toilette and wardrobe, her situation is no sinecure. Seldom does her mistress

ALTHOUGH angelic ministry is walk abroad, without sending her first longer openly continued, we are neverinto the street to judge if it is windy or theless taught to believe that it exists, cold, or likely to continue fine and dry. and that many of the blessings that fall However clean the street may be, the upon our daily path are shed from hands lady always crosses it on tip toe, and which have been lifted amidst the choirs always calls a cab from the nearest stand of heaven in holy adoration to the God if the clouds threaten rain.

of all principalities and powers. As Rarely does the sun shine on her fair Christians, ye are come to this “innuface, for her veil or parasol intercepts merable company of angels ;” ye are his rays, if she is out in warm weather. united to them by a bond which binds Keen winds never chill her delicate together every member of the happy form, for she remains within when the family of God; ye are blended with air is not mild and balmy, and her well them into one vast and harmonious socarpeted apartments are kept luxuri- ciety. The discordance necessarily subously warm in winterly weather. Her sisting between these pure spirits and the clothing is elegant and costly, and, sinful inhabitants of a fallen world is dethough she eats and drinks moderately, stroyed. Clothed in the merits, and what she partakes of must be the best washed in the blood of the Redeemer, of its kind. In short, while Frank Felt you no longer present to them that imseems to think little of comfort, her purity with which their holy nature could whole care


to be exercised in hold no alliance. They perceive, in the search of it, in the gratification of dis-redeemed of the Lord, hearts blotted inplay, and in avoiding every petty annoy- deed by much imperfection, but yet im

pelled by the same principles, hopes, There are two methods of escaping tastes, and affections as their own. Your danger, one is to meet and conquer your song is at least the faint echo of theirs. enemy, the other is to keep out of Your Father is in every sense of the word harm's way. There are two modes of their Father; your God is their God. escaping annoyances; one is to grasp Touched by these considerations, although the nettles, and the other to avoid the

once they watched at the gate of the places where they grow.

earthly paradise to prevent our entrance, “Tender handed touch a nettle,

now they bend from the golden walls of And it stings you for your pains;

the heavenly city, to invite you to a parGrasp it like a man of mettle,

ticipation in joys, of which they alone, So it is with vulgar natures,

of all created beings, know the fulness, Use them kindly they rebel ;

the intenseness, and the perpetuity.But be rough as nutmeg graters,

Rev. J. W. Cunningham.
And the rogues obey you well."
Frank who has little, and the lady
who has comparatively much, follow dif-

SPIRITUAL KNOWLEDGE. ferent courses. Which, then, has the advantage, the sturdy oak, or the hot Learn to know things as God knoweth house plant? The protected flower, or them. He, to exercise the wisdom that the exposed tree? Frank is courageous, he hath given to man, has planted a difthe lady is fearful. Frank is contented, ference in the creatures, and hath given his lodger is dissatisfied. Frank is con a faculty to man to know and make a tinually cheerful, and she is almost al- right choice in those differences : and ways low-spirited.

From the whole, man then knows things aright when he then, we gather another illustration of knows them as God knows them; and the common-place fact, that comforts will then he makes a right choice when he not of themselves make us happy, nor chooses as God chooses. Now, God knows the want of them of necessity render us that riches are but little things, and that miserable; but that a grateful heart, credit in the world is but a shadow, and looking around with thankfulness, and that honours in high places are but like upwards with confidence, will make leaves on the top of a tree; and who the crooked path straight, the rough would climb a tree to fetch down a leaf? place plain, and the wilderness to blos- But God knows that pardon of sin is a som as the rose.

G. choice rarity.

And it soft as silk remains.

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quays, upon which are erected approLeith, a seaport town, is situated on

priate warehouses for the reception of the banks of the river Leith, at its con

merchandise. The depth of water in the fluence with the Firth of Forth. It is harbour during neap tides is about ten connected with the city of Edinburgh, feet, and during spring tides about sixwhich is about two miles distant, by a

teen feet. broad street called Leith Walk.

A close connexion having been established from a remote period between

PART III. Edinburgh and Leith, by means of the In the present day, when a working charters granted to the former city, the man may easily obtain a complete copy of revenues of Leith, including the fort dues, the Scriptures at the cost of half a day's and the imposts within the burgh, still wages, an idea can hardly be formed of form part of the revenue of Edinburgh. the

value of books before the discovery of There are two commodious dry docks the art of printing, when the few copies for the repairing and building of ships, of the Bible which existed were manuand two wet docks, each of which is 300 scripts, and exceedingly rare. Some of feet wide, and between 700 and 800 feet these articles still exist, though in an imlong, and of sufficient depth to admit ves perfect state, in the public libraries of sels of from 200 to 250 tons burthen. Milan and Turin, where they are kept as They are surrounded by well-constructed | curiosities. One of them, a copy of the




Four Gospels, is said to have been writ- | Pharisees would apply to the monks and ten out by the hand of the celebrated ruling ecclesiastics in those times. No Eusebius, who lived about the year 355, doubt a blessing rested on these seemand is " small

quarto, strongly bound, ingly circuitous efforts to do good. richly decorated with gold and precious But it was not only those who professed stones. The vellum on which it is writ- to be teachers who were expected to ten is much decayed, especially at the search the Scriptures. It was said by one beginning, and towards the bottom of the of their enemies, " They instruct even pages. It is kept with much care in a little girls in the Gospels and Epistles, sort of shrine; but while outward respect that they may be brought to embrace is given to old copies, it is painful to add, their doctrines, even from childhood.” that the word of God is a sealed book to The same author asserts: “All, without the mass of the inhabitants of that land. exception, men and women, small and Those districts are now entirely devoted great, cease not day and night to receive to Romanism, though they long conti- and to give instruction. The labourer nued to make a noble stand against the who toils during the day, either learns or pope, being supported by their nobles and teaches at night. They learn and inclergy, who boasted of the freedom they struct without books. If any one would had enjoyed.” But the persecutions at the excuse himself, they say to him, 'Only time of the Reformation against all who learn one word every day, and at the end received the truth was followed by their of the year you will know three hundred, subjugation, and thus the glory is de- and so make progress. I have heard parted from them.

one of these poor peasants repeat the The manuscript copies of the Scriptures whole book of Job by heart, without were diligently studied and committed to missing a single word; and there are memory by the Waldenses of old; and others who have the whole of the New the method which the teachers frequently Testament at their fingers' ends. Nor used for imparting the truth to those will they listen to anything else, saying persons around them who belonged to that all sermons which are not proved by the higher ranks of life is well known, the Scriptures are unworthy of belief.” but it must not be omitted here. They Faber has noticed and refuted a vaseem to have carried with them a box of riety of calumnies which were circulattrinkets or articles for sale, something ed against the Waldenses in the middle like pedlars or hawkers in the present ages : indeed, they contain sufficient inday, and to have used this as a means of ternal evidence of their falsehood. The introducing themselves, saying, “Sir, charges of sorcery and unnatural crimes will you please to buy any rings, or seals, are confuted by the genuine writings, holy or trinkets ? Madam, will you look at lives, and patient firmness of these besome handkerchiefs, or pieces of needle- lievers. The colporteurs of tracts and work for veils ? I can afford them cheap.” Bibles in the present day are sometimes If asked, “ Have you anything more?” falsely accused of selling immoral works : the answer would be, “Oh, yes, I have the primitive Christians suffered in like commodities far more valuable than these, manner from the slanders of their persecuand I will make you a present of them, if tors. In later times, even Romish inquiyou will protect me from the clergy.” sitors give a more correct picture of the Security being promised, the stranger churches in the valleys, and unite in showwould proceed : * This inestimable jewel ing that,“ their heresy excepted, they geis the word of God, by which he com- nerally lead a purer life than other Chrismunicates his mind to men. In the tians.' It would be easy to multiply quosixth month the angel Gabriel was sent tations from their writings, which expose from God unto a city of Galilee, named the errors of popery, and sufficiently acNazareth ;'

;"” and thus, without assuming count for the enmity ofits deluded votaries. to expound or to set forth his opinions, he Thus it may be seen that the churches would repeat whole passages from Scrip- in the north of Italy, Heb. xiii. 24, early ture in their own sacred simplicity ; testified against the doctrines of Rome. perhaps the remaining part of Luke i., or To use the words of the poet :the last discourse of Jesus with his disciples, John xiii.-xvii. If the company

“But whence came they, who for the Saviour Lord

Have long borne witness, as the Scriptures teach? appeared interested, he would then recite Ages ere Valdo raised his voice to preach Matt. xxiii., perhaps pointing out how the

In Gallic ears the unadulterated word,

Their fugitive progenitors explored characteristics of the ancient scribes and

Subalpine vales, in quest of safe retreats,

Where that pure church survives, though summer who were commonly called the poor men

heats Open a passage to the Romish sword,

of Lyons, might acknowledge Waldo as Far as it dares to follow. Herbs self-sown, their founder. This famous city has long And fruitage gathered from the chestnut wood, been celebrated for the wealth of its Nourish the sufferers then, and mists that brood O'er chasms with new fallen obstacles bestrown,

merchants, and also for its fine situation ; Protect them, and the eternal snow that daunts but it must be observed, that the scenery Aliens, is God's good winter for their haunts."

of France, however diversified by mounPeter Waldo, or Valdo, it is now clearly tains and rivers, however rich and fertile proved, was not the founder of the Wal- in its productions, wants the agreeable densian church; but probably he learned variation of enclosures and sheltered the truth from some of its members. spots, with the numerous mansions, His name, however, seems to have come villas, and cottages, which give beauty from the German word, Wald, which to an English landscape; the “ cottage signifies'a wood or forest. He was born homes” and “palace homes” of Eng. in the twelfth century, and to him Eu- land, so often alluded to by poets, and rope is indebted for the first translation differing widely from the towering castles of the Scriptures into a modern language, and humble cabins which are seen abroad. namely, the provincial French; a matter To the Christian, under all circumstances, of unspeakable importance, for Latin had Lyons will offer many interesting recolthen ceased to be used in commor life. lections, as the residence of many of the Waldo was a wealthy merchant of Lyons; early martyrs of persecution under the he appears to have been seriously im- Roman emperors, when tortures the most pressed by the sudden death of one of painful to Aesh and blood were endured his friends, with whom he was convers- by those of both sexes who fearlessly ing after supper. From this time he avowed, “ I am a Christian, and no evil laboured earnestly to promote the spiri- is committed among us.” Lyons was tual interests of those around him. then called Lugdunum; it is favourably

Being called to account by John de situated for trade with Smyrna and the Beles Mayons, the archbishop of Lyons, | East, from whence probably the gospel he replied that, though a layman, he was first brought there. It is said to could not be silent where the eternal sal- have been built forty years before the vation of men was concerned. The arch- / birth of Christ. bishop sought to apprehend him; but his We may now notice that on the French, character was so generally respected, that as well as on the Italian side of the Alps, he continued in Lyons for three years there seems always to have been a remafter.

A more severe persecution then nant of scriptural Christians. Here the arose, directed by pope Alexander 11. persecutions of later times scarcely sucThe disciples of Waldo were scattered, ceeded in rooting out a race of Protesand many of them, very probably, joined tants; and the recent labours of Oberlin the Waldenses, though it does not appear and Neff have resulted in a happy that he himself ever visited their valleys. revival of religion. In Dormilleuse, He retired into Dauphiny, but afterwards where the latter preached, it is refled into Germany, and finally to Bohe- corded that the inhabitants have never mia, where he died about the year 1179. embraced the Romish faith, have never These successive removals were made in- bowed the knee to idols. This hamlet strumental to the dispersion of the truth; stands on a rock which is almost inaccesfor in all these regions numbers appear to sible, even in the finest season of the year; have suffered as martyrs, (80,000 are reck-while in winter the ascent is doubly haoned in Bohemia alone during the four- zardous from the accumulation of ice in teenth century,) and numerous churches its narrowest part, where it is watered by are mentioned as having existed in Bul- a cascade. These valleys are, however, garia, Dalmatia, Hungary, and else- different from those of Piedmont in their where; those very places in which the general aspect, to which the words of light of the gospel is now little known. Moses may be applied: "A land of wheat Even England may have derived some and barley, of vines, and fig-trees, and benefit from these continental churches, pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and at a time when a part of France was sub- honey.” The latter, as a traveller says, ject to our kings. A Romish writer con form a garden, with deserts, as it were, siders that from them Wickliffe learned in view: some parts are barren and repulhis opinions.

sive, but these are exceptions. On the Probably the society in that district, contrary, in the retreats of the French


Protestants, fertility is the exception, | taxes most scrupulously, and the duty of
barrenness the common aspect. Nothing doing this forms an article of their con-
will grow there but corn, and that only fession of faith. If they are prevented
in small quantities. There the tot- from making payment, by civil wars,
tering cliffs, the sombre and frown- they lay apart the proper sum, and, on
ing rocks, which, from their fatiguing the return of peace, take care to settle
continuity, look like a mournful veil with the king's tax-gatherers.
which is never to be raised, and the tre The Albigenses and Waldenses, and
mendous abysses, and the comfortless indeed all the societies of real Christians
cottages, amidst the ever-present dangers mentioned in connexion with this pe-
from avalanches, and thick mists and riod of history, appear to have closely
clouds, proclaim that this is a land which resembled each other, being shoots from
man never would have chosen, even for the same stock, planted by the labours
his hiding-place, unless from the strictest of their missionaries, as Peyran, one of
necessity. These mountain fastnesses their descendants, has expressed it, in his
are said to have furnished'a retreat to a celebrated “Defence of the Waldenses."
Gallic chief, called king Cottius, when Many interesting facts might have oc-
pursued by the Romans, and from him curred in connexion with their common
they are denominated the Cottian Alps. every-day lives and conversations with

From the wild spot called Val Freissi- their neighbours; but the setting forth of
nière the word of God “sounded out” to the gospel, whether by stated pastors, or
the neighbouring lands. The lives of its by the private examples of Christians, is
inhabitants were consistent with their a fact too little noticed by general writers.
profession as Christians. Their simple Yet the light shining in darkness could
ħabits and general character are described not be entirely hid. It is plain, from the
by De Thou, a monkish author, in these testimonies of adversaries, that the Wal-
terms: -“ They are clothed in sheep- denses were a race
skins, and have no linen in use, either “Who kept the truth so pure of old,
for their garments or beds. Of the seven When all our fathers worshipp'd stocks and
villages which they inhabit, the houses
are built of rough stone, with flat roofs, The particulars of their histories would
and cemented with mud. In these hovels give details more worthy of record than
the people and their cattle live together; the wanderings of minstrels, or the studies
and when they apprehend an attack from of the monks of the middle ages. The
their enemies, they often take refuge in well-known description of an English
caves, in one corner of which they lie peasant, as
concealed themselves, and secure their
cattle in the other. They subsist chiefly

“Yon cottager who weaves at her own door,” etc., on milk and venison, and pass their days might be applied to the Christians of the in tending their cattle. They are skilful valleys, contrasted with their contempomarksmen, and seldom miss either the raries, the Troubadours and others, whose chamois or the bear. Happy in these writings have been objects of curiosity. their scanty resources, they are all equally “O happy peasant ! O unhappy bard ! poor; but they have no mendicants among

His the mere tinsel, hers the rich reward;

He praised, perhaps, for ages yet to come, them, and, contented among themselves, She, never heard of half a mile from home; very seldom form either friendships or He, lost in errors his vain heart prefers, connexions with others. In all this state

She, safe in the simplicity of hers." of squalid misery and uncouth appear It is painful, indeed, to observe the ance, it is surprising that these people are slighting manner in which these believers far from being uncultivated in their mo are alluded to by Bernard and other rals. They almost all understand Latin, writers of that age, who possessed true and are able to express themselves very piety, though tinctured with much sulegibly in writing. They understand also perstition. They speak of them as hereas much of French as enables them to tics, and also as weavers in the neighread their Bibles in that language, and to bourhood of Cologne and elsewhere, of sing psalms; nor would you easily find a blameless and pious character, but rustic boy among them who, if he were ques- and illiterate. They were called Cathari, tioned as to the religious opinions which a name corresponding to the term of they hold in common with the Waldenses, Puritans; and, like that, it became an would not be able to give from memory a appellation of derision, instead of comreasonable account of them. They pay mendation.


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