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a confummate general; and when the magnitude and the number of the obstacles he surmounted in his invasion of Italy be considered, the extenlive and hoftile regions which he traversed, the factious parties of Carthage, which attempted to disconcert all his measures, the discordant interests of the allied forces which he reconciled, and the powerful armies and skilful generals he opposed, he may surely be ranked, where Scipio Africanus, his great rival in arms, did not hesitate to place him, among the greatest herges of antiquity,
Even after the successive defeats of the Romans at Thrasimene, at Trebia, and the complete destruction of their best army at Canvæ, when they were basely deserted by many of their allies, the fenate did not relax, even for a moment, the firmness of ancient institutions, and disdained to negociate with the enemy, while he continued within the territories of the republic. And at that critical conjuncture, far from being dismayed at his approach, they fold by public auction the ground upon which his army was encamped; and it was purchased at no less a price than it would have reached in time of peace. At the same time a body of troops advanced from the city to give battle to Hannibal, another detachment marched out at an opposite gate tą reinforce the army in Spain?
The victorious Hannibal, instead of making an additional effort of courage in compliance with the advice of his moft experienced officers, and marching with rapidity to Rome, immediately after the battle of Cannæ, before his enemies could recover from their confternation, was imprudent enough to allow his soldiers to indulge in the enervating luxuries of Capua. This was the subject of his vain lamentation, as he was reluctantly sailing back to his native country, and beheld for the last time the leflening shores of Italy, that had been so frequently the scenes of his glory. Such is the interefting account of Livy:-But it seems probable that a want of those fupplies, which he requested immediately after the battle of Canne, was the true cause of the decline of his fortune, as he continued to ravage Italy for the course of fourteen years after his stay at Capua; during that time he gained several victories, and kept his enemies in a ftate of constant alarm for the safety of the empire.
· The great Seipio Africanus turned the tide of - success, and the fortune of Hannibal funk under
liis triumphant arms. The battle of Zama, in which there great Generals were opposed to each other, 'gave to the Romans a complete victory. The Carthaginians were compelled to supplicate & peace, which was granted upon the most humi. liating terms. The third Punic war produced the complete overthrow of their power. The Romans inftigated by a cruel policy, purfued the advice of
the elder Cato, who was constantly inculcating in the Senate, the necessity of the total destruction of the rival state. The city of Carthage was taken by afsault, the inhabitants slaughtered, and the place reduced to ashes. In the same year, Corinth was destroyed by Mummius, and Greece was reduced to a Roman Province. After the defeat of the Carthaginians, there were no people fufficiently powerful to contend with the Romans for the command of the ocean. They could therefore convey their troops without interruption, and carry on their conquests upon the most diftant coasts. As their plan of operations was conducted upon regular principles, their success was not unstable and transitory, like that of Alexander the Great, but continued through the long period of nine centuries to accumulate power, and gradually add kingdom to kingdom.
After the Romans had thus fubdued the fairelt countries of the antient world, the arms of their ambitious Generals were turned against each other. To the bloody profcriptions of Marius and Sylla, fucceeded the triumphs of the politic Cæsar. Elated by the extent of his victories in Gani, Germany, and Britain, and inftigated by insatiable ambition, he resolved to 'contend with the brave and amiable Pompey his son in law for the supreme power. The Senate aware of his designs, had decreed that the General who should pass the
Rubicon, a finail river between Italy and Gaul, with an armed force, should be guilty of treason. Disdaining this prohibition, Cæfar marched to Rome at the head of his faithful legions, pursued his rival Pompey, and defeated his army with great daughter, in the fields of Pharfalia'. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was bafely Nain by order of Ptolemy. Cato, who was a better patriot, than a pliilofopher, determining not to survive the libertics of his country, nor to swell the triumph of Cæfar, put an end to his life at Utica in Africa. Cæfar, now secure in the posseflion of the empire, confulted for the happiness and welfare of the people by whom he was much beloved, His person was declared sacred, he was invested with the office af perpctual dictator, and was hailed Imperator, a title which implied supreme civil, as well as military power. From a suspicion that he was aimning at despotic sway, and was eager to add to his titles the odious one of King, fixty Senators formed a conspiracy against him; at the head of thein was Brutus, whole life he had spared, and who shared his friendship. Ile was in the Ides of March affassinated in the senate house; he refsted till he saw the dagger of Brutus raised against him, and then covering his face with his robe, pierced by numerous wounds, he expired at the feet of Pompey's ftatue.
Marc Antony, Lepidus, and O&avius, grand nephew, and adopted heir to Cæfar, formed a
? B. C. 48.
second triumvirate. They cemented their union with the blood of their friends and relations: of those who suffered none was so illustrious as Cicero, sacrificed by Octavius, whose friend and benefactor he had been, to the profligate Antony. With the boldness which truth inspired, Cicero had provoked his rage by exposing to the senate and the public his secret vices in the Orations, which from their resemblance to those pronounced by Demotthenes against Philip of Macedon, were called Philippics. His matchless talents, unsullied chara&er, and a long life devoted to the service of his friends and the state, afforded him no protection against a merciless enemy. Affaffins pursued him to the Ahores of Cajeta, and near Tufculum, one of his favourite villas, the scene of his philofophical studies, they severed his head from his body. He suffered with greater firmness than he had ever Thown upon former occasions of distress. His death alone did not satisfy Antony, he caused the head and hands of Cicero to be fixed upon the rostra, from which that most eloquent of orators had so often instructed and delighted his countryinen: but cruel and revengeful as Antony was, it was not in his power to prevent the spectators from paying the tribute of honour and gratitude which was due to eminent talents, and important public services; for they could but dimly and indistinctly behold a light so deplorable, by reason of the abundance of their tears.