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These misfortunes were so far from extinguishing, that they rather tended to increase the enthusiasm of the Christians. The most eminent chieftains of the age, renowned for their prowess in arms, engaged in the crusade without delay. Godfrey of Bouillon* duke of Brabant, a descendant of the Emperor Charlemagne, with his two brothers, Eustace and Baldwin, Hugh Count of Vermandois, brother.to the king of France, Robert Duke of Normandy, eldest son of William the Conqueror king of England, Robert Count of Flanders, Stephen Count of Blois, one of the richest and most power" ful princes of that age, the number of whose castles equalled that of the days of the year, were, the leaders of the trench, the Norman, and the English forces. Adhemer the legata of die Pope, and Raimond, Count of Thoulouse, took the com? mand of those who went from the south of France, Lornbardy, and Spain; Eohemond, and his cousin, the accomplished Tancred princes of the Norman" race, were accompanied by several nobles of that province. They were followed by their ^numerous adherents and vassals, whole services were either prompted by zeal and attachment to ' thejr refr pective lords, or purchased with rewards and pro* iniscs.

Their principal force was cavalry, chiefly com* posed of gentlemen invested with the honour of knighthood. When their collected forces were mustered upon the plains of Bithynia, the knights and their martial attendants amounted to 100,000

voi, i. u h fighting sighting men, completely armed with the helmet and coat of mail, The Princess Anna the daughter of the Greek Emperor compared their numbers, but much in the stile of eastern exaggeration, to locusts, to leaves of trees, or the sand of the sea.

Constantinople was at that time the largest, as well as the most beautiful city in Europe. It alone retained the image of ancient manners and arts. It was the place where manufactures of the most curious fabric were wrought, and was the mart of Europe for all the commodities of the east. This feat of empire, elegance, and magnisicence was appointed as a general rendezvous for all the crusaders. Several contemporary writers were witnesses to this singular assembly of different nations, and they have given a lively picture of the characters and manners of each people. When the polite natives of the metropolis of the east speak of the northern warriors, they describe them as barbarous, illiterate, sierce, and savage; and they sometimes inveigh against them with great severity, and relate instances of their violence, in terms not unlike those which preceding historians had employed in describing the incursions of the Goths and Vandals, when they overturned the Roman empire. On the other hand, the crusaders, while they despised the effeminate manners and unwarlike character of the Greeks, were surprised at the wealth and magnisicence of their metropolis.

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The progress of the Crusaders was attended by many flattering instances of success. They took Nice, at that time the capital of the Turkish empire, the feat of Sultan Solyman in Asia Minor, and they defeated him in two pitched battles. After croffing mount Taurus, they besieged Antioch, a place of great strength. Before the capture of that important place, many of their troops were lost by famine, and after it, many perished by pestilence: but undismayed by these misfortunes, they continued their zealous career. The lofty walls of Jerusalem at length struck their eyes, and as soon as they heheld this hallowed object of their affections, they raised a general fllout of joy, and then devoutly fell prostrate on their faces, and. kissed the ground whereon the Redeemer of mankind had deigned to tread. The city was strong both by nature and art, and defended by the Saracen Caliph of Egypt, at the head of a garrison well appointed, and more numerous than the Christian army. Forty days were employed in the siege, at the end of which they took the city by storm: In the ardour of rage and victory they put multitudes of Jews and Turks to the sword, and such was their thirst for the extirpation of the Insidels, that according to the candid account which Godfrey himself gives of the transaction, so great was the llaughter of the enemy, in the temple of Solomon, that his men stood in blood above the ancles. They then walked with naked feet in solemn procession to the holy sepulchre, there to return thanks for so great a victory. The Arabian Ii h 2 writers w-rfters assert that they continued the massacre of the Turks in the adjacent country for several weeks together, and assembling all the Jews, burned them hi their temple. The Latin historians are very far from contradicting these statements, nor <te they relate any instances of clemency on this occasion. On Robert Duke of Normandy declining the-honour, Godfrey of Bouillon, the most worthy of the Champions of Christendom, was proclaimed 'king of Jerusalem. In imitation of his Se/fibuf, he was crowned with thorns; he rejected the appendages of royalty, and contented himself •\vith the modest title of Defender and Baron of the holy fepulchre. A. D. 10.99. Many of hiscompanions returned to Europe, and his short reign, which continued only for one year, did not $Ve him time to establish his new kingdom. The conquests acquired in this sirst Crusade were comprised within the small territory of Jerusalem, the dominion of which lasted rather longer than fourfc6V# Vears. The principality of Antioch and Edessa; extending over Mesopotamia, possessed by Bohc'mond, and retained about forty years,-and #te Tiberiad assigned to Tancred. Encouraged by such delusive prospects of establishing a Christian empire in the holy land, the Pope and the Clergy continued to recommend this sacred war with increased a/dour. It was still reprefented to the people as the cause of God and of Christ, in which death wdilld confer the merit of martyrdom, and paradise would be equally the reward of defeat, os of victory. - ■•

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Forty eight years after the deliverance, of Jcrur salem the second crusade was undertaken. &Jt» Bernard, famed for his eloquence and pjety, and the great influence, which he obtained amongst the people, flourished at the beginning of the twelfth century. Armed with the authority of Pope Eugene III. he fanned the flame of military fanaticism. "With a voice, that was in every places obeyed without delay, he called the nations to the protection of the holy sepulchre. The fame of l)jf pretended miracles and predictions removed every .doubt of success from the minds of his credulous hearers; insomuch, that all who were able to bear arms were eager to participate in the glory of this warfare. Bernard was invited by the Bishops and Nobles of France to become a leader in the expedition, which he so zealously recommended.; but the Pope would not allow him to accept the flattering offer. The event proved him more fortunate in advancing the interests of the Church, 'than in the success of his projects, or the fulfilment .of his predictions. The court of Rome pro£fced by his labours, and canonized his memory. Conrad III. emperor of Germany, and Louis VH. king .of France, were the principal leaders in the second crusaejez. From tiie hands of Bernard they ter

. '. - 'i 1 A. D. 1H7.

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