They copied the form of the Sabine thield, and armed their troops with the Spanish sword. Horses for their cavalry were procured from Numidia; and the wreck of a Carthaginian vessel, fortunately thrown upon their coaft, was the model of their first ship of war. At the beginning of the contest with Carthage, they had not a single veffel of this defcription; but at its close they were masters of the sea. They stationed the captured elephants, which had been employed againft' them in the Punic wars, in the front of their army against Philip of Macedon." The genius of fuch a people, Yo versatile and alive to improvement, seemed to form them for extensive empire; and hence it is the less extraordinary, that the ready adoption of foreign arms and inventions proved destructive to the nations which originally used them",

But the peculiar glory of Roman tactics arofe from the formation and discipline of the legion. Agreeable to the genius of the people, it was better calculated for attack than defence. With respect to activity, it had great advantages over the Grecian and Macedonian phalanx, which was only fo constructed, as to force its way by the depth and folidity of its compact and closely-wedged ranks. Under Romulus, the number of a legion consisted of 3000 foot and 300 horse soldiers : when Hannibal was in Italy, it was increased to 5000 men,

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w Agalos youp et xai TIVES I Tepos jetaMaCuviOn, ræv Inawoas To GiaTiON, 'Popcasos. Polybius, lib. vi. sect. 20, 21, 24. edit. Gronov.


Each legion was divided into ten cohortes, each cohors into three manipuli, and each manipulus into three ordines, or ranks. :· Thehastati composed the front, the principes the centre, and the triarü the rear rank. The open order, which the legionary troops preserved, gave to every soldier the free exercise of his arms, and afforded fpace for reinforcements to advance to the relief of those, whose ftrength was exhausted. The spaces likewise gave room for the first line to fall back into the second, and with them to make a new attack; and if these two ranks when united were overpowered, they retired to the rear rank, with whose affiftance they renewed the charge with threefold iinpetuolity. The regular manner, in which this advance or retreat was conducted, conftituted the perfection of the Roman discipline. The success, which it muft finally secure, was certain, when we consider the legions opposed to irregular barbarians, who, Gif once routed, never returned to a second attack. In many battles, the Romans were at first repulsed by the number or impetuofity of the hostile troops : but by their judicious arrangements and evolutions, the event was ultimately favourable; the enemy was checked in the midst of his successful career, and the laurel of victory was suddenly snatched his hands *

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- Livy contrasts the phalanx with the legion, and points out the superior excellence of the latter, when comparing the

!! forces of Alexander with the Romans" Statarius uterque miles, ordines servans.; fed illa phalanx immobilis et unius

generis: The first model of a Roman camp seems to have been suggested by the rude intrenchments, which Romulus caused to be thrown up to defend his rising city. This plan was in succeeding times greatly improved ; and the camp of the Romans was remarkable for the perfect regularity of its quadrangular form : it was divided by parallel lines, compofing spacious streets, for the accommodation, in feparate detachments, of cavalry, infantry, and auxiliaries; was fecured by the breadth and depth of its ditch, and the loftiness of its ramparts, armed with a line of strong and clofe palisades. When at this day we trace the remaining vestiges of their encampments, we can in some degree realize the "descriptions which the ancients have given us, and fairly infer the greatness of their strength from their long duration. ~ Many camps in this isand, and upon the continent, such as that near Kyneton, upon the borders of Herefordshire-the camp near Dorchester in Dorsetshire; at Cafter, or Venta Icenorum, near. Norwich; Cæsar's camp upon : the Rhine, and that which overtops the white cliffs of Dieppe, may be supposed, from their present fresh and unbroken appearance, to have been formed only a few centuries ago. Epirus had done before, that no nation could equal the Romans in the skill displayed in this essential branch of the art of wary : :


generis: Romana acies distinctior, ex pluribus partibus conftans : facilis partienti, quacunque opus effet, facilis jungenti.” Liv. lib. viii. c. 8. et lib. ix.

Yet was this phalanx neser or very feldom able to stand against the Romano armies, which were embattelled in fo excellent a forme, as I know hot whether aný nation besides them have used, either before or fince.”* Sir W'. Raleigh,

662 dn 31st. .' , ***: 41.i! du p a : 10


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The elegant and lively historian Livy, presents us with a very striking instance of the effect produced upon the minds of their enemies, by the martial improvements made by the Romans. Philip the second, king of Macedon, caused the bodies of some of his foldiers, who had fallen in a skirmish, to be brought into his camp, that they might be buried with military honours." His motive was to inftigaté his army, to expose themselyes more refolutely to the dangers of war. But the method which he took to rouse their courage produced a contrary effect. His troops, who had been accustomed to fight with the Greeks and Illyrians, and to inflict and receive only slight wounds made by darts and arrows, now beheld the bodies of their dead comrades marked by deep and ghaftly. cuts, and deprived of heads and limbs by the keen and vigorous strokes of the Spanish swords, the weighty weapons of the Romans. With dismay they reflected upon the enemies with whom they had to contend, and the great fuperiority of their arms, and mode of fighting. Philip himself, no less alarmed, recalled his son Perseus and his troops from the straights of Pelagonia to reinforce his desponding army. From a lofty hill he foon after reconnoitered the position of the enemy, and took a distinct view of their camp. : He remarked the different quarters into which it was divided, the exact order in which the tents were pitched, and the intersections which formed the streets. -· Afto.. nished at the admirable arrangement of all the parts, he candidly declared, as' Pyrrhus king of

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• But the Romans found, that the perfection of their movements in the field, and the security of their position in camps, would not complete the military art, without impofing the strictest restraints upon the conduct of a soldier, and holding out the most lucrative and glorious recompence for his valour. Such was the inflexible rigour of martial law, that cowardice and disobedience led to inevitable death, inflicted by the swords and darts of his comrades; whilst, on the other hand, every exploit was attended by its appropriate honour. The rich trappings of horses, the golden chain, the civic, the mural, and the roftral crowns, awaited the return of the veteran from the field of battle ; and pensions arising from the sale of the conquered lands, or settlements upon fertile fpots of ground, were granted for the support of his declining age, and as the rewards of his long and faithful services. . .

. . . dio

The Triumph, which derived its origin from the earliest age of the republic, when Romulus returned home laden with spoils of his yanquifhed enemies, tended in a much greater degree to cherish this martial spirit. This ceremony, repugnant as it was to the feelings of humanity, and calculated

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