to encourage arrogance and ostentation, was superior, in point of pomp and splendour, to the honour ever paid to victorious chiefs and armies in any other country. It was attended by an innumerable concourse of spectators, collected from every part of the empire. Such was the glory assigned to Paulus Æmilius, the great conqueror of Macedon, after he had brought Perseus, king of that country, and his family, prisoners to Rome. The procession passed through spacious and lofty arches, ornamented with pictures and statues, to the splendid temple of the lofty Capitol. At sirst appeared bands of trumpeters, and other martial musicians, who, to prepare the spectators for a display of military magnisicence, sounded die loud and animating charge of battle. The priests, clothed in long robes, and crowned with chaplets, walked by the side of the white oxen of Clitumnus devoted to sacrisice. The sculptured sigures, painted banners, and various symbols of the subdued cities and provinces, were distinctly displayed. The gold and silver coin, deposited in capacious vases, and the golden goblets and rich plate which had adorned the royal banquets of Antigonus and Seleucus, best disposed for the view of the people, were carried by robust soldiers. Bur nished helmet?, coats of mail, waving crests, and glittering spears, were conveyed in long trains of carriages. The chariot of the captive king next appeared, coritaining his diadem and his armour. Then walked Perseus clad in mourning, with slow and melancholy steps, attended by his children and friends, 3 preceding

s preceding the conqueror himself. Paulus Emilias appeared standing erect, in a magnisicent chariot, drawn by four milk-white horses; his countenance was expressive of great dignity, heightened by his advanced age. He was clothed in a purple robe, his head encircled with a refulgent diadem, and holding in his hand a branch of laurel. The procession was closed by the whole army, with their standards displayed at the front of their legions, intermixing with the long of triumph the praises of their geneial.

Those who instituted the triumph as a national celebrity, perfectly understood the genius of a people disposed to catch the flame of emulation from every incident, which gave dignity to the character of a soldier. This honour was indeed rarely granted to any ofsicer of inferior rank to a dictator, consul, or prætor: but as each of them shared; it in common with every tribune, centurion, and even legionary of his army, it failed not to inspire them all with ardour for military service". The same


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1 The honour osa triumph was refused to L. Cornelius Lehtulus, becaufe he had borne none of thefe offices: "Res triumpho dignas efle cenltrbat senatus: fed exemplum a majoribus non accepisi'e, ut qui, neque dictator, neque consul, neque prætor res gefsisset, triumpharet." Liv. Hist. lib. xxxi. c. 20. But this honour was granted to Pompey, when only a knight. See his Life by Plutarch, vol. ii. p. 2.99. Plutarch, a Greek, and Jofephus, a Jew, have given circumstantial descriptiono of the Roman triumph. It is only from foreigners, or those wl»o

distinction, therefore, which was the reward of one victory, frequently proved the source of ano,ther.

III. Rome at an early period called for the aid of religion, to - give greater efsicacy to her civil laws and military institutions. Numa lulled his infant kingdom into a short repose, in order to strengthen it by sacred establishments, B; C. 713. The attention paid to augury, which was at once the resource and the delusion of the Romans, arose to the highest degree of superstition. Not only the departed heroes, who had been raised to the rank of divinity by the elegant sictions of Greece, as well as the gods of other nations, were naturalized; but every virtue and vice, every art and profession, the deities of every grove and stream, derived, a peculiar character from their respective votaries; were represented by images, ornamented with peculiar symbols, and worshipped with appropriate rites. The excessive credulity os the populace, ever eager for the account of prodigies and fables, was at all times flattered by the magistrates, and respected by the philosophers, who, however they rnight smile in secret at the-prevailing superstition, still assumed in public the mask of external reverence for the mythology of their country. The ceremonies of Paganism were in general of the most cheerful

write for foreigners, that we cati expect particular accounts of manners, custom's, and cereslioaieSi which are familiar to


Vol. I. E e tendency; tendency; processions to the temples, except in cafes of public calamity, were social meetings of festivity; and sacrisices to the gods were little more than the feasts of their worshippers.

A scrupulous attention to religion was the peculiar boast and pride of the Romans: and Cicero hesitated not to assert, that to their piety, and their sirm belief in the over-ruling providence of the gods, they were indebted for their ascendency over all other nations*. The establishment of pontiffs, stamens, augurs, and vestals, was supported by consecrated lands; and as the civil and military departments were not deemed incompatible with the religious, even emperors, consuls, and generals aspired to, and exercised, the offices of the priesthood. The union of religion indeed with the civil government is a striking feature in the Roman policy. Augustus was sensible of its great importance; and he, as well as succeeding emperors, sought to raise himself above the attacks of his enemies, and exalt the respectability of his character to the greatest elevation, by assuming the venerable title and inviolable dignity of the Pontifex Maximus.

IV. The spirit of patriotism was never more generally diffused, nor longer preserved, than in ancient

1 " Sed pietate ac religione, atque hac vna sapientia, quod . deorum immortaltum uumine omnia regi guberuarique perspeximus, omnes- gentes natiouesque superavimus." Cicero de Harusp. Respoiisis.


ftortie. So ardent were the sentiments which it inspired, and so daring the actions which it excited, that it was rather a passion than a habit of the mind-. It was the source of numberless virtues; it fostered patience, and alleviated toil; it extinguished the fire of ambition, and even silenced the voice of nature; and taught the Romans to despise all pri* vate interest, and to submit to the feverest pain for the benesit of the state. Hence Junius Brutus condemned his sons, for being engaged in a conspiracy with Tarquin, the exiled king, to an ignominious death, llegulus, unmoved by the entreaties of his weeping relations and friends, and undismayed by the prospect of certain torture, returned to Carthage; and the inflexible Manlius Torquatus, checking the strongest feelings of the heart, devoted his victorious son, for sighting contrary to his orders, to the sword of the executioner.

The republic was frequently agitated by the most violent convulsions of party. The debates of the seriate were interrupted by the clamorous demands of the tribunes, solicitous to secure the rights of the people. The forum was often a scene of war, and the peaceful gown was stained with blood. Both Tiberius and Caius Gracchus, the intemperate advocates for the revival of the Agrarian law, misled by injudicious zeal for the privileges of the plebeians, fell a sacrisice to the vengeance of aristocratic power ; and in a subsequent period, the wants of tha profligate, and the ambition of the noble, • • , E e 2 produced

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