER, everywhere on the surface of the agar. In a

R. W. GLASER day or two more the eggs hatch and the small

BUSSEY INSTITUTION larvæ can be seen working in the medium. The average number of days required to com

THE NEW YORK MEETING OF THE plete the cycle on the agar from egg to adult is

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE about thirteen. This is three days longer than

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE the average number of days required on the

The sixty-ninth meeting of the American Assoordinary fermenting banana mash. This

ciation for the Advancement of Science and af. means that the amount of available food is too

filiated national scientific societies was held in low. That this is the case is further shown New York, December 26 to 30, under the presiby the fact that some of the larvæ die prior to dency of Dr. Charles R. Van Hise. pupation, and that the flies are somewhat Owing to the large number of organizations undersized. It is highly probable that the

brought together at one time, and to the fact that amount of food may be increased by the use of

many local institutions are intimately related to some concentrated form of food like banana

these organizations, the places of meeting were flour. An increase of the feeding surface may

widely scattered. The general headquarters of the

association were maintained in Earl Hall of Colikewise help.

lumbia University, and the various buildings of We have also succeeded in rearing Droso

the university served very admirably for the meetphila on potato agar. The average number of

ings of many of the sections and affiliated sodays required to complete the life cycle is 15 cieties. Others met at the American Museum of on this medium. The flies are very much Natural History, at the College of the City of New

as

York, at the Cornell and other medical schools of the city, at the Engineers' Club and in a number of other places.

The formal opening of the meetings of the association took place on Tuesday evening, December 26, in the Auditorium of the American Museum of Natural History. The association was welcomed to the city by Fire Commissioner Robert Adamson, representing Mayor Mitchel. President Van Hise responded to this welcome on behalf of the association, and then introduced the retiring president, Dr. W. W. Campbell, who delivered an address upon the theme “The Nebulæ.' The address was profusely illustrated by a magnificent series of lantern slides. Following the address, a reception was tendered to the members of the association by the honorary reception committee of the City of New York in the newly opened Hall of the Age of Man.

During the meetings the two addresses were given to which the citizens of New York were especially invited, and which occasioned especial interest. These were as follows: “Infantile Paralysis and the Public Health,” by Dr. Simon Flexner, director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. “Nitrogen and Preparedness,” by Dr. Arthur A. Noyes, director of physical chemical research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

There were a large number of addresses by retiring officers delivered before the various sections and societies and many of these attracted especial attention, since they touched in various ways upon the great question of national economy and conservation of national resources. A list of the addresses of retiring vice-presidents follows: Section A. Armin 0. Leuschner: “Derivation of

Orbits—Theory and Practise.” Section B. E. Percival Lewis: “Recent Progress

in Spectrography." Section C. William McPherson: "Asymmetric

Syntheses and their Bearing upon the Doctrine

of Vitalism." Section D. Bion J. Arnold: "The Interrelation

ship of Engineering and Pure Science." Section G. W. A. Setchell: “Geographical Distri

bution of the Marine Algæ.Section H. Lillien J. Martin: Personality as

revealed by the Content of Images.” Section I. George F. Kunz: “Scientific Efficiency

and Industrial Museums our Safeguard in Peace

and War.'' Section L. Ellwood P. Cubberley: “Some Ob

stacles to Educational Progress.'
Professor Vernon L. Kellogg, vice-president of

Section F, sent a cablegram from England that imperative engagements in connection with his Red Cross work would prevent his attendance and the delivery of his address.

There was held at Columbia University a scientific exhibit and conversazione arranged by committees in each of seventeen sciences. There was also held at the American Museum a chemical exhibit and a Pasteur exhibit.

At the meetings of the council action was taken upon a number of matters of general interest to the members of the association. The two amend. ments to the constitution and by-laws proposed at the Columbus meeting were passed. The one of these designates section C “chemistry." The other, amending Article 9, makes the secretaries of the sections eligible for reelection.

Two amendments were proposed which will be acted upon at the next meeting. First. Amend Article 9 as follows: Insert after the words "Permanent Secretary” in lines 5, 8 and 9, the words “General Secretary” (to make the term of office of the general secretary five years). Second. In Article 35 for the words "

"three substitute the word “four').so as to read "The annual dues for members and fellows shall be four dollars.'

On recommendation of the committee on policy action was taken in the following matters:

1. A committee of seven on grants for research was constituted to apply the research income of the association, the committee to be appointed by the president.

2. It was decided that in the case of members of affiliated societies, elected to membership in the American Association for the Advancement of Science within one year of the election to membership in an affiliated society, the entrance fee shall be remitted.

3. The council authorized the appointment of a committee of twelve fellows resident in Washington and representing each section of the association to scrutinize the list of members and to nominate fellows to the council.

4. The council endorses the following resolution: “Resolved that the American Association for the Advancement of Science advocates the greater use of the metric units of weight and measure in the United States so as to increase the usefulness of our publications and to aid our foreign relations with the many countries where these units are official and in use.

5. The council approved the selection of Dr. Henry M. Howe as vice-president of Section D to succeed the late Dr. E. L. Corthell, and of Dr. C. Stuart Gager, as vice-president of Section G, to succeed the late Dr. Thomas J. Burrill.

6. On recommendations of the committee on policy, this same committee was instructed to prepare a revision of the constitution of the association, with by-laws, and to report to the council at its next stated meeting. As a part of its recommendation the committee on policy asked that the council should instruct the committee in this revision especially to redefine the duties of the permanent secretary and of the general secretary and the council acted favorably upon this request.

7. It was voted that $4,000 or whatever sum is available from interest on the permanent fund, be appropriated to the committee on grants for allotment, and that the treasurer be directed to pay the sums allotted on the order of the chairman of the committee. The committee on grants, appointed by the chair with the advice of the committee on policy, consists of E. C. Pickering, chairman; W. B. Cannon, Henry Crew, N. L. Britton, E. C. Franklin, J. McKeen Cattell, secretary, leaving one vacancy to be filled by a geologist.

8. An appropriation for the coming year to the Pacific Branch of the association, of the entrance fees collected by the branch and $1 for each actual member, was made.

9. The permanent secretary was authorized to pay the expenses of local branches during the coming year in an amount not to exceed 50 per cent. of the dues from such branches over and above the expenses of the journals and also the entrance fees secured through the efforts of such branches.

10. The following resolution was also adopted: “On behalf of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, its council extends to the secretaries and bureau chiefs of the United States government its appreciation of the fact that through their encouragement the important scientific work under their directions has been well represented at the meetings of the association.” This representation has greatly promoted the influence and usefulness of the bureaus, both by making their work more widely known, and by the stimulus imparted to and gained from other workers in similar fields. The association is so keenly interested in the work of the government bureaus that it ventures to express the hope that members of their staffs who are engaged in research be given all practicable encouragement to attend the meetings of the association and other national and international organizations devoted to the advancement of science.

11. The council took especial pleasure in grate

fully acknowledging the receipt of the following gifts: From Mr. E. D. Adams, $1,000; from Mr. Cleveland D. Dodge, $500. Mr. Adams was elected a patron of the association and the two gifts were added to the permanent fund reserved for research.

12. At the meeting the following life members emeritus were elected: Cyrus Fay Paine, W. J. Beal, F. W. Clarke, W. H. Dall. Mr. Paine was elected a member of the association in 1858, and is the oldest member in continuous membership.

Franz Boas, H. L. Fairchild and Irving Fisher were elected members of the council for a term of three years: W. J. Humphreys, D. T. MacDougal and E. L. Nichols were elected to the committee on policy for a term of three years.

The seventieth meeting of the association and of the national affiliated societies will be held at Pittsburgh, beginning on Friday, December 28, 1917. Boston is recommended as the place of meeting in 1918.

Officers were elected as follows:

President: Theodore W. Richards, Harvard University. Vice-presidents:

Section B: W. J. Humphreys, U. S. Weather Bureau.

Section C: W. A. Noyes, University of Illinois.

Section E: George H. Perkins, University of Vermont.

Section F: Herbert Osborn, Ohio State University.

Section G: Burton E. Livingston, Johns Hopkins University.

Section H: Edward B. Titchener, Cornell University.

Section I: George W. Perkins, New York City. Section K: C.-E. A. Winslow, Yale University.

Section L: E. F. Buchner, Johns Hopkins University.

Section M: H. J. Waters, University of Kansas.

Secretary of Council: Walter V. Bingham, University of Pittsburgh.

General Secretary: J. McKeen Cattell, Columbia University. Secretaries of Sections:

Section B: G. W. Stewart, State University of Iowa.

Section C: James Kendall, Columbia University.

Section E: Rollin T. Chamberlin, University of Chicago.

Section K: A. J. Goldfarb, College of the City of New York.

W. E. HENDERSON,

General Secretary

SCIENCE

FRIDAY, JANUARY 12, 1917

CONTENTS

The American Association for the Advance-

ment of Science :-
Specialization and Research in the Medical
Sciences : DR. FREDERICK P. GAY

Research in Industrial Laboratories : DR.
RAYMOND F. BACON, DR. C. E. K. MEES,
PROFESSOR W. H. WALKER, PROFESSOR M.
C. WHITAKER, DR. W. R. WHITNEY

Scientific Events :-

The Control of Tuberculosis in France; The
National Parks Conference; A French Na-
tional Physical Laboratory; Dedication of
the New York State Museum

39

Scientific Notes and News

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR

THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE
SPECIALIZATION AND RESEARCH IN

THE MEDICAL SCIENCES 1
MODERN scientists are not encouraged

and are become less inclined, except in the
25 afterglow of an active life, to indulge in

metaphysics. The visualization of material
phenomena, particularly when set in mo-
tion by deliberate experiment and observed

in their successive stages, tends to replace
34

speculation as to a more complete, though
less verifiable series of facts. This reliance
in the natural sciences on observation and
experiment rather than on ratiocination is
responsible for the great and rapidly in-

creasing body of useful knowledge we
41 possess.

Philosophical treatises by even conspicu-
43

ous representatives of the natural sciences
have seemed to me to differ from those of
the metaphysicians in that the former ap-
parently fail to appreciate that the meta-
physical game is played subject to certain

rules which have the same purpose of order
44 as the rules in other games. Philosophy is

apparently a subject like fine arts, about
which many people think they have intui-

tional knowledge. We judge pictures as
45

bad or good not on the basis of certain cri-

teria that have come through the ages to be
47 recognized as essential, but in accordance

with whether we like or dislike them. In
the same way we may think, because we

have a certain facility in the exposition of
48

scientific data, that we can offhand write

University and Educational News

Discussion and Correspondence :

A Case of Synchronic Behavior in Phalan-
gidæ : PROFESSOR H. H. NEWMAN. The
Supposed Synchronal Flashing of Fireflies:
PHILIP LAURENT. Trimmed Magazines and
Efficiency Experts: H. P.

Scientific Books:

Die Kultur der Gegenwart: PROFESSOR G.
F. HULL

Special Articles :-

Peanut Mosaic: Dr. J. A. MCCLINTOCK...

The American Association for the Advance-

ment of Science:-
Section CChemistry: DR. JOHN JOHNSTON.

MSS. Intended for publication and books, etc., intended for
review should be sent to Professor J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison.
00-Hudson, N. Y.

1 Address of the vice-president and chairman of
Section K, American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science, New York meeting, December 29,
1916.

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