country, the Province of Canara, the districts of Coimbatoor and Daraporam, the forts forming the heads of all the passes above the Ghauts on the Table land, and Seringa patam, with the neighbouring territory.

· The country of India in general is rich in mines, which produce gold, diamonds, rubies, topazes, amethysts, &c. The foil is fruitful in wheat, rice, and pepper. The principal fruit trees are the cucoa, palı, tamarind, gyayą, mango, plantain, orange, leinon, poinegranate, and the most de: licious pine-apples, and melons. The woods abound in lions, tigers, and buffaloes, and all places are greatly infested with serpents, scorpions, musketoes, and locusts. The chief articles of coinmerce exported by the company from their fettlements, and from China, are porcelain, Bengal and China filk, tea, quicksilver, canes, pepper, calicoes, mullins, nankeens, chintzes, rhubarb, and yarious other drugs, and filligree work in gold, filver, and ivory:

· The territories which belong to the English Ea{t India Company, present the fingular political phenomenon of a rich, fertile, and populous tract of country, larger than the United Kingdom of England and Ireland ;, situated at a dittance of half the circumference of the globe from England, and governed by a chartered company of merchants in London, under the direction of the Board of Controul. These merchants, although the seat of government is so remote, and they are frequently at war with the native Princes of India, continue, under the auspices of their parent state, to extend their dominions and increase the various branches of their commerce,


Africa is separated from Europe by the Medi. terranean sea, and is united to Asia by the Isthmus of Suez. It is much larger than Europe, but less than either Afia or America. It is not broken, like Europe and the south of Afia, into several irregular tracts of land by the interpofition of the sea, but has the appearance of a uniform and vast peninsula, The once populous and commercial coast of the Mediterranean, formerly the seat of the powerful empire of Carthage, now contains only the finall piratical Itates of Barbary. , A very large portion of Africa lies between the Tropies, and is exposed to exceffive heat. This is the part whịch produces moft gold and aromatic drugs, and where Lions, Tigers, and Elephants abound. The inhabitants are either tawny Moors, or Negroes of different shades and features. The interior of Africa is no otherwise known, than from the ac. 'counts of a few travellers, or the vague reports of the tribes that live near the coasts. On furveying thefe sultry and inhospitable regions, the mind · feels repose and satisfaction to remark the British settlements of Sierra Leone, and Bulama, established for the purpose of raising the productions of the West Indies, without the aid of Slaves.

Egypt, . Egypt, lately recalled to our notice as the scene of British naval and military glory, was the first civilized country in the world. Hence of old beamed the light of science and arts; and there still remain, in defiance of the ravages of time, the stupendaus pyramids, the most antient monuments of human labour and magnificence extant. Mummies, preserved from remote times, hieroglyphics engraved upon pillars and sarcophagi, and curious obelisks still exist as memorials of the skill and ingenuity of the antient Egyptians. The present inhabitants, flothful, ignorant, and unwarlike, the complete reyerse of their remote ancestors, remain in that degraded and enslaved state predicted by the Jewish Prophets. Egypt is about 600 miles in length, and 250 in breadth; bounded on the north by the Mediterranean fea, on the fouth by Abyffinia, on the east by the Red Sea, and on the west by the deferts of Lybia. The principal towns of lower Egypt are Grand Cairo, Alexandria, Rosetta, and Damietta ; and of upper Egypt, Sayd or Thebes, and Coffier. The Nile has its fource in the mountains of Abyssinia ; pursues its progress through Nubia înto Egypt, which it divides into two parts, and empties itself by seven mouths into the Mediterranean, after a progress of 1500 mniles. Increased by the torrents of rain which fall in Abyffinia, it overflows its banks every year, and gra- : dually rises from May to September. When the river subsides, the mud left behind is so rich, that the hut. bandmen are frequently obliged to temper it with fand, left the corn should grow too rank. Of the productions suitable to the climate, they have three


crops in a year; the first of lettuces and cucumbers, the second of corn, and the third of melons. Here the plague rages once in fix or seven years; but it abates when the Nile rifes. Almost every species of noxious animal is to be found in Egypt, particularly the Tiger, the Hyena, and the Crocodile. The fultry wind conveys from the parched deserts those clouds of fand which cause the Opthalmia, a disorder found highly injurious to our army, in their late glorious campaign,

· AMERICA, or the New World, is between eight and nine thousand miles in length, and, in some parts, nearly 3690 miles in breadth; it enjoys all the variety of climates, and occupies a confiderable part of both hemispheres, and is not much inferior in dimenfions to a third part of the habitable

globe. The eastern shores are washed by the Air · lantic and Southern Oceans, and the western by the Pacific Ocean. It consists of two great continents, distinguished by the names of North and South America. These are connected by the ifthmus of Darien, nearly 360 miles in length, but not more than 16 miles broad in the narrowest part. In the gulph bounded by the northern and fouthern continents, lie numerous islands, which are called the West Indies, to distinguish them from the countries on the eastern coasts of Asia, which are called the East Indies.

In America, the works of creation are formed upon a scale of magnificence unknown to us in the


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eastern hemisphere. The river St. Laurence to the north, which receives the Miffouri, the Illinois, and the Ohio in its course; and the Miffiffipi to the south, in North America ;-the Maragnon, the Oronoco, the Plata, and Amazon, in South Ame+ rica, roll their waters in such spacious channels as to resemble arms of the sea. The lakes, Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michegan, and Superior, the boundaries of the United States in North America, form inland seas of fresh and transparent water, and are navigable for ships of any burthen. The mountains from which these rivers rise, are far superior in height to those in the other divisions of the globe. The Andes, forming a stupendous ridge, extend 5000 miles, and rise in different places more than one third above the Pike of Teneriffe, which is three miles above the level of the sea, and is the highest land in the antient hemisphere. Their heads are concealed in the clouds, the storms roll, and the thunders burst, far below. their summits, which, although exposed to the rays of the sun in the midst of the torrid zone, are covered with perpetual snows. In this superiority in the appearances of nature, neither man nor the inferior animals partake. The American natives were found to be lavage, indolent, cruel, and remarkably deficient in the powers of the mind. America, both North

• Robertson's History of America. Comparative heights of mountains according to different authors. Skiddaw, 3000 feet above the level of the sea ; Snowden, in North Wales, 3,568 feet; Ben Nevis, in Scotland, 4,357 feet; Mount Gemmi, in the Canton of Berne, 10,110 feet; Pike of Teneriffe, 13,178 feet; Chimborazo, the bighest of the Andes, 26,280 feet.


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