#, consummate general; and when the magnitude and the number of the obstacles he surmounted in his invasion of Italy be considered, the extensive and hostile regions which he traversed, the factious parties of Carthage, which attempted to disconcert all his measures, the discordant interests of the allied forces which he reconciled, and the powerful armies and skilful generals he opposed, he may surely be ranked, where Scipjo Africanus, his great rival in arms, did not hesitate to place him, among the greatest heroes of antiquity,

Even after the successive defeats of the Romans At Thrasimeqe, at Trebia, and the complete destruction of their best army at Canute, when they were basely deserted by many of their allies, the senate did not relax, even for a moment, the sirmness of ancient institutions, and disdained to negociate with the enemy, while he continued within the territories of the republic. And at that critical conjuncture, far from being dismayed at his approach, they fold by public auction the ground Upon which his army was encamped; and it was purchased at no less a price than it wo.uld have reached in time of peace. At the fame time <a body of troops advanced from the city to give battle to Hannibal, another detachment marched out at an opposite gate tq reinforce the army in Spain \

4 Livy, lib. xxvi. c. 11*


The victorious Hannibal, instead of making art additional effort of courage in compliance with the advice of his molt experienced officers, and marching with rapidity to Rome, immediately after the battle of Cannæ, before his enemies could recover from their consternation, was imprudent enough to allow his soldiers to indulge in the enervating luxuries of Capua. This was the subject of his vain lamentation, as he was reluctantly sailing back to his native country, and beheld for the last time the lesfening shores of Italy, that had been so frequently the scenes of his glory. Such is the interesting account of Livy:—But it seems probable that a want of those supplies, which he requested immediately after the battle of Cannæ, was the true cause of the decline of his fortune, as he continued to ravage Italy for the course of fourteen years after his stay at Capua; during that time he gained several victories, and kept his enemies in a state of constant alarm for the safety of the empire.

The great Scipio Africanus turned the tide of success, and the fortune of Hannibal funk under his triumphant arms. The battle of Zama, in which these great Generals were opposed to each other, gave to the Romans a complete victory. The Carthaginians were compelled to supplicate 4 peace, which was granted upon the molt humiliating terms. The third Punic war produced the complete overthrow of their power. The Romans instigated by a cruel policy, pursued the advice of

the the elder Cato, who was constantly inculcating in the Senate, the necessity of the total destruction of the rival state. The city of Carthage was taken by assault, the inhabitants slaughtered, and the place reduced to ashes. In the fame year, Corinth was destroyed by Mummius, and Greece was reduced to a Roman Province'. After the defeat of the Carthaginians, there were no people sufficiently powerful to contend with the Romans for the command of the ocean. They could therefore convey their troops without interruption, and carry on their conquests upon the most distant coasts. As their plan of operations was conducted upon regular principles, their success was not unstable and transitory, like that of Alexander the Great, but continued through the long period of nine centuries to accumulate power, and gradually add kingdom to kingdom.

After the Romans had thus subdued the fairest countries of the antient world, the arms of their ambitious Generals were turned against each other. To the bloody proscriptions of Marius and Sylla, succeeded the triumphs of the politic Cæsar. Elated by the extent of his victories in Gaul, Germany, and Britain, and instigated by insatiable ambition, he resolved to 'contend with the brave and amiable Pompey his son in law for the supreme power. The Senate aware of his designs, had decreed that the General who should pals the

• C. C. 147.

Rubicon, Rubicon, a small river between Italy and Gaul, with an armed force, should be guilty of treason. Disdaining this prohibition, Cæsar marched to Koine at the head of his faithful legions, pursued hk rival Pompey, and defeated lus army with great slaughter, in the sields of Pharsalia1. Pompey sled to Egypt, where he was basely slain by order of Ptolemy. Cato, who was a better patriot, than a philosopher, determining not to survive the libertics of his country, nor to swell the triumph of Cæsar, put an end to his life at Utica in Africa. Cæsar, now secure in the possession of the empire, consulted for the happiness and welfare of the people by whom he was much beloved. His person was declared sacred, he was invested with the office of perpetual dictator, and was hailed Jmperator, a title which implied supreme civil, as well as military power. From a suspicion that he was aiming at despotic sway, and was eager to add to his tides the odious one of King, sixty Senators formed a conspiracy against him\ at the head of them was Brutus, whose life he had spared, and who shared his friendship. He was in the Ides of .March assassinated in the senate house; he resisted till he saw the dagger of Brutus raised against; him, and then covering his face with his robe, pierced by numerous wounds, he expired at the feet of Pompey's statue.

Marc Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius, grand nephew, and adopted heir to Cæsar, formed a

f B. C. 48.

. second second triumvirate. They cemented their union with the blood of their friends and relations: of thole who suffered none was so illustrious as Cicero, sacrisiced by Octavius, whose friend and benesactor he had been, to the profligate Antony. With the boldness which truth inspired, Cicero had provoked his rage by exposing to the senate and the pubiie his secret vices in the Orations, which from their resemblance to those pronounced by Demosthenes against Philip of Macedon, were called Philippics. His matchless talents, unsullied character, and a long life devoted to the service of his friends and the state, afforded him no protection against a merciless enemy. Assassins pursued him to the shores of Cajeta, and near Tulculuin, one of his favourite villas, the scene of his philosophical studies, they severed his head from his body. He suffered with greater sirmness than he had ever shown upon former occasions of distress. His death alone did not satisfy Antony, he caused the head and hands of Cicero to be sixed upon the rostra, from which that most eloquent of orators had so often instructed and delighted his countrymen: but cruel and revengeful as Antony was, it was not in his power to prevent the spectators from paying the tribute of honour and gratitude which .was due to eminent talents, and important public services; for they could but dimly and indistinctly .behold a sight so deplorable, by reason of the -abundance of their tears.

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