and South, derives its whole importance from its colonies of European origin; and North America is distinguished by the recent formation of some of the English colonies into an independent republic of United States, preserving the language and the customs of the mother country, and containing, according to the last cenfus, fix millions of inhabitants. The degree to which a population, which with the affistance of emigrants is said to be doubled in twenty years, possessing ample territory for its, subsistence may extend, is not easy to be ascertained; but should the ravages of the yellow fever fubside, the American states may go on to increase their inhabitants in a manner equal to any country hitherto known in the world.

North America is divided into the provinces of Nova Scotia, Canada, and New Britain, belonging to Great Britain; the fixteen United States, Louifiana, lately purchased by them of the French; Éaft and West Florida, California, and Mexico, or New Spain, belonging to Spain. The immense inland country, much of which is unexplored, is still occupied in many parts by the Indian tribes.

The Colonies of South America, ftill more extensive, remain in the possession of their parent countries of Spain and Portugal, while these states, . notwithstanding the vast revenues which they derive from their colonies, have been long finking in the scale of European importance. South America is


divided into seven great provinces, Terra Firma, Peru, Amazonia, Brazil, Paraguay, Chili; and Pa. tagonia. Peru, the richest province of America, situated on the southern coast, is about 1400 miles long, and 400 broad. Its chief commodities are gold and filver, quickfilver, pearls, cotton, tobacco; cochineal, and drugs ; quinquina or the Jesuíts' bark, the virtue of which is well known all over Europe, and tobacco of the finest flavour, are peculiar to this country. The climate of Brasil is temperate, and the soil fertile ; its chief commodities are gold, diamonds, red wood, sugar, amber, &c. It is subject to the King of Portugal, who draws great riches from it.

The foregoing is a very imperfect account of the terraqueous globe we inhabit. It is fo large in dimenfions, that even Teneriffe or Mont Blanc are, compared to it, but as grains of duft, upon an artificial sphere. Its diameter is 7970 miles, and its surface contains 199,557,259 {quare miles. Placed between the Orbits of Venus and Mars, it performs its course around the Sun at the rate of 68243 miles. in an hour, and completes it annual revolution in rather more than 365 days.

Without a knowledge of Geography, no reader 'can have a clear idea of the scene, where any occurrence takes place; but is liable to the groffest mistakes by confounding one part of the world with another. It is equally applicable to modern as to ancient history, and introduces the pleasing com


bination of the antient and modern names of places, and the characters and manners of the different inhabitants. It affists the memory by the affociations of ideas, which it fuggefts; and the profs pect of a country represented by a map, or å globe, recals to mind the memorable deeds which have been performed in it, as well as its illustrious men.

Persons in various fituations of life are interested in the study of geography, and may reap advantage from its cultivation. While it constitutes a branch of knowledge effentially necessary for the traveller, the merchant, and the sailor, it furnishes abundant stores of investigation to the naturalist and the philosopher. It is not only requisite for every reader of history, but for every one who peruses the daily accounts of the events which are taking place in various parts of the world, whether they are the seats of war or of commerce. It has long been considered as a material branch of a polite education; at present indeed it is more particularly req that it should be so, as the British commerce and colonies extend our connexions to so many different countries; and as many voyages of discovery have of late years been made.

Chronology furnishes the standard by which the succession of time is measured. By its assistance we can calculate the rise and fall of empires, the length of lives, and the dates of all remarkable occurrences. It includes eras and epochs. Thefe


Signify the time when any memorable event takes place, as the Chrifiian era means the birth of Christ.

Different nations have adopted different modes of computing time. The most antient we read of is that of Mofes. In his defcription of the deduge, he calculates by months, consisting each of thirty days, and by years, consisting of 360 days each P. According to. Herodotus, the Egyptians reckoned in the fame manner, and from them probably Moses adopted his method, as he was versed in all their learning. .


p This is asserted in general terms in Dodley's Preceptor, and the proof may be satisfactorily made out in the following manner, by which the particular details of scripture, relative to the deluge, in Genesis, chap. vii. will be made exactly to amount to the sum total in Genesis, chap, viii. v. 13. 2 Months 17 Days. The tinie when the fountains of the deep

were dried up...' '
. 40 Days. Continuation of rain. ..

40...... Increase of the deluge,


Its continuation.

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40........ Its decrease.
7o..... The dove fent from the ark the first time.

7. ..... The dove sent out the second time. : 301 Days divided by 30=10 Months 1 Day.

Add the 2 Months 2

12 Months 1 Day.. up That is, the first month in the first day of the month, as stated in chap. viii, v. 13, when the face of the ground was dry, and the waters had intirely subsided. VOL. I.


The Greeks calculated by Olympiads. An Olympiad is a space of four years, after the expi, ration of which, that is in the fifth year, games in honour of Jupiter Olympius were celebrated with great pomp and festivity by the Greeks near Olym; pia, a city in Peloponnesus. They were fully established in the 3928th year of the world, 776 before Chrift. This mode of computation appears to have ceased after the 364th, which ended A.D. 440, as we have no further mention of them in history

The usual mode of Roman computation was from the years which had elapsed from the building of the City, anno urbis conditæ, expreffed briefly by the letters A.U.C. This event took place in the 3252d year of the world, and the 752d year before Christ.

The ordinary mode of reckoning the years of the world is to take 4004 before Christ for the era of the creation, which is adopted from the Hebrew text of the Scriptures. Christians compute from the most memorable of all eras, the birth of our Sa. viour, which happened in the 27th year of the reign of Auguftus, and in the year of Rome 749. The Turkis compute from the Hegira, or flight of Mahomet from Mecca; this happened in the 622ų year of our Lord, when Heraclius was Emperor of the East. The Julian, or old stile, is so called from Julius Cæfar, who regulated the Roman Calendar. He added a day immediately after the


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