ceived the cross, with assurances, that he had authority from heaven to promise them victory. Their cavalry was composed of one hundred and forty thousand koights, and their immediate attendants; and if even the light-armed troops, the women and children, the priests and monks, be excluded from the computation of their effective forces, their number will arise to four hundred thousand fouls.

· Manuel, the emperor of the Greeks, is accused by his own subjects of giving intelligence of the plans of the crusaders to the Turkish Sultan, and of providing them with treacherous guides. The conduct of the Christian leaders was dictated by no sound policy, or vigorous co-operation. Instead of endeavouring to crush the common foe by a preconcerted attack at the same time on different fides of his territories, Louis of France had scarcely passed the Bofphorus, when he was met by the returning Emperor, who had lost the greatest part of his army in a battle on the banks of the Meander. The king of France advanced through the same country to a similar fate; and was glad to shelter the relics of his army in the sea-port of Satalia. At Jerusalem these unfortunate monarchs met to lament their fad revertes of fortune. The flender remnants of their armies were joined to the Christian powers of Syria; and a fruitless fiege of Damascus was the final effort of the second crusade,


The Third Crusade A. D. 1190.

The great Saladin the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, encouraged by the inactivity or weakness of the Christian princes, reconquered the kingdom of Jerusalem, and after a fierce fiege of fourteen

days took the holy city itself, and planted upon its . walls the banner of Mahomet. He treated Sybilla the Queen, a descendant of Count Baldwin and her confort Guy of Lusignan, his captives, with kindness, and allowed his Chriftian prisoners their liberty on condition of paying a moderate ransom. By the report of these disasters the zealous princes of Europe were again roused to arms, and Frederic Barbarossa Emperor of Germany, Richard Cour de Lion king of England, and Philip Augustus - king of France, resolved to retrieve the honour of

the Christian arms. They were reinforced not only by the fleets of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice, but with the warriors of Flanders and Denmark, remarkable for their lofty stature and the use of the battle axe. With Lusignan at their head they besieged the city of Acre, thirty miles to the south of Tyre, and about seventy from Jerusalem. The fiege, which continued for two years, was remarkable for nine battles fought by the united Monems of Egypt, Syria, and Arabia, and the Christians in the neighbourhood of mount Carmel. The camp of the Christians was wasted by famine, and Saladin heard with joy that the emperor of Germany had H h 4



died in his march. The English fleet, affailed by a violent storm, was driven on the coast of Cyprus. Ifaac Comnenus, the despot of the place, pillaged the stranded thips, and threw the failors into prison : but the gallant Richard took ample vengeance for this act of inhumanity: he attacked the plunderer who opposed his landing, took him prisoner, and loaded him with chains; he entered Lemiffo his capital by storm,' and conferred the command of the island upon Guv of Lusignan the expelled king of Jerusalem. At length however the fleets of Richard, and of Philip, cast anchor in the bay of Acre, and they had the joint honour of taking the place. A capitulation was granted on condition of a ranfom of 200,000 pieces of gold, the deliverance of 100 nobles, and 1500 inferior captives, and the restoration of the wood of the genuine crois of Christ. The delay in the execution of the treaty enflamed the rage of the con. querors, and three thousand Turks are said to have been beheaded, almost in the view of the Sultan, by the orders of Richard.

; Soon after the surrender of Acre, Philip quitted Palettine, and Richard Cour de Lion had the chief command, and added the cities of Cæsareą and Jaffa to the kingdom of Lufignan. He led the main body of the Chriftian arniy at the battle of Arcalon against Saladin and his numerous hoft. The two wings were broken in the beginning of the fight by the impetuous Sultan, but Richard Tenewed the attack with admirable intrepidity and


· conduct, and turned the fortune of the contest to

a complete vicļory. He advanced within a day's march of Jerusalem, and intercepted a caravan of 7000 camels. Roured by a report that Jaffa was Jurprised by Saladin, he failed for the place, and Jeaped first upon the shore. The Saracens and Turks fed before him in wild dismay: On the following morning they returned, and found him careleisly encamped with only 17 knights and 300 Archers : regardless of their numbers, he sustained their charge, and grasping his lance rode along

their front, without meeting a single adversary who I dared to oppose his career.

In the course of this active campaign, some circumstances occurred to soften the rigour of hoftilities. Even presents were exchanged by the courteous warriours, and snow and fruit were given by Saladin and Norway hawks were exchanged for Arabian horses. The health of both Saladin and Richard began to decline, and each withed to return to his own dominions. Richard especially was eager to depart for Europe, as the perfidious Philip, in violation of his folemn oath, had taken advantage of his abfence to invade Normandy, then a province of England. A treaty was concluded on condition, that Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulchre should be open without tribute or molestation to the Latin Pilgriins; that the Christianis fhould possess the sea coast from Jaffa to Tyre; and. that for three years and three monthis all hostilities should ceafe, The Englich monarch informed Sa

ladin, that he might depend upon his return to try his fortune once more in the holy land; the sultan, with a degree of courtesy, which would have done honour to the most refined age, replied, that if it must be his misfortune to lofe that part of his dominions, he had rather lose it to the king of England, than to any other monarch in the world. The death of Saladin not long after inspired the Christians with no small exultation, as he had obstructed the career of their conquests more than any General who had ever been opposed to them. He was exemplary for his piety and his temperance. His drink was water only, and he wore a coarse woollen garment. Such was his cool intrepidity and religious zeal, that it was his custom to peruse the Koran on horseback between approaching armies. During his laft illness, he ordered his Throud to be carried through the city, while a crier went before the procession, and proclaimed with a loud voice, « This is all that remains to the mighty Saladin, the conqueror of the East.” Liberality was a distinguishing feature in his character; he gave away twelve thousand horses at the fiege of Acre; and at his death no more than forty-seven pieces of silver and one of gold were found in his treasury.

· As Richard Cour de Lion was on his return home, he was fhipwrecked near Aquileia. He tra· velled in the habit of a pilgrim, but the liberality of

his expences betrayed him, and he was thrown into prison by Leopold, Duke of Austria, whom he had


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